Sociology 101 Chapter 1

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Sociology 101 Chapter 1

  1. 1. Sociology 101<br />Kim Johanek<br />
  2. 2. What is Sociology?<br />The systematic study of human society<br />Sociological Imagination (Berger) – Turning personal problems into public issues<br />
  3. 3. What do Sociologist’s do(Beside teach??)<br />Excellent preparation for the working world<br />Research (government agencies, private foundations and businesses)<br />Clinical Sociologists<br />Criminal Justice<br />Health Care<br />Advertising<br />Government<br />Law<br />Military<br />Public Policy<br />In almost any type of work, success depends on understanding how categories of people differ in beliefs, family patterns and other ways of life<br />= Sociology<br />
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  5. 5. Sociological Perspective<br />The power of the sociological perspective lies not just in changing individual lives but in transforming society.<br />“…What they need is a quality of mind that will help them to see what is going on in the world and may be happening within themselves. It is this quality that may be called the sociological imagination.” (C. Wright Mills)<br />
  6. 6. National Map 1-1 (p. 14)Suicide Rates across the United StatesThis map shows which states have high, average, and low suicide rates. Look for patterns. By and large, high suicide rates occur where people live far apart from one another. More densely populated states have low suicide rates. WHY?<br />
  7. 7. National Map 9-1 (p. 237)Risk of Violent Crime across the United StatesThis map shows the risk of becoming a victim of violent crime. In general, the risk is highest in low-income, rural counties that have a large population of men between the ages of fifteen and twenty-four. Source: American Demographics magazine, December 2000 issue. Copyright © 2004 by Crain Communications.<br />WHY?<br />
  8. 8. Importance of Global Perspective<br />Where we live makes a great difference in shaping our lives<br />Societies throughout the world are increasingly interconnected through technology and economics<br />Many problems that we faced in the united states are more serious elsewhere<br />Thinking globally is a good way to learn more about ourselves<br />
  9. 9. Global Map 1-1 (p. 4)Women’s Childbearing in Global PerspectiveIs childbearing simply a matter of personal choice? A look around the world shows that it is not. In general, women living in poor countries have many more children than women in rich nations. Can you point to some of the reasons for this global disparity? In simple terms, such differences mean that if you had been born into another society (whether you are female or male), your life might be quite different from what it is now.Source: Data from United Nations (2000) and U.S. Census Bureau (2003). Map projection from Peters Atlas of the World (1990).<br />
  10. 10. Sociological Imagination<br />By using Sociological Imagination/Perspective, how do we gain power over our world?<br />It helps us assess the truth of “common sense”<br />It helps us to see the opportunities and constraints in our lives<br />It empowers us to be an active participant in our society<br />It helps us live in a diverse world<br />
  11. 11. The History of Sociology<br />One of the youngest of academic disciplines, sociology has it origins in powerful social forces:<br />Social Change<br />Industrialization, urbanization, political revolution, and a new awareness of society<br />The discipline of Sociology was born in France, England and Germany. Auguste Comte coined sociology in 1838 and as a Frenchman they say Sociology was founded in France. <br />During the 18th and 19th centuries many changes were going on in Europe: rise of a factory based industrial economy, explosive growth of cities and new ideas about democracy and political rights. These changes made people more aware of their surroundings and gave them a sense of their individuality, their individual liberty and individual rights. <br />
  12. 12. Who is Who in Sociology & Sociological Theory<br />A theory states how facts are related, weaving observations into insight and understanding<br />Sociologists use three major theoretical approaches to describe the operation of society<br />Structural Functionalism<br />Symbolic Interactionism<br />Social-Conflict Approach<br />
  13. 13. Sociological Theory<br />
  14. 14. Structural –Functionalism<br />The basics<br />A macro-level orientation, concerned with broad patterns that shape society as a whole<br />Views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability <br />Key elements:<br />Social structure refers to any relatively stable patterns of social behavior found in social institutions (family, workplace, classroom, community)<br />Social function refers to the consequences for the operation of society as a whole<br />Who’s Who<br />Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Robert Merton<br />
  15. 15. Key Questions<br />How is society held together?<br />What are the major parts of society?<br />How are these parts linked?<br />What does each part do to help society work?<br />What is the function of the structure? Manifest? Latent?<br />What makes society “tick?”<br />
  16. 16. Symbolic Interactionism<br />The basics:<br />A micro-level orientation, a close-up focus on social interactions in specific situations<br />Views society as the product of everyday interactions of individuals<br />Key elements: <br />Society is nothing more than the shared reality that people construct as they interact with one another<br />Society is a complex, ever-changing mosaic of subjective meanings<br />Attachment of meaning to symbols<br />Who’s Who: <br />Max Weber, George Herbert Meade, Erving Goffman<br />
  17. 17. Key Questions<br />How do people experience society?<br />How do people shape the reality they experience?<br />How do behavior and meaning change from person to person and from one situation to another?<br />
  18. 18. Social-Conflict<br />The basics:<br />A macro-oriented paradigm<br />Views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social change<br />Key elements:<br />Society is structured in ways to benefit a few at the expense of the majority (“haves” vs. “have nots”)<br />Factors such as race, sex, class, and age are linked to social inequality<br />Dominant group vs. Minority group relations<br />Who’s Who:<br />Karl Marx, W.E.B. Du Bois<br />
  19. 19. Key Questions<br />How does society divide a population?<br />What is the inequality and resulting conflict? (The “haves” and “have nots”)<br />How do disadvantaged people challenge the system seeking change?<br />
  20. 20. Lets Apply ItCollege of Western Idaho<br />Structural-Functional Theory: Students attending college after high school keeps them (relatively) out of the job market and provides for educated employees. Manifest function: Education. Latent function: Marriage<br />Symbolic-Interaction Theory: Behavior/dress of students/teacher. Shared reality of “students” differs from other roles<br />Social-Conflict Theory: Higher education further divides people into have’s and have not’s.<br />
  21. 21. Lets Apply ItSports<br />Structural-Functional Theory: What is the function of sports? Manifest? Latent?<br />Symbolic-Interaction Theory: Understanding of the game? Behavior?<br />Social-Conflict Theory: Do sports reflect social standing? Racial/Gender discrimination?<br />

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