Araby (James Joyce)


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Irish pieces from James Joyce, analysed and detailed

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Araby (James Joyce)

  2. 2. BIOGRAPHY OF JAMES JOYCE (18821941)
  3. 3.  James Joyce was born into a middle-class, Catholic family in Rathgar, a suburb of Dublin, on February 2, 1882.  Joyce's father, John Joyce even though he was a goodnatured man, was a drinker who wasted the family's resources. The family’s prosperity dwindled, forcing them to move from their comfortable home to the unfashionable and impoverished area of North Dublin.  Nonetheless, Joyce attended a prestigious Jesuit school and went on to study philosophy and languages at University College, Dublin. He moved to Paris after graduation in 1902 to pursue medical school, but instead he turned his attention to writing.
  4. 4.  In 1903 he returned to Dublin, where he met his future wife, Nora Barnacle, the following year.  From then on, Joyce made his home in other countries. From 1905 to 1915 he and Nora lived in Rome and Trieste, Italy, and from 1915 to 1919 they lived in Zurich, Switzerland. Between World War I and World War II, they lived in Paris. They returned to Zurich in 1940, where Joyce died in 1941
  5. 5.  James Joyce based Araby on his own experiences as an adolescent resident of Dublin in 1894, when Ireland was chafing under British rule.  Like the fictional narrator of Araby, Joyce lived on North Richmond Street (No. 17) in the central part of the city. He was also undergoing a period of self-discovery.  However, unlike the narrator, Joyce was not an orphan. In Araby Joyce presents Dublin as a bleak city struggling against oppressive forces.  The climactic scene takes place in South Dublin, across the River Liffey from central Dublin, at a bazaar in a large building. Such a bazaar—billed as Araby: a Grand Oriental Fête (or as “A Grand Oriental Fête: Araby in Dublin”) was actually held in Dublin between May 14 and May 19, 1894, to benefit a local hospital. 
  6. 6. SUMMARY
  7. 7.  The nameless narrator of the story talks about life on North Richmond Street. The former tenant of their apartment was a priest who died.  Some books have been left behind, and the young boy narrator sometimes looks at them. He is raised by his aunt and uncle.  One of his playmates is a boy named Mangan, and the narrator develops a crush on Mangan’s sister. Mangan and his sister live in a building across the street.  The sister often comes to the front of their house to call the brother, a moment that the narrator savours. The narrator watches her stealthily, waiting for her to leave in the mornings so that he can follow her on part of his way to school.
  8. 8.  One day, Mangan’s sister finally speaks to him. She asks if he will go to Araby, a Dublin bazaar .She cannot attend, because she is going on a religious retreat that weekend. Having recovered from the shock of the conversation, the narrator offers to bring her something from the bazaar.  He gets permission to go, and for days he cannot concentrate. On the morning of the bazaar, the narrator reminds his uncle that he plans to attend the event so that the uncle will return home early and provide train fare.
  9. 9.  That night, his uncle is late. The boy despairs of being able to go at all, but finally his uncle comes home. His uncle has forgotten about the bazaar, and by now it is quite late. But the boy still wants to go, and he takes the small sum of money for the train and heads off.  He arrives at the bazaar just as it is closing. Only a few stalls are open. He approaches one stall that is still open, but buys nothing, feeling unwanted by the woman watching over the goods. With no purchase for Mangan’s sister, the narrator stands angrily in the deserted bazaar as the lights go out.
  10. 10. SE T T ING
  11. 11. 1. North Richmond Street  The place where the unnamed boy lives with his uncle and aunt.  The setting of the place is being described with negative adjective. “The other houses of the street, conscious of decent lives within them, gazed at one another with brown imperturbable faces.” (Shayes 2011)
  12. 12. 2. Araby  The Arabian theme bazaar.  The place where the boy wants to get something to Mangan’s sister.  He finally realizing how naïve he was about the trip. “Nearly all the stalls were closed and the greater part of the hall was in darkness. I recognized a silence like that which pervades a church after a service.” (Shayes 2011)
  13. 13. CHARACTERS
  14. 14. 1. The unnamed boy  The narrator of the story.  Lives with his uncle and aunt.  Become infatuated with Mangan’s sister.  Naïve and immature.  how he let his feeling overtake his mind and allowed his body to act on it.  romantic feeling towards Mangan’s sister bring him to the bazaar.
  15. 15. 2. The boy’s uncle and aunt  The boy’s guardian.  The relationship between the boy and his uncle and aunt is not close.  They don’t understand why it’s so for the boy to get to Araby. (Shmoop Editorial Team 2008)
  16. 16. 3. Mangan’s sister  A girl whom the boy is attracted.  The person that gives hope to the boy to escape from his dull life.
  17. 17. Plot
  18. 18. Exposition
  19. 19.  We were introduce with the character, the author describe boy’s living area. The author described the house where it was the boy’s play ground and where the priest had died.  Basically, the author talked about how boring the boy’s life is.  Joyce also describe the boy’s crush. He always wanted to talk to her, he remember her figure and always spying on her (every morning I lay on the floor in the front parlour watching her door. The blind was pulled down to within an inch of the sash so that i could not be seen). This shows that he is so obsessed with her. The author also told us that the boy “had never spoken to her”.  “The boy is physically attracted to her, and does not know how to respond, so naturally, his heart guides him towards admiring her from a distance”. ( )
  21. 21.  Finally the girl talked to him. He did not know what to say. When he finally gets to speak with the girl, ask him if he would/can go to Araby. “The boy forgot whether he said yes or no probably because at the time it wasn’t important to him”. ( )  The girl said it will be a splendid bazaar and she really wanted to go but she had to retreat that week in her convent.  The boy told her if he go to Araby, he would buy her something. The boy was not only exited to go to Araby but he can’t wait for it. He wishes that time flies fast (I had hardly any patience with the serious work of life...). The boy also reminded his uncle that he wished to go to Araby.
  22. 22. CLIMAX
  23. 23.  He waited for his uncle to come home for some money. He waited so long and become restless for his uncle to come back home. (Wondered whether he will go or not).  When his uncle finally arrived home, he asked him for some money for the bazaar but his uncle forgot about it.  His aunt backs him up and forces him to give some money. He was so happy that he finally can go to Araby. After an intolerable delay of the train, he arrived at the bazaar.
  25. 25.  When he arrives, he quickly walk around fast because he was afraid that the stores may be closed.  He soon finds out that “nearly all the stores are closed and the greater part of the hall was in darkness”.  We see him realize that the bazaar is near over, and how he yet again missed something he had desperately waited for. (http:// /)
  26. 26. Denouement
  27. 27.  Araby was not what the boy expected ( ).  When he was in one of the stall, the lady of the stall great him with a rude voice tone. He was not pleased with it because he was hoping that the people there are going to treat him nicely.  He also believed that Araby would be a magical place(multiculturalism) but to his disappointment, “but he only experiences something he sees very often in his hometown of Dublin, Ireland”( ).  He realised that it was a mistake for not thinking wisely about going to Araby. He did not plan his trip. He just follows his heart. At the end, he was embarrassed with himself because of his silly mistake.
  29. 29. ENDLESS WAITING  This story shows the boy’s endless waiting.  First, he patiently waits for the girl he likes every dayHe waits for her every morning, watching her through the blinds, and even follow her in the mornings. “ the blind was pulled down to within an inch of the sash so that I could not be seen” (line 36) “I ran to the hall, seized my books and followed her. I kept her brown figure always in my eye and, when we came near the point at which our ways diverged, I quickened my pace and passed her. This happened morning after morning” (line 37- 40)
  30. 30.  Finally the girl spoke to him, asking whether he will go to Araby or not. She couldn’t go because of retreat thus he said he will buy something for her if he does goes. He anxiously waits for the arrival of Saturday - to go to Araby.  The day had finally come, he had reminded his uncle in the morning, but there is no sign of his uncle even when dinner time comes. The boy had waited for him for so long and when he arrives home his uncle said he forgot about it and delaying give in giving him the money. “On Saturday morning, I reminded my uncle that I wished to go to the bazaar in the evening.” (line 91)
  31. 31. FRUSTRATION  The story started with the boy description of his neighbourhood. He is frustrated with his surrounding; the place he lives. He is not happy except for one thing, Mangan’s sister. The only thing that makes his life livelier is his thoughts and his romantic imagination about spending time with her.  Frustration also by how the boy had a crush towards Mangan’s sister but he had no chance of showing it to her. The moment the girl said he couldn’t go to the bazaar, he told her that he will buy something for her if he go to the bazaar. He is overwhelmed with the idea of giving her something nice from ‘Araby’. He waited for all day before he could finally go to the bazaar. He was frustrated that his uncle was late and he had forgotten about him wanted to go to the bazaar. GradeSaver; Dubliners Study Guide
  32. 32. “he asked me where I was going and, when I had told him a second time he asked me did I know The Arab’s Farewell to his Steed. “ (line 129)  He arrived too late where most of the stalls had closed and he in the end couldn’t buy anything for Mangan’s sister for that he arrived late and also he doesn’t even have enough money to do so. “gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity; and my eyes burned with anguish and anger” (last line)
  33. 33. LOVE  This story mainly focuses on love that the boy had on his friend’s sister. He described his neighbourhood as gloomy, dull and he find no excitement there. However, Mangan’s sister is what makes him happy, and what makes his “heart leap” (P4, line 36).  This implies that she is what makes him happy. The boy is physically attracted to Mangan’s sister as he had actually never spoken to her and does not know what kind of person she is. He is admiring her towards from a distance. The first time she spoke to him, he couldn’t even remember what he answer he had given her. At this time he is emotionally cling to her every word. “ I forgot whether I answered yes or no” (line 66) Shayes Says; Analysis of of “Araby” by James Joyce
  34. 34.  It shown when she mentioned that he should go, he immediately says he will buy something nice for her if he go to the bazaar. “What innumerable follies laid waste my waking and sleeping thoughts after that evening! I wished to annihilate the tedious intervening days” ( line79)  He couldn’t wait for Saturday to arrive. He wants to skip over every day, and arrive at Saturday already. Though Saturday finally come, he still had to wait for a very long time before he could finally go to the bazaar. He tried his best to go to ‘Araby’ but still disappointed embraces him as he arrived way too late. Most of the stalls are closed and he didn’t have enough money anyway to buy something for her.
  35. 35. DARK AND BRIGHTNESS  The story is filled with contrast description from the boy. He was not happy with his neighbourhood and describe those as dull and dark. This is shown by Joyce uses negative adjectives to represent the setting. “The other houses of the street, conscious of decent lives within them, gazed at one another with brown imperturbable faces” (line 4)  However, the contrast is shown whenever the boy describe about Mangan’s sister. “ she was waiting for us, her figure defined by the light from the halfopened door” (line 31) (Shmoop Editorial Team, 2008)
  36. 36. SYMBOLISM
  37. 37. THE BAZAAR  The boy saw Araby as the eastern enchantment.  Symbolizes the dullness and hopelessness of Ireland that has been dominated by English for centuries  They cant escape, even if the east come to him in the form of Araby, the British still there too (English men)  The boy ends up buying nothing. 
  38. 38. NORTH RICHMOND STREET BEING BLIND.  Blind street means a dead end, this is the place where James Joyce grew up  Relation to the reality of how the boy lives
  39. 39. THE DEAD PRIEST  The priest is the icon of a good man  When the priest die, it symbolizes the country have no hope  They will always be dominated by The British26
  40. 40. NORTHERN CHRISTIAN SCHOOL  A religious area  The society there are religion oriented.
  41. 41. MANGAN'S SISTER  The name is not mentioned in this story  This symbolizes the dream that will never comes true.
  42. 42. LIGHT FROM WINDOW  The author use light from the window which is so dim  It symbolizes that there is just a little hopes for the boy, to the loves he had for Mangan's sister
  43. 43. THEORY
  44. 44. READER RESPONSE CRITICISM  The meaning of a literary work is not merely something put into work by the writer: the meaning is an interpretation created or constructed or produced by the reader and the writer 
  45. 45.  Araby is the combination of the empirical facts of the outside world and the young boy personal perception of that world.  So, the readers are always in a constantly journey of discovery for the meaning in the text
  46. 46.  The text provides us with empirical evidence such as diction, allusion and imagery produces rhetorical effect and guides our understanding throughout the story  Unlike Formalism, a reader response criticism of Araby allows us to see the ultimate meaning of Joyce's story  It is not something that can be pinned down conclusively, but it is evolving activity of participatory reading
  47. 47. REFERENCES GradeSaver. Dubliners Study Guide : Summary and Analysis of Araby. November 9, 2013, from Retrieved (2011). Analysis of "Araby" by James Joyce - Shayes Says. [online] Retrieved from: by-james-joyce/ [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013]. Shmoop (2013). Characters in. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013]. SparkNotes Editors. (2004). SparkNote on Dubliners. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from Google Books. 2013. Theory Into Practice: An Introduction to Literary Criticism. [online] retrieved from id=22PbbREoiY4C&pg=PA144&lpg=PA144&dq=litera ry+criticism+theory+in+araby&source Markey, T.2010.Literary and Cultural Theory 2010:James Joyce’s “Araby”:What is the significance of the English Gentlemen in the Bazaar? retrieved November 17, 2013 from
  48. 48. id=22PbbREoiY4C&pg=PA144&lpg=PA144&dq=literary+criticism+theory+in+ara by&source