Present factual information about an interesting
States and develops a main idea.
Brings together information from a variety of
Has a beginning, a middle, and an end.
Credits sources for ideas, quotations, and
Read the books, take notes
3.Write first draft
5.Shared your draft in a group
8.Input the report on the computer
Gathering information for a report involves
Step 1: List your questions about your
A good list can guide & save you time.
Think of it as a shopping list of items that
you want to get information about from the
library (and other sources)Feel free to
update the list as you go along.
These provide information in depth. To
identify books likely to be helpful, look in the
card or computer catalog : each entry has a
brief description of what is in the book.
Magazine and Newspaper Article
These can give detailed information about
very specific aspects of a topic.
Step 3: Interview experts
An expert in this case is anyone who knows
more about your topic than you do. People to
interview may include one of your friends, a
friend of your parents, your family doctor or
school nurse, or a teacher at your school.
How can I take notes
Notes are a way of carrying information back
to your desk. They are a written record of the
research work you have done.
You have taken good notes if
You can read your own handwriting
You have all the information you need
when you start writing
You can find any particular note quickly
when you need it.
You can rearrange you notes easily if they
get out of order
You can identify the source of each note.
What should I put in my notes?
Your notes will eventually become the
backbone of your paper. Therefore , use
your own words as much as possible.
Also, be exact in quoting other people’s
Make sure you record information accurately
and in your own words . you may use
incomplete sentences and make up your own
abbreviations if you like.
Get quotations right.
If you’re planning to quote a writer
directly, record in the source, including
Before you start writing, develop a plan for
presenting you information. The following
two steps can help:
A thesis statement is a sentence about your
purpose- what you plan to “show” in your
paper. you may revise it for the finished
report, but at this stage, it gives you a peg to
hang your ideas on.
Use your outline as a guide to structure your
writing, and remember to give credit is due.
each time you include a fact or
quotation, you’ll need to name your source.
Put the relevant key word and page number
Plagiarism means using another writer’s words
or ideas as if they are yours. It is a form of
stealing and is considered a serious offense.
You must credit your sources.
When is credit due?
Name your source when you are
Using another writer’s exact words
Reporting an original idea that isn’t yours.
Reporting a fact available from just one source.
Reporting common knowledge –information
available from many sources
Bring your report to a satisfying conclusion
either by summing up your main idea or leaving
readers with a question for further thought
Checkpoint for revising
Will my introduction catch my reader’s attention?
Does my report state and logically develop one
Are all my fact accurate?
Have I used my own words, except in direct
Have I named the source of each direct
quotation, each idea that is not mine, &
each fact is not common knowledge?
Does my report come to a satisfying
A bibliography is a list of source. Write
bibliography after you’ve finished your report. All
the information you need for this list should be on
your cards. You need list only sources you have
List the entries in alphabetical order by authors’
last name or by the first word in the title.
Follow the standard form for bibliographies that
Put the bibliography at the end of your research
How do I write an observation report?
What does a baby peering through the bars of
a crib have in common with a scientist
studying a slide through a microscope? They
are both making observations. Observing
involves using sense –
sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch-to take
note of things around you.
An observation report incorporates
descriptions of tings you have observed
with conclusions you have drawn from
your observations. An observation report
is particularly suitable for science
writing, but anything that you observe and
find interesting is a possible subject. For
example, the construction of a building
would make a good topic for a report.
An observation report
Includes sensory details and facts
Reports only what you have observed
Gives your reactions to what you have
States any conclusions you have drawn
from your observations
Step1: Choose what you want to observe.
If you live near a construction site, you may
be able to observe heavy equipment in
operation. Then choose a machine to be the
focus of your report. Your focus should reflect
your purpose. For example, if you want to
show how building changes the land, you
might choose the bulldozer as your focus. If
you want to describe how the frame of a
building is put up, you might choose the
Step2. Set the time and place for
Often the place is set for you because you
need to be where the action occurs.
Several factors, however, can affect the
times you observe. Consider when the
event occurs, whether the event occurs in
several steps or all at once, what times
you are free to observe, and when your
report is due.
Step 3.Decide how to record observations.
You might want to write a list of
questions to try to answer as you
make your observations. Also
You may want to make drawings or
take pictures. In your notes, includes
sensory detailssights, sounds, smells, tastes, texture
s, temperatures, and so on.
What is important to record?
Your purpose and your focus will help you
determine what to record. Remember to
pay close attention to the particular
object, process, or event that you’ve
chosen as your focus. Jot down answers
to the questions you posed about events
or processes. Come up with comparisons
you can use to help explain how
something looks, moves, or changes.
Write down your reactions to what you see-for
instance, were you surprised, excite, or
amused? Draw conclusions both as you make
observations and after you reread your notes.
What forms do observation reports take?
An observation report can be part of a
descriptive essay, or it can stand alone. By
itself, an observation report might take the form
of field notes such as you would write in science
How can I organize my report?
Some ways of organizing an observation
Describe the part of your observation
Describe the parts of your observation in
spatial order, from top to bottom or from
front to back.
Arrange any answers to questions in a logical
Checkpoints for revising
Is all information based on my
Have I reported my reactions to and
thought on things I observed?
Have I developed conclusions based on
A formal observation report is the way that
scientists share the results of their
research with one another. As such, these
reports follow certain conventions. In
class, we’ll look at a student sample that
you can use as a model.
Observation reports consist of the following
parts (see Engaging Inquiry 32):
Title: What object and issue are under study?
Loi em noi cho tinh chung ta, nhu doan
Abstract:cuoi trongtype phim buon. Nguoi da
What cuon of
den nhu la giac mo roi ra di cho anh
study, object, issue, method, results?
Introduction: What are you studying and why?
Method: gaigoisaigon/ you do?
Results: What did you find out (see)?
Discussion: What do the results mean?
Conclusion: What should be done next?