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  1. 1. Society and Culture Session 2
  2. 3. <ul><li>Please send me by email the following </li></ul><ul><li>information about you: </li></ul><ul><li>Last name, First Name </li></ul><ul><li>Email address </li></ul><ul><li>Course and Year </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbies </li></ul><ul><li>Do you work? If so, where and how </li></ul><ul><li>many hours a week </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>What are your educational goals? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you hope to gain from </li></ul><ul><li>this course? </li></ul>
  4. 5. Study Tips Helpful tips to improve reading comprehension <ul><li>Review study questions </li></ul><ul><li>Read module, view power point </li></ul><ul><li>presentations and actively searching </li></ul><ul><li>concepts and ideas discussed in </li></ul><ul><li>study questions, outline and review </li></ul><ul><li>3. Answer study questions </li></ul><ul><li>4. Take the quiz online </li></ul>
  5. 6. Sociology Sociology is the systematic study of how people interact in social groups.
  6. 7. Human Interaction & Communication <ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul>
  7. 8. Social Groups <ul><li>Social groups are created through interaction and serve specific functions in society and for individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Within social groups we each have a certain role to play based on our status within the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Social groups are the “building blocks” of society and provide structure and organization. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Sociology <ul><li>Sociology can help us to better understand social problems . </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology can help us to predict and understand social change . </li></ul>
  9. 11. The Sociological Imagination
  10. 12. What is Sociology? <ul><li>Sociology is the systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society and of the consequences of difference. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Key Components of Sociology <ul><li>Systematic Study </li></ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Agency </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences of difference </li></ul><ul><li>Social Inequality </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Sociological Imagination <ul><li>The Sociological Imagination – an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society. </li></ul>C. Wright Mills 1916-1962
  13. 15. The Sociological Imagination Mills set forth his own conception of how a social scientist should undertake the work. He conveys a sense of what it means to be an intellectual who concentrates on the social nature of man and who seeks that which is significant.
  14. 16. <ul><li>First of all, a good scholar </li></ul><ul><li>does not split work from life. </li></ul><ul><li>Both are part of a seriously </li></ul><ul><li>accepted unity. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Second , a good scholar must </li></ul><ul><li>keep a file.This file is a compendium </li></ul><ul><li>of personal, professional, and </li></ul><ul><li>intellectual experiences . </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Third, a good intellectual engages </li></ul><ul><li>in continual review of thoughts and </li></ul><ul><li>experiences. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Fourth , a good intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>may find a truly bad book as </li></ul><ul><li>intellectually stimulating and </li></ul><ul><li>conducive to thinking as a good </li></ul><ul><li>book. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Fifth, there must be an attitude </li></ul><ul><li>of playfulness toward phrases, </li></ul><ul><li>words, and ideas. Along with </li></ul><ul><li>this attitude one must have a </li></ul><ul><li>fierce drive to make sense out </li></ul><ul><li>of the world. </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Sixth, the imagination is stimulated </li></ul><ul><li>by assuming a willingness to view </li></ul><ul><li>the world from the perspective of others. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Seventh, one should not be afraid ,in the preliminary stages of speculation, to think in terms of imaginative extremes.
  21. 23. <ul><li>Eighth, one should not hesitate to </li></ul><ul><li>express ideas in language which is </li></ul><ul><li>as simple and direct as one can make </li></ul><ul><li>it. Ideas are affected by the manner </li></ul><ul><li>of their expression. An imagination </li></ul><ul><li>which is encased in deadening </li></ul><ul><li>language will be a deadened imagination. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Sociology and the Social Sciences <ul><li>Natural science : study of physical features of nature and the ways they interact and change </li></ul><ul><li>Social science : study of social features of humans and the ways they interact and change </li></ul>Science: body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation
  23. 25. Sociology and Common Sense <ul><li>Sociologists do not accept something as fact because “everyone knows it” </li></ul><ul><li>Findings are tested by researchers, analyzed in relation to other data, and evaluated with sociological theory </li></ul>
  24. 26. Auguste Comte (1798-1857) <ul><li>French philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Coined the term “sociology” </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that the scientific method could be used to understand social stability and social change </li></ul>
  25. 27. Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) <ul><li>Social critic and reformer </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzed working conditions in England and the US </li></ul><ul><li>Translated Comte’s works from French to English </li></ul><ul><li>Only recently recognized in the field of Sociology </li></ul>
  26. 28. The Founders of Sociology <ul><li>Karl Marx </li></ul><ul><li>Emile Durkheim </li></ul><ul><li>Max Weber </li></ul>
  27. 29. Karl Marx (1818-1883) <ul><li>Alienation </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie </li></ul><ul><li>Proletariat </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism </li></ul>
  28. 30. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) <ul><li>Social Solidarity </li></ul><ul><li>- Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>- Collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Social order </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Anomie </li></ul>
  29. 31. Max Weber (1864-1920) <ul><li>Social organization and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>- Societies </li></ul><ul><li>- Governments </li></ul><ul><li>- Bureaucracies </li></ul>
  30. 32. The Rise of Modern Sociology <ul><li>At the turn of the twentieth century there was tremendous social change occurring in the United States </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Race riots </li></ul><ul><li>Labor strikes </li></ul>
  32. 34. Early American Sociologists <ul><li>W.E.B. DuBois </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Addams </li></ul>
  33. 35. W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963) <ul><li>The Social Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed racial discrimination in Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism </li></ul>
  34. 36. Jane Addams (1860-1935) <ul><li>Hull House </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Worked to improve the lives of newly arrived immigrants </li></ul>
  35. 37. What Is Sociological Theory? <ul><li>Theory : a set of statements </li></ul><ul><li>that seeks to explain problems, </li></ul><ul><li>actions, or behavior </li></ul>
  36. 38. The Functionalist Perspective <ul><li>Functionalism : a sociological approach that emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Society includes social structures or institutions: </li></ul><ul><li>- family </li></ul><ul><li>- education </li></ul><ul><li>- government </li></ul><ul><li>- religion </li></ul><ul><li>- economy </li></ul>
  37. 39. The Conflict Perspective <ul><li>A sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or the allocation of resources, including housing, money, access to services, and political representation. </li></ul>
  38. 40. The Interactionist Perspective <ul><li>A sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole. </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>To conclude: </li></ul><ul><li>Sociologists want to know: </li></ul><ul><li>Why people behave the way they do </li></ul><ul><li>Why they form groups </li></ul><ul><li>Why they go to war </li></ul><ul><li>Why they worship, marry, vote and </li></ul><ul><li>all such things that happen when </li></ul><ul><li>people interact with one another </li></ul>
  40. 42. That: Humans are Self aware Social Behavior shaped by groups
  41. 43. Society: System of interaction: individuals, groups, institutions. Human Beings &quot;oriented&quot; towards one another: Shared understandings, Meaningful interaction The Social as an &quot;emergent reality&quot; : - Peter Berger
  42. 44. Please stand by for the next calss