The 20's

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The 20's

  1. 1.  How do you think the older generation views your generation? Explain.
  2. 2.  As the 1920’s opened, an economic recession, influx of immigrants, and racial and cultural tension combined to create an atmosphere of disillusionment and intolerance  The Fear and prejudice towards Communists and Germans had expanded to include all immigrants
  3. 3.  In this decade, America became the wealthiest country in the world with no obvious rival.  Yet by 1930 she had hit a depression that was to have world-wide consequences.  But in the good times everybody seemed to have a reasonably well paid job and everybody seemed to have a lot of spare cash to spend. 
  4. 4.  Remember during WWI, immigration had dropped significantly to the US  By 1921 it had returned to prewar levels  Many Americans saw the immigrants as a threat to stability and order  The arrival of immigrants also seemed to pose a threat to the 4 million recently demobilized military men and women searching for a job
  5. 5.  In the 1920s, racism and nativism increased.  Immigrants and demobilized military men and women competed for the same jobs during a time of high unemployment and an increased cost of living.
  6. 6.  Ethnic prejudice was the basis of the Sacco and Vanzetti case, in which the two immigrant men were accused of murder and theft.  They were thought to be anarchists, or opposed to all forms of government.  Sacco and Vanzetti were sentenced to death, and in 1927 they were executed still proclaiming their innocence.
  7. 7.  Nativists used the idea of eugenicseugenics, the false science of the improvement of hereditary traits, to give support to their arguments against immigration.  Nativists emphasized that human inequalities were inherited and said that inferior people should not be allowed to breed.  This added to the anti- immigrant feeling of the time and further promoted the idea of strict immigrant control.
  8. 8. From 1906 onward, at least 60,000 Americans were sterilized against their will. California and Virginia lead the nation in the number of sterilizations per state. The legal basis for these forced sterilizations was the so called science of Eugenics.
  9. 9. What is going on in this picture??
  10. 10. o The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) led the movement to restrict immigration.  This new Klan not only targeted the freed African Americans but also Catholics, Jews, immigrants, and other groups believed to have “un- American” values.  Because of a publicity campaign, by 1924 the Ku Klux Klan had over 4 million members and stretched beyond the South into Northern cities.
  11. 11.  Ideals of the loving family and personal satisfaction increased the importance of love and friendship within a marriage.  The rise of young, single women in the workforce brought a new perspective on how women participate in society – as laborers and consumers.
  12. 12.  The rise of women attending college altered views of the intellectual status of women and increased their independence.  The automobile allowed young people a chance to escape the confines of their parents’ home and gain their independence with increased private socializing opportunities.
  13. 13. Eyeglasses No Kissing/Making Out Bank’s Closed Sinker  Speakeasy Doughnut  Bee’s Knees The Ultimate  Egg  Cheaters  Clam  Ducky  Bell Bottom  Flivver Model T Dollar Very Good Illicit Bar A Person Who Lives the Big Life A Sailor Tomato Female Bell Ringer 1/8/2009
  14. 14. “She wore a knitted hat, with hardly any brim, of a flame or bonfire hue; a henna scarf; two strings of Betty beads, of different colors, twisted together; an open short coat, with ample pockets; a skirt with vertical stripes… her stockings were woolen and of brilliant hue.”  Psychologist G. Stanley Hall
  15. 15.  During the 1920s everybody seemed to be buying everything,  Businesses set out to meet the demands of consumers, producing new products in record- breaking quantities.   Cars, radios, appliances, ready-made clothes, gadgets, and other consumer products found their way into more and more American homes and garages. 
  16. 16.  Americans also started buying stocks in greater numbers, providing capital to already booming companies.   All the signs pointed upward, and starry-eyed men and women began to believe that it was going to be a one-way trip, possibly forever.
  17. 17.  Henry Ford’s assembly line not only revolutionized production, it democratized the ownership of the automobile.   Ford showed that handsome profits could be made on small margin and high volume. 
  18. 18.  By 1925 his famous Model T sold for less than $300, a modest price by the standards of the 1920s.   Americans had never had it so good.  (Many, of course, would not have it so good again for a long time.)
  19. 19.  Thanks to pioneers such as Lindbergh, the airplane began to come of age in the 1920s.   Although airplanes had been used for various modest purposes, mostly reconnaissance, in the World War, they were still exotic gadgets in 1920. 
  20. 20.  After Lindbergh’s flight, planes began to carry passengers for travel rather than just for thrills.   Regularly scheduled flights began, and airports were constructed to handle passengers and small amounts of cargo.   American and United Airlines were two of the successful early airline companies.   The end was in sight for railroad domination of the transportation industry.
  21. 21.  People danced until they dropped, and one fell to the floor, dead! (not literally, but close  )  The radio became popular, and people tuned in everyday.  The T.V. was not invented yet, so the radio was the next best thing.  When they listened, people liked to listen to jazz, especially the king of jazz, Louis Armstrong.
  22. 22.  After World War I and into the early 1920s, America was the leading producer of films in the world  The studio system was essentially born with long- term contracts for stars, lavish production values, and increasingly rigid control of directors and stars  The first films with sound began to appear, called talkies
  23. 23.  Because of the growth of cities brought by immigration and internal migration, a sharpening divide grew between urban and rural areas.   Sophisticated city dwellers began to look at their country cousins as hicks or bumpkins  Whereas those in the farm belts viewed the cities as places of degradation, immorality, and “foreign” influences. 
  24. 24.  Thought of by the Progressives  Was a plan to stop people from drinking alcoholic beverages
  25. 25.  Added to the Constitution in 1919  Made the production, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages illegal
  26. 26.  Reduce Crime  Reduce Poverty  Lower Death Rates  Improve the Quality of Life
  27. 27.  Bootleggers - smuggled alcohol from surrounding countries  Speakeasies (hidden saloons, nightclubs) become fashionable  People built their own stills to distill liquor (Bathtub Gin)
  28. 28.  Speakeasies were formed in the 1920's as a means to get around the everyday hassle of law enforcement watching for people to violate the 18th Amendment.  As a result of Prohibition, the speakeasy was an established institution. For every legitimate saloon that closed as a result of the new law, a half dozen underground palaces sprung up.
  29. 29.  These speakeasies were one of the many ways that people during the 1920's and early 1930's obtained illegal alcohol.  By the middle of the decade there were thought to be 100,000 speakeasies in New York City alone.
  30. 30.  Prohibition contributed to organized crime in major cities - Wanted to make money off illegal liquor  Underground gangs battled for control of the booze racket  1923 – Al Capone emerged as leader of organized crime  Controlled Chicago liquor business by killing
  31. 31.  Prohibition failed because the policy was pretty much unenforceable  Only 5% of smuggled liquor was actually stopped from coming into the country  Gangs overpowered or bribed authority figures
  32. 32. • Instead of lowering the crime rate prohibition actually lead to an increase in crime. • Large amounts of money could be made from illegal bootlegging.
  33. 33.  The 21st Amendment ended prohibition in 1933
  34. 34.  Fundamentalism – movement based on literal interpretation of Bible  Fundamentalists skeptical of some scientific discoveries & theories - Rejected theory of evolution  Believed all important knowledge could be found in Bible
  35. 35.  In 1925 Tennessee passed the Butler Act, which made it illegal to teach anything that denied creationism and taught evolution instead.  John T. Scopes, a biology teacher, volunteered to test the Butler Act by teaching evolution in his class.  After being arrested and put on trial, Scopes was found guilty, but the case was later overturned.  After the trial, many fundamentalists withdrew from political activism.
  36. 36. Music, Art, and Literature
  37. 37. The brutality of WWI caused writers to question accepted ideas about reason, progress, religion, anxieties about the future, and fear of the future
  38. 38.  American author whose works are reminiscent of the Jazz Age, a term he coined himself.  Most famous for writing The Great Gatsby
  39. 39. “Heroes come and go, but legends never die”
  40. 40.  American boxer and world heavyweight champion from 1919- 1926.
  41. 41.  The Babe  The Sultan of Swat  The Colossus of Clout  The Great Bambino!  Helped solidify baseball as America’s pastime  Known for calling his homerun in the 1932 World Series
  42. 42. Bringing African American culture into the forefront
  43. 43.  After WWI, hundreds of thousands African Americans left the rural south and headed into industrial cities  The cities were full of nightclubs and music, particularly in NY cities neighborhood of Harlem
  44. 44. Harlem, a neighborhood in New York City, was the center of the African American political, cultural, and artistic movement in the 1920s and early 1930s.
  45. 45. Harlem in the early 1930s Based on these pictures, describe what life was like in Harlem in the early 1930s.
  46. 46. Cause s What events and movements do you think may have helped lead to the Renaissance?Great Migration: •After WWI, hundreds of thousands African Americans left the rural south and headed into industrial cities •The cities were full of nightclubs and music, particularly in NY cities neighborhood of Harlem Every family has that one member that they don’t want to admit to! Don’t let it be you!!!
  47. 47. Cause s Growing African American Middle Class: developed as a result of improved educational and employment opportunities for African Americans. The Harlem section of New York became the center of this new African American class.
  48. 48. Impac t The Harlem section of New York City was transformed from a deteriorating area into a thriving middle class community. Before After
  49. 49.  It was in Harlem that African Americans created an environment that stimulated artistic development, racial pride, a sense of community, and political organization Harlem Renaissance
  50. 50. If we must die, let it not be like hogs Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot, While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs, Making their mock at our accursed lot. If we must die, O let us nobly die, So that our precious blood may not be shed In vain; then even the monsters we defy Shall be constrained to honor us though dead! O kinsmen we must meet the common foe! Though far outnumbered let us show us brave, And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow! What though before us lies the open grave? Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack, Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back! •Considered first important writer of the Harlem Renaissance. •Wrote about racism
  51. 51. Langston Hughes What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore-- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over-- like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? Versatile writer and poet his work crossed color barriers
  52. 52.  Their Eyes Were Watching God  Celebrated the courage of African Americans in the South  Main characters in her novels were African American women– One of the first to do this
  53. 53. Bessie Smith – Empty Bed Blues I woke up this morning with a awful aching head I woke up this morning with a awful aching head My new man had left me, just a room and a empty bed Bought me a coffee grinder that's the best one I could find Bought me a coffee grinder that's the best one I could find Oh, he could grind my coffee, 'cause he had a brand new grind
  54. 54. You ain't nothin but a hound dog, been snooping round my door You ain't nothin but a hound dog, been snooping round my door You can wag your tail but Lord I ain't gonna feed you no more You told me you were high class, but I can see through that You told me you were high class, but I can see through that And daddy I know you ain't no real cool cat
  55. 55. Louis Armstrong – “Satchmo”
  56. 56. Politic s Political Agenda For Civil Rights by African Americans: leaders such as W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey and the NAACP helped to inspire racial pride in the middle and working class. Marcus Garvey pushed for the Back to Africa movement Du Bois, author of The Souls of Black Folks, was instrumental in the foundation of the NAACP.
  57. 57. The NAACP published The Crisis, a journal used to share the literary works of African Americans. Du Bois believed that artistic and literary work could be used as a form of propaganda to help combat racial stereotypes and gain new respect for the race. What message does this song, written by an African American, send to the general public? How do images like this hinder the efforts of African Americans like Du Bois?
  58. 58. Affect of the Harlem Renaissance  Flowering of African American art  New forms of music such as Jazz and Blues  Shed light on racism  NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People )  Instilled black pride and hope for future African Americans
  59. 59.  Video Clip then  Review Activity
  60. 60. 1. Nativists emphasized that human inequalities were inherited and said that inferior people should not be allowed to breed. They used the false science of ____________ to support their argument.  Eugenics
  61. 61. 2. 1920s slang for dollar  clam
  62. 62. 3. 1920s slang for illegal bar  speakeasy
  63. 63. 4. This racist organization increased membership during the 1920s. There were over 4 million members in the US  KKK
  64. 64. 5. This amendment prohibited production, sale, transportation of alcohol  18th
  65. 65. 6. This religious movement began to call for laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution  Fundamentalism
  66. 66. 7. In 1925 Tennessee passed the Butler Act, which made it illegal to teach anything that denied creationism and taught evolution instead. What famous trail came from this?  Scopes Trail
  67. 67. 8. The first affordable car for the average person  Model T
  68. 68. 9. Term for an assertive women from the 1920s, who frequented night clubs and speakeasies  Flapper
  69. 69. 10. True or false- Prohibition helped America become a safer place  False
  70. 70. 11. After WWI, hundreds of thousands African Americans left the rural south and headed into industrial cities. This was known as what?  Great Migration
  71. 71. 12. Political activist who lead the back to Africa movement  Marcus Garvey
  72. 72. 13. Female writer from the Harlem Renaissance who wrote about African American women?  Zora Neal Hurston
  73. 73. 14. There are 5 apples. You take 314. There are 5 apples. You take 3 away. How many do you have?away. How many do you have? Answer: 3
  74. 74. 15. Read the following image quickly15. Read the following image quickly then write what it said.then write what it said. Answer: A Bird In The The Bush
  75. 75. 16. If a single feather weighs 0.216. If a single feather weighs 0.2 grams how much does a ton ofgrams how much does a ton of feathers weigh?feathers weigh? Answer: A ton
  76. 76. 17. How many sides does a stop sign17. How many sides does a stop sign have (Not 2)?have (Not 2)? Answer: 8
  77. 77. 18. Mary’s father has 4 children;18. Mary’s father has 4 children; three are named Nana, Nene,three are named Nana, Nene, and Nini. So what is is the 4thand Nini. So what is is the 4th child’s name?child’s name? Answer: Mary
  78. 78. 19. The more of them you take, the19. The more of them you take, the more you leave behind. What aremore you leave behind. What are they?they? Answer: footsteps
  79. 79. 20. What word in the English language20. What word in the English language is always spelled incorrectly?is always spelled incorrectly? Answer: incorrectly
  80. 80. Modern AmericanModern American Art:Art: Attempting to express the individual, modern experience
  81. 81. Les FauvesLes Fauves  Emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism Woman With A Hat, Henri Matisse
  82. 82. Charing Cross Bridge, London , André Derain
  83. 83. SurrealismSurrealism  Feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur. The Persistence of Memory, Salvador Dali
  84. 84. By Max Ernst
  85. 85. Analytical CubismAnalytical Cubism  “Analyzed" natural forms and reduced the forms into basic geometric parts on the two-dimensional picture plane  Monochromatic color Woman With A Guitar, Georges Braque
  86. 86. Le Guitariste, Pablo Picasso
  87. 87. Synthetic Cubism  A pushing of several objects together  Use of mixed media Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, Juan Gris
  88. 88. Three Musicians, Pablo Picasso
  89. 89. DadaDada  concentrated its anti war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, Hannah Höch
  90. 90. Fountain, Marcel Duchamp

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