Concept 45.3 The endocrine and nervous systems act individually and together in regulating animal physiology Coordination of Endocrine and A prominently known gland the Nervous Systems in pituitary gland is often known Invertebrates as the “master” gland of the All animals except the simplest endocrine system. This is so invertebrates reproduction and because it controls the main development are controlled by functions of all other glands. the endocrine system. The pituitary gland has 2 lobes For example in a molting the posterior and anterior insect, a peptide pituitary. Both of which secrete neurohormone from the insects different hormones. endocrine posterior= Oxytocin and system, PTTH, promotes each antidiuretic hormone. successful molt until it reaches Anterior= the final stage. prolactin, adrenocorticotropic Most hormonal glands are hormone, thyroid-stimulating located in the brain of the hormone, follicle-stimulating animal. hormone, luteinizing hormone
Pituitary SystemCrosssections ofthe pituitarygland, with alabeleddrawing.
Concept 45.4 Endocrine glands respond to diverse stimuli in regulating metabolism, homeostasis, development, and behavior Thyroid : consists of lobes on the ventral side of the trachea. Thyroid hormone refers to a pair of similar hormones known as Triiodothyronine(T3) and Thyroxine(T4), which have corresponding iodine atoms T3 has 3 and T4 has 4. The thyroid mainly produces T4 atoms in humans but the body changes them to T3 because iodine is dedicated to the production of the Thyroid hormone. Also a dietary iodine is a must. This may be ingested by eating seafood or iodized salts with out this dietary iodine goiter may occur which is a swelling in the neck.
Glands Con’t Parathyroid glands regulate Adrenal glands are the release of calcium into the associated with the kidneys. body. Made up of two parts, the Unregulated release of outer part known as the calcium can result in organ adrenal cortex, and the damage. central portion known as the adrenal medulla. The adrenal gland also plays a role in releasing adrenaline (also known as epinephrine) when the body senses danger or is excited.
Sex Hormones Sex hormones affect growth, development, and reproductive cycles. The gonads produce three hormones which are all produced in both genders just in different proportions, androgens, estro gens, and testosterone. Testosterone is more prominent in males hence the deeper tone of voice. Estrogen is more prominent in females hence larger breasts and a higher pitched voice
Some Disorders of theEndocrine Diabetes Growth disorders Osteoporosis Thyroid disorders (ex. Thyroid cancer)
Works cited http://www.umm.edu /endocrin/pitgland.ht m