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Arc Flash Calculations What Does It All Mean


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Arc Flash Calculations What Does It All Mean

  1. 1. Arc Flash Hazard Calculations – What does it all mean? Robert E. Fuhr, P.E.
  2. 2. Why are Arc Flash Hazard Studies Needed? <ul><li>To Increase Electrical Safety at your facility! </li></ul><ul><li>Required by National Electric Code (NEC) and OSHA </li></ul><ul><li>To Protect You! </li></ul>
  3. 5. OSHA Requirements <ul><li>Standard 29 CFR 1910 Subpart S, 1910 to 1910.336 </li></ul><ul><li>Must identify all hazards above 50 Volts </li></ul><ul><li>Must put safeguards in place for these hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Must train employees on safe work practices </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA has officially adopted NFPA 70E </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Employers must provide workers with appropriate PPE as per the OSHA 29 1910.132 (h)(1) PPE payment requirement, i.e., (PPE) used to comply with this part, shall be provided by the employer at no cost to employees. Paragraph (h) became effective February 13, 2008, and employers must implement the PPE payment requirements no later than May 15, 2008 </li></ul>
  5. 7. Key References in NEC ® -2008 <ul><li>110.16 Flash Protection. Switchboards, panel boards, industrial control panels, and motor control centers in other than dwelling occupancies, that are likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized , shall be field marked to warn qualified persons of potential electric arc flash hazards. </li></ul>
  6. 8. NEC 110.16 (continued) <ul><li>The marking shall be located so as to be clearly visible to qualified persons before examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance of the equipment. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Key References in NEC ® -2005 <ul><li>FPN No. 1 : NFPA 70E-2004, Standard For Electrical Safety in the Workplace, provides assistance in determining severity of potential exposure, planning safe work practices and selecting personal protective equipment. </li></ul>
  8. 10. NFPA 70E -Flash Hazard Analysis <ul><li>130.3 – A flash hazard analysis shall be done in order to protect personnel from the possibility of being injured by an arc flash. </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis shall determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash Protection Boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculate using </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulas in 130.3.A and Table 130.7(C)(9)(a) * in NFPA 70E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* - Use with extreme caution!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equations in IEEE 1584 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Industry standards and regulations: <ul><li>OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subpart S </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 70 - The National Electrical Code (2008 Edition) </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 70E - Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace (2004 Edition) </li></ul>
  10. 12. Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Key Steps <ul><li>Use NFPA 70E * Tables, IEEE 1584, or Lee Equations to Determine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident energy levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arc Flash hazard distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Use with extreme caution! </li></ul>
  11. 13. Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Key Steps <ul><li>Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculated Incident Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(11) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to determine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hazard/Risk Category </li></ul><ul><li>Required PPE </li></ul>
  12. 14. Acceptable & Informative Labels
  13. 15. NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(11)
  14. 16. Short Circuit Fault Study Coordination (PDC) Study Arc Flash Study Device Operating Time Arcing Fault Current 3 Phase Bolted Fault Current Arc Flash Label Energy Level Boundaries Required PPE Obtain Equipment Nameplate Data & Settings
  15. 17. Arc Flash Energy Calculation <ul><li>Use 85% Ia </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Upstream Protective Device Clearing Times (PDC Study) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat process for 100% Ia </li></ul><ul><li>Use largest energy calculation </li></ul>
  16. 18. Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Key Steps <ul><li>Determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolted Fault Currents (Short Circuit Study) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arcing Fault (AF) Current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upstream Protective Device Clearing Times (PDC Study) using AF </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Key Steps <ul><li>Calculate Arc Flash Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Use NFPA 70E Tables to determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glove Rating Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Approach Boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited Approach Boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted Approach Boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required PPE </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Key Steps <ul><li>Arc Flash Warning Labels showing the details . </li></ul>
  19. 21. How a Short Circuit Study is Performed <ul><li>Obtain distribution system nameplate data for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit breakers, fuses, relays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switchgear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor Control Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conductor sizes and lengths </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. How a Short Circuit Study is Performed <ul><li>Enter data into the computer program. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulate short circuit at each location and calculate the fault current. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare calculated fault current to equipment short circuit rating. </li></ul>
  21. 23. What is Protective Device Coordination (PDC) Study? <ul><li>Determines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fuse sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settings for relays and circuit breakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device operating time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The study has 2 conflicting goals </li></ul>
  22. 24. Goal #1 - Maximum Selective Coordination Between Equipment <ul><li>Correct fuse sizes and settings will allow the device closest to a fault to trip . </li></ul><ul><li>If the first device fails to operate, then the next upstream device will trip . </li></ul><ul><li>Longer device trip delays = increased device coordination = greater incident energy </li></ul>
  23. 25. Selective Coordination 1 2 3
  24. 26. Goal #2 - Maximum Equipment Protection and Reduction in Arc Flash Energy <ul><li>Correct fuse sizes and device settings will quickly interrupt the fault current for a short circuit downstream. </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter device delays = decreased equipment damage = less Incident Energy </li></ul>
  25. 27. Maximum Equipment Protection <ul><li>(No Selective Coordination) </li></ul>1 1 1
  26. 28. <ul><li>Must balance these two conflicting goals based upon the type of facility. </li></ul>
  27. 29. PDC Vocabulary <ul><li>Time Current Curve (TCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Log-log graph of time versus current </li></ul><ul><li>Every breaker, fuse, and relay has a time current characteristic curve. </li></ul>
  28. 30. PDC Vocabulary <ul><li>Selective Device Coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The devices plotted on the time current curves are coordinated for all levels of fault current and time. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 32. Fuse TCC 3-6 Sec 5 kA @15 kA This Fuse is Current Limiting – Clearing time is 0.004 seconds
  30. 34. Thermal Magnetic Trip Unit <ul><li>Thermal Unit is Fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Instant-aneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustable </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. Thermal Magnetic Breaker 20 kA 0.01-0.025 Sec 4 kA 20-50 Sec
  32. 38. Solid State Trip Unit <ul><li>SQ D NW 40H </li></ul><ul><li>4000 Amp </li></ul><ul><li>Micrologic </li></ul>Current Sensors Rating Plugs Current Setting
  33. 39. Solid State Trip Unit <ul><li>Varies for each Trip Unit! </li></ul><ul><li>Some Functions are Not Adjustable! </li></ul>Long Time Pickup (LTPU) Long Time Delay (LTD) Short Time Pickup (STPU) Short Time Delay (STD) Instantaneous (I) Short Time Delay I2T-IN (I2T)
  34. 40. Solid State Trip <ul><li>SQ D NW 40H </li></ul><ul><li>4000 Amp </li></ul><ul><li>Micrologic </li></ul>100 kA 0.01-0.06 Sec 6 kA 0.08-0.12 Sec 30 kA 170-210 Sec
  35. 41. Time Current Curves <ul><li>An example of a TCC with Coordinated Devices </li></ul>Current in Amperes X 100
  36. 42. Arc Flash Energy Calculations <ul><li>Incident Energy Levels are dependent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of arcing fault current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upstream device clearing time . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple Sources </li></ul>
  37. 43. Typical Assumptions for an Analysis <ul><li>Trip time is determined by the upstream protective device settings . </li></ul><ul><li>Worker is stationary . </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum time that a worker will be exposed to the arc flash is 2.0 seconds . (Depends upon location!!!) </li></ul>
  38. 44. Current Vs Energy Levels
  39. 45. Time Vs Energy Levels
  40. 46. Distance Vs Energy Levels
  41. 47. Arc Flash Warning Labels <ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul>
  42. 48. Limited Approach Boundary: <ul><li>An approach limit at a distance from an exposed live part within which a shock hazard exists. This value is determined by NFPA 70E (2004) Table 130.2(B). </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified Persons </li></ul><ul><li>Unqualified if accompanied by a Qualified Persons </li></ul><ul><li>PPE not required if AF Boundary is not in Limited Approach Boundary </li></ul>
  43. 49. Restricted Approach Boundary <ul><li>An approach limit at a distance from an exposed live part within which there is an increased risk of shock, due to electrical arc over combined with inadvertent movement, for personnel working in close proximity to the live part. </li></ul><ul><li>Determined by NFPA 70E (2004) Table 130.2(B) </li></ul>
  44. 50. Restricted Approach Boundary <ul><li>Qualified Persons Only </li></ul><ul><li>Must wear PPE </li></ul>
  45. 51. Prohibited Approach Boundary <ul><li>An approach limit at a distance from an exposed live part within which work is considered the same as making contact with the live part. </li></ul><ul><li>Determined by NFPA 70E (2004) Table 130.2(B). </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified Persons Only </li></ul><ul><li>PPE Required as if in direct contact </li></ul>
  46. 54. Arc Flash Label Installation <ul><li>Always clean the surface with detergent to remove all grease and dirt. Wipe surface dry before applying the label. </li></ul><ul><li>Some locations will have a Line Side Label. They should be installed at locations where maintenance staff could be exposed to energized parts on the line side of a fuse or circuit breaker. Examples of this are Main Breakers in Switchboards and Switchgear. </li></ul>
  47. 55. Arc Flash Label Installation <ul><li>Transformer Labels are for small distribution transformers (480/208 V) where both the 480 and 208 Volts terminals are exposed. </li></ul><ul><li>Locations where the label will be exposed to direct sun light should be brought to the attention of We will provide labels with a special UV protective covering to protect the label from fading. </li></ul>
  48. 56. Line Side vs Bus AF Labels
  49. 57. Need more Information <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifications for Power System Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short Circuit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protective Device Coordination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arc Flash Hazard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Phone: 253-639-8535 </li></ul><ul><li>Email: </li></ul>
  50. 58. Your Report
  51. 59. Thank you for your time! <ul><li>Questions????? </li></ul>