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American Urbanization and New York City


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American Urbanization and New York City

  1. 1. New York City: <br />by: <br />Angie Martinez <br />The Crossroad of World Trade<br />
  2. 2. Episode 2. Order and Disorder, 1825-1865 <br /><ul><li> Conflict is brought to NK because they is many different cultures</li></ul> live there that they all cant get along… straight and struggle <br /><ul><li> 10 yrs after city hall was started it was finished
  3. 3. Revolutionary change in the way people lived
  4. 4. 1800’s 100,000 people by 1900’s it had 50 times more
  5. 5. The canal changed everything
  6. 6. 1830 People went there to work in the factories ,offices, and work shops
  7. 7. Certain area was just commercial city, industrial by the time war started
  8. 8. .01$ news paper, 1835 James Gordon Bennett founded The Herald politically independent .. Gives the reader what they want to know… accidents of Manhattan
  9. 9. 1830s & 1840s need news paper to understand NK, very disorder place..
  10. 10. Winter of 1841, The American Museum (founded by: PhineasTaylor Barnum) opened it was a success from that day it opened… </li></ul>27 yrs of business it sold 42 million tickets, 7 million more than the entire population of the US<br />
  11. 11. continue… <br /><ul><li>1836 15,825 passengers Europeans .. NY would look down on immigrants, demand for workers grew
  12. 12. 1840 more than 50,000 Germans came to the US “little Germany”
  13. 13. Ireland migrants were unskilled labors, they had the worse and toughest jobs
  14. 14. 1842 Irish also migrated, anti catholic .. Native born workers who feared for their jobs … Discrimination, “the blacks of the 18th century”
  15. 15. Americans stated to not want migrants … Americans said migrants would destroy the identify of America,
  16. 16. Ethnic conflict was already at a high point … summer of 1845 Irish migrates hits NY desperate people, potato famine .. 1.2 million leave , start dying ..
  17. 17. Sailing ships 30 days passages “coffin ships” more dead people than alive … 300 people per acre … put into competition black vs whites
  18. 18. Business man would only hire Irish labors because they can pay less and would use blacks to threaten if they wanted pay raise
  19. 19. Irish lived horrible death rate was 3 times hire than in other area
  20. 20. violence of every kinds, riots of all kinds against one n other
  21. 21. 1854 Municipal war .. Democrats stripped the governor from its power </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Walt Whitman (poet) was is the only one at the time that saw immigration as a good thing... He wanted honesty and affection , looked at everyone as a potential lover … wrote a book but didn’t sell good, readers were shocked by is sexuality ... He wanted a democratic progress- concrete reality
  22. 22. Panic in economic crisis, wall street, financial suffering made the streets quiet .. Many lost their jobs and starvation began, no social security, unemployment, medicate medical- no social net Business closed and many homeless
  23. 23. Building a park would make rich and poor socialize, rediscover humanity
  24. 24. Paid less than $1 a day, Africans were excluded from the construction so Irish wouldn’t have a conflict
  25. 25. Garden Central Park (843 acres)</li></ul>“Greatest work of Art” peaceful <br />capture nature, had many rules &<br /> regulations <br />continue… <br />
  26. 26. continue… <br /><ul><li>Worst crises in American history, conflict to come, 11:30 morning of Feb. 25, 1860 Abraham Lincoln arrives… speech at Cooper Union restrict slavery
  27. 27. April 16, 1861 Rebels had initiated civil war
  28. 28. 1863 people grew angry with the government/ long causality lists, Emancipation Proclamation made whites mad because they feel like they were fighting for the blacks to be freed
  29. 29. June 1863 war moved close to home.. Invading the north
  30. 30. July 12, 1863 draft begun
  31. 31. Angry Irish mob made the draft cancel
  32. 32. Migrants were mad because they felt lied to… they looked for improvement but they just got more suffering …. Riot lasted 3 days, they went after NY times , wall street , individual class people also black people because of there was no black n slave nothing would be happening- they went after “The People Who Caused The War,” about 119 people died in the draft riot
  33. 33. Restitution was given but 60,000 stayed in NY out of almost 2 million
  34. 34. 1863 loans to buy themselves out of war
  35. 35. April 15 1865 Lincoln assassin </li></li></ul><li>Episode 5. Cosmopolis<br /><ul><li>NY was founded on trade
  36. 36. 19th amendment … women's right to vote
  37. 37. NY- skyscraper capital of the world, capital of the world media
  38. 38. Stock market crashed 1929
  39. 39. 1919 before troops retuned, clerk in the US postal service mail nitroglycerin red scare politic scare to places were there was a lot of immigrants many people went on the run sent to Ellis Island and or deportation
  40. 40. Sep. 16 1920 a wagon in front of the across from federal hall Morgan bank full of dynamite . Purpose was to kill as many as thy could 40 ppl killed </li></li></ul><li>Continue…<br /><ul><li>Prohibition, no beer and 2nd industrial revolution.. Consumer goods … automobiles, telephones, vacuums, wash machines, … house appliances
  41. 41. Need to sell them advertise, market them .. NY is the center of image production and advertising market media
  42. 42. 1st advertising on radio was on houses
  43. 43. Modern American culture, changing behavior so that people will buy product
  44. 44. The roaring 20’s… selling images
  45. 45. Jazz .. Africans most exciting music
  46. 46. 1924 Africans had never hit in NY except for now some of the most talented artists
  47. 47. American musical theater
  48. 48. Many abused the life style, didn’t balance the ambition and success
  49. 49. Social welfare, dream to help his people election 1928 Herbert Hoover
  50. 50. Al Smith was very unfamiliar, small towns did not like him , liberal views,
  51. 51. govern Franklin D. Roosevelt </li></li></ul><li>Continue…<br /><ul><li>Walker Chrysler, Oct 16 , 1929 1,048 feet
  52. 52. stock crash, 1929 Oct. 1929 black Tuesday, 14 billion lost in the market value, in the weeks 30 billion
  53. 53. 1030’s The Great Depression followed
  54. 54. The Empire State building president Al Smith coming after the crash of the skyscraper … the beams were being assembled in Pittsburg, put on a train, then on ship to get to destination point, arrival was 15 hrs after production, still hot to the touch
  55. 55. 6 men died in the construction, 3x the material from Chrysler building and Empire building was the fastest to be constructed- 13 months, May 1 1931
  56. 56. Less than 30% of building, 56 floors s were vacant, “empty state building,” location was not the greatest. 1950 it became profitable </li></li></ul><li>"A Merger That Puts <br />New York on Top"<br /><ul><li>New York can dominate the “new” American global information economy if its opponents can’t respond to the challenge of Internet company & the media-entertainment company.
  57. 57. AOL Time Warner question New York Cities’ position as cultural and economic center, it was believe that rapid economic growth was due to the arrival of cable television, personal computers and the Internet.
  58. 58. New York’s key success to dominate that economy was to build the Erie Canal, which lead New York to control the exports of the U.S. to Europe and the triangle trade, which allowed New York's to control the cotton trade between the South and England
  59. 59. New York’s economy power rose due to the discovery of electricity and the invention of the telephone, motion pictures, wireless radio and television
  60. 60. New York was facing a positional challenged by the commercial development but instead they benefited from advertisements that other regions would do
  61. 61. New York could not dominate U.S. trade… now companies that control are the ones that have access to digital communities and networks creating a new way to reach viewers or consumers- the Internet …
  62. 62. Southern California, the Bay Area and Seattle want to join New York in the AOL-Time Warner they don’t want to loose out in the opportunity of rising
  63. 63. AOL /Time Warner have not the biggest brand names in the Internet and e-commerce in the West … (Yahoo and are)
  64. 64. “If Unless the great Pacific metropolitan regions--and companies such as Disney, Microsoft and Yahoo--overcome their rivalries and develop a common vision” New York will always be head of the Capital </li></li></ul><li> "Immigrants and <br />Cities"<br /><ul><li>1870 - 1914, the United States, “a nation of immigrants”, largest no. of newcomers in its history more than 23 million migrants in search of jobs and or relatives </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Transatlantic steamships took Spanish workers to Argentinean construction sites, German peasants to homesteads in the Canadian West, and Italian laborers to Brazilian coffee plantations.
  65. 65. Chinese, Japanese, and Indian migrant workers can be traced as far as Hawaii, Peru, and California
  66. 66. Europeans came to the New World for various reasons Nugent's says most for economic opportunity.
  67. 67. Villagers migrated in groups following relatives/ neighbors who had found work and that had a similar life stile
  68. 68. Unlike Irish famine exodus & Jewish refugee migration, migrant workers were most males and 1 out of 3 would return home because of unsatisfactory work of they had made enough money to invest in a land or a business
  69. 69. Most US immigrants were Europeans… </li></ul>wanted immigrants to adapt to American culture <br />
  70. 70. <ul><li>four decades later the US developed anti-immigrant movement . The </li></ul>predominantly Anglo-Protestant society feared that darker-skinned <br />and non-English-speaking Catholic and Jewish immigrants were culturally different they could never fit in the American life<br /><ul><li>newcomers were blame for strikes, crime, poverty, and other urban-industrial problems even when immigrants were no longer in the states
  71. 71. Anti-immigrant led to a restrictive quota law of 1924 and the Great Depression slowed European newcomers to drop
  72. 72. Migration continued after 1914 it continued slow flow because World War I
  73. 73. 1920 restrictive laws passed in several countries
  74. 74. Migration continued in 1870 when steamships almost completely replaced sailing ships. the voyage from the British to North America took 4-6 weeks which was high risk for disease catching … many people died 10% and even up to 25% government-imposed health and sanitary regulations and faster ship</li></ul>Great <br />Depression <br />World War 1<br />
  75. 75. <ul><li>By 1941 ship transportation had improved significantly
  76. 76. two major German companies, Hamburg-Amerika line; "HAPAC," out of Hamburg & Norddeutsche Lloyd; out of Bremen sailed almost every week to NY
  77. 77. By 1873, 17 companies were operating 173 steamships </li></ul> After 1887 many migrants to the US wanted non-farming job. Some migrants wanted jobs in factory, mining, or construction for a few employment in skilled trades or services (they had higher expectations). If migrants did not fine the type of job/ wage desired they would go to another country or simply returned home (migrants wanted improvement)<br /><ul><li>1880 eastern Germany - women and children, migrated seasonally to the sugar beet fields
  78. 78. 1900, 72% Germany employed males to work outside agriculture, 84 % of the Irish … Irish women who were filling a range of white-collar jobs</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Chicago and other American cities were inspired to have the European image in cities
  79. 79. The last 10yrs of the 19th Century the fast growing city in the US probably in the world was Chicago
  80. 80. 20th century American urbanism (skyscraper/ urban design) had begin in Chicago </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Chicago was made by the great commercial and industrial expansion in the late 19th century after the construction of the railroads and business growth during the Civil War.
  81. 81. 1878 Chicago go its 1st telephone switchboard… Thomas Edison invented the electric lamp in 1879 2 yrs later electric lights were installed in a railroad-car factory on Chicago's Far South Side, and in Prairie Avenue mansion, cable cars in 1881
  82. 82. After 1888 Chicago used electric trolleys.
  83. 83. New technology was in fashion the new city, elevator were not big because of the height of buildings and people used stairs</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Buildings could be built as high as about 12 stories. Buildings were made solid masonry walls that had to be think in the bottom for better resist. Although limit was 12 stories high Chicago’s Monadnock Building got to be 16 stories which bases walls were 6 feet think. After Monadnock opened in 1889, a new way of constructing buildings was discovered. Cheaper, lighter in weight and more efficient material… structural steel which also allowed the buildings to be built higher.
  84. 84. Chicago, was the 1st to used iron-framed building for the upper floors in 1890,
  85. 85. 1892 the steel-framed was used for Masonic Temple Building, 302 ft. 22 stories (designed by Daniel Burnham and John Root, same architects who designed Monadnock)
  86. 86. Land increased in value and new fire codes discouraged people to live outside the center of the city. Low paid factory workers had to move to other areas but skilled craftsmen white- collar workers could afford to live there making it look like a nicer and more professional town </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>People were attracted to Chicago because of its employment in the stores, offices, factories, warehouses, slaughterhouses, breweries, and railroad yards in the city.
  87. 87. The world's 1st Ferris wheel 1893, 250 feet in diameter and carrying 1,500 passengers at any time was in Chicago (Burnham was the architecture “chief of construction”)
  88. 88. “Louis Sullivan built the beautiful Transportation Building; George B. Post built the largest of the exhibition halls & the Manufacturers Building; Charles B. Atwood designed the train station & of Fine Arts
  89. 89. Architectural historian William H. Wilson said the term "City Beautiful" was born in 1900 to descried the urban improvement
  90. 90. Chicago’s building codes changed from 200 feet to buildings them as high as the wanted to built them
  91. 91. During the 1920s, North Michigan Avenue became one of Chicago’s tallest and most spectacular buildings
  92. 92. The last tall building to be built was in 1920 the Union Carbide &</li></ul> Carbon Corporation Building (40 stories) <br />