wring skill Lecture 7


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wring skill Lecture 7

  1. 1. A world Guide to Good Manners /How not to behave badly abroad / 1
  2. 2.   Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier & easier. We live in global village, but how well do we know & understand each other? Here is a simple test. Imagine you have arranged a meeting at four o’clock. What time should you expect your foreign business colleagues to arrive? If they’re German, they’ll be bang on time. If they’re American, they’ll probably be 15 minutes late, & you should allow up to an hour for the Italians. When the European Community began to increase in size, several guidebooks appeared giving advice on international etiquette. 2
  3. 3.    at first many people thought This was a joke, especially the British, who seemed to assume that the widespread understanding of their language meant a corresponding understanding of English customs. Very soon they had to change their ideas, as they realized that they had a lot to learn about how to behave with their foreign business friends. For example: The British are happy to have a business lunch & discuss business matters with a drink during the meal; the Japanese prefer not to work while eating. lunch is a time to relax & get to know one another, & they rarely drink at lunchtime. 3
  4. 4. The Germans like to talk business before the French like to eat first & talk dinner:  The French like to eat first and talk afterwards. They have to be well fed & watered before discuss anything.  Taking off your jacket & rolling up your sleeves is a sign of getting down to work in Britain & Holland, but in Germany people regard it as taking it easy.  4
  5. 5.  American executives sometimes signal their feelings of ease and importance in their offices by putting their feet on the desk whilst on the telephone. In Japan, people would be shocked. Showing the soles of your feet is the height of bad manners. It is a social insult only exceed by blowing your nose in public. 5
  6. 6.  The Japanese have perhaps the strictest rules of social & business behavior. Seniority is very important, and a younger man should never be sent to complete a business deal with an older Japanese man. The Japanese business card almost needs a rulebook . 6
  7. 7. How do I write an observation report?  What does a baby peering through the bars of a crib have in common with a scientist studying a slide through a microscope? They are both making observations. Observing involves using sense –sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch-to take note of things around you. An observation report incorporates descriptions of tings you have observed with conclusions you have drawn from your observations. An observation report is particularly suitable for science writing, but anything that you observe and find interesting is a possible subject. For example, the construction of a building would make a good topic for a report. 7
  8. 8.      An observation report Includes sensory details and facts Reports only what you have observed Gives your reactions to what you have observed States any conclusions you have drawn from your observations How do I begin an observation report? 8
  9. 9. If you live near a construction site, you may be able to observe heavy equipment in operation. Then choose a machine to be the focus of your report. Your focus should reflect your purpose. For example, if you want to show how building changes the land, you might choose the bulldozer as your focus. If you want to describe how the frame of a building is put up, you might choose the crane. 9
  10. 10. Often the place is set for you because you need to be where the action occurs. Several factors, however, can affect the times you observe. Consider when the event occurs, whether the event occurs in several steps or all at once, what times you are free to observe, and when your report is due. 10
  11. 11. You might want to write a list of questions to try to answer as you make your observations. Also  You may want to make drawings or take pictures. In your notes, includes sensory details-sights, sounds, smells, tastes, textures, temperatures, and so on.  11
  12. 12. Your purpose and your focus will help you determine what to record. Remember to pay close attention to the particular object, process, or event that you’ve chosen as your focus. Jot down answers to the questions you posed about events or processes. Come up with comparisons you can use to help explain how something looks, moves, or changes. Write down your reactions to what you seefor instance, were you surprised, excite, or amused? Draw conclusions both as you make observations and after you reread your notes. 12
  13. 13.  An observation report can be part of a descriptive essay, or it can stand alone. By itself, an observation report might take the form of field notes such as you would write in science class.  How can I organize my report?  Some ways of organizing an observation report:  Describe the part of your observation chronologically Describe the parts of your observation in spatial order, from top to bottom or from front to back. Arrange any answers to questions in a logical order.   13
  14. 14. Purpose: 1) To gain an understanding of the distinctive features of an important genre of scientific writing, 2) To begin to develop the analysis skills that will help you recognize the distinctive features of other kinds of writing as wellwriting you'll need to do in the university or in other contexts 3) To practice articulating yourself clearly, in a well organized fashion 4) To practice writing concise, detailed prose while honing observation skills. 14
  15. 15. A formal observation report is the way that scientists share the results of their research with one another. As such, these reports follow certain conventions. In class, we’ll look at a student sample that you can use as a model. 15
  16. 16.  Title: What object and issue are under study?  Abstract: What type of study, object, issue, method, results? Introduction: What are you studying and why?  Method: What did you do?  Results: What did you find out (see)?  Discussion: What do the results mean?  Conclusion: What should be done next?  16
  17. 17. Your observation will follow this format. Each section (except the title) should have a heading, as in the student paper. The observation descriptions we work on in class will serve as the basis for the Results section of this paper. The content of the other sections will follow from the information you present in that section.  While the student sample that we will look at uses outside sources, you are not required to do so in this assignment. Instead, you should feel free to leave questions open-ended and to speculate  17
  18. 18. When I evaluate your formal observation report, I will be looking to see how well you have met the goals of the assignment. That is, I will be looking for how well you present your findings objectively and according to the conventions of observation reports. I will also be looking for how you present your hypothesis and make suggestions for ways to test it. If all you do is present your observations, your report will not be successful. 18
  19. 19.  Your report will also need to meet many of the standard expectations of good academic writing. Your purpose and focus will need to be clear and well explained. You will need to provide your reader with sufficient detail both in your use of trifocal description and in your discussion. And, of course, your prose will need to be well written both stylistically (particularly in regards to concise and objective language) and grammatically. 19