Introduction to BioUrbanism. By Antonio Caperna


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Sustainable urban design and planning: morphogenetic design, biophilic urbanism, interactive architecture, sensorial urbanism

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Introduction to BioUrbanism. By Antonio Caperna

  1. 1. Antonio Caperna, B I O URBANISM International workshop Designing the Multisensorial city University of Sint Lucas Gent, Belgium (15/11/2010 – 25/11/2010)
  2. 2. Dr. Antonio Caperna, PhD E-mail: Antonio Caperna, B I O URBANISM BIOURBANISM A new way to planning urban environment
  3. 3. PART ONE - THE CRISIS OF WESTRN PATTERN 1. Cultural pattern 2. Development pattern 3. Architecture and urbanism in the XX Century PART TWO - BIOURBANISM: TOWARDS AN HUMAN ORIENTED DESIGN 1.Shift paradigm. New cultural model 2.Biophilia Hypothesis 3.Biophilic City 4.Tools B I O URBANISM
  4. 4. BIOURBANISM: A GENERAL OVERVIEW Reinforcement of life systems Biophilia Hypothesis Participatory Design Morphogenetic Design Environmental Psychology Neurophysiology Sensory Urbanism Change of Patterns Cultural Economical Educational Democratic (Bottom- up) processes Societal, glo-cal e-gov e-democracy P2P urbanism Complex approach BIO URBANISM ENERGETICAL SYSTEM BIOPHILIC DESIGN SHIFT PARADIGM City form Green Buildings Renewable energies Grid energy system HUMAN ORIENTED DESIGN Policy NETWORK
  5. 5. WHY BIOPHILIC CITY? B I O URBANISM Unsustainable system Cultural, economical, and Architectural patterns
  6. 6. Cultural Pattern. Cartesian paradigm“ ( reductionism ) According to Descartes, our world is: - a machine - governed by linear laws - possible to comprehend it thought its parts - formed by objects - relationships are not important IMPLICATIONS B I O URBANISM
  7. 7. Descartes held that non- human animals could be reductively explained as automata De homines 1662. PHYSICALISM A form of materialism holding that physical entities are the only real existents and that mental phenomena like soul and consciousness are either illusory or reducible to physical phenomena. B I O URBANISM
  8. 8. Examples of how humans are over-exploiting natural resources to their own detriment include:  Unsustainable consumption  Waste Generation  Worldwide fossil fuel consumption quintupled since 1950  water consumption  climate change  Health Problems (allergies, cancer, …)  land use  urbanization  Population growth …. B I O URBANISM
  9. 9. ARCITECTURE AND URBANISM IN THE XX CENTURY Futurama. A new model of town by General Motors CLIP FUTURAMA B I O URBANISM
  11. 11. General Systems Theory (GST) The interdisciplinary idea that systems of any type and in any specialism can all be described by a common set of ideas related to the holistic interaction of the components. This nonlinear theory rejects the idea that system descriptions can be reduced to linear properties of disjoint parts. Systems Thinking The systems approach relates to considering wholes rather than parts, taking all the interactions into account B I O URBANISM
  12. 12. … it includes a passage from:  the part to the whole  structure to process  objective science to epistemology  building to network as metaphor for knowledge  truth to approximate descriptions  Shifting Attitudes about the Environment  Things versus Relations between Things  Economy and Ecology versus Integration  Techno-development versus Eco-development shift paradigm B I O URBANISM
  13. 13. The Science of Complexity proposes 1. A forma mentis rooted in a HOLISTIC CULTURE 2. A preference for a real and generalist knowledge 3. The language of all sciences is mathematics, since it provides exact terminology and unique meaning 4. Mathematical modeling and simulation are essential to understanding the complexity of Nature and Life. It Offers a unifying way of looking at Nature and Life. 5. “The construction and structure of graphs or networks is the key to understanding the complex world around us”(Barabási (2002) 6. Provides many new concepts, models and experimental techniques to study complex phenomena. B I O URBANISM
  14. 14. Neuronal Network Metabolic Network Nodes: chemicals (substrates) Links: bio-chemical reactions Internet B I O URBANISM Music
  16. 16. BIOURBANISM TOOLS Neuroscience and Psychological Interaction brain / urban environment
  18. 18. B I O URBANISM “Instead of an existentially grounded plastic and spatial experience, architecture has adopted the psychological strategy of advertising and instant persuasion; buildings have turned into image products detached from existential depth and sincerity” (J. Pallasmaa)
  19. 19. Contemporary has increased the emphasis on visualization…. …. Western Society is visually marked (Classen 1998). We think of architecture as a profession concerned with aesthetic beauty—designs that please the observer through visual perception of the harmony, symmetry, and good proportions crafted by the designer. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  20. 20. Attributes of Biophilic Design Large number of buildings today negate the experience of natural phenomena. Artificially environments remove us from reality and sensory quality of the world WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG architecture is more than aesthetics Well-designed buildings need to respond to the functional needs of the occupants
  21. 21. Neurophysiology is the study of nervous system function Understand how our brain interact with urban environment in psychological, biological, emotional term Urban environment as communication system in physical, sensorial, psychological and biological term WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  22. 22. Potential Neuroscience Application • Sensation and Perception (how do we see, hear, smell, taste, etc.?) • Learning and Memory (how do we store and recall our sensory experiences?) • Decision making (how do we evaluate the potential consequences of our actions?) • Emotion and affect (how do we become fearful or excited? or what makes us feel happy or sad?) • Movement (how do we interact with our environment and navigate through it?) WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  23. 23. Neuroscience and Architecture WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG Another series of interesting neurological discoveries over the last few decades has been that we navigate spatial fields with at least three highly specialized groups of neurons coordinating our actions in space.
  24. 24. Neuroscience and Architecture Architects may like to rationalize the variables of design, but people largely perceive buildings emotionally through the senses. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG John Eberhard has recently suggested, that a well designed building or city may lead our biological organism toward a greater sense of functional harmony
  25. 25. Architectural Psychology Architectural psychology deals with the psychological processes of the interaction between man and his environment (as for example spatial perception, colors, temperature, shape, lighting, spatial thinking, orientation behaviour, or spatial experience, territorial behaviour, living requirements and satisfaction, local identity) Reversible Destiny Lofts in Mitaka, Tokyo by Shusaku Arakawa & Madeline Gins WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  26. 26. COLOR PSYCHOLOGY Colors act upon the body as well as the mind. Red has been shown to stimulate the senses and raise the blood pressure, while blue has the opposite effect and calms the mind. Color is light and light is energy. Scientists have found that actual physiological changes take place in human beings when they are exposed to certain colors. Colors can stimulate, excite, depress, tranquilize, increase appetite and create a feeling of warmth or coolness. This is known as chromodynamics. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  27. 27. COLOR PSYCHOLOGY Mixing brilliant complementary colors gets attention, but it should be used with restraint. The effect is disconcerting and can make your eyes feel like they've been shaken around. If you want to use complementary colors without causing discomfort, you can outline each of the colors with a thin neutral white, gray or black line. The outlines separate the two colors, which helps your brain keep them separated. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  28. 28. The Linked Hybrid- Beijing, China, by S. Holl. Source: NEUROSCIENCE and ARCHITECTURE Psychopathologies of Urban Space … ―Recently a unique nervous disorder has been diagnosed— ‖agoraphobia. Numerous people are said to suffer from it, always experiencing a certain anxiety or discomfort, whenever they have to walk across a vast empty place.‖ (Camillo Sitte) WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  29. 29. … In traditional cities, with their small, intimate and human-scaled spaces, the illness was unknown (C. Sitte) Rome, Piazza Navona Psychopathologies of Urban Space WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  30. 30. Camillo Sitte extended his argument by associating the causes of this new sickness of agoraphobia with the new space of urbanism…. … architecture as a profession concerned with aesthetic beauty Psychopathologies of Urban Space WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  31. 31. RECENT STUDY  Stress (Ulrich, 1993)  heart rate, blood pressure, relax muscle tension, increase alpha waves that associated with relaxation. (Ulrich et al., 1991)  immune system functioning (Parsons, 1991)  anxiety, fear, anger, aggression and increased feelings of well begin are common responses to natural settings (Ulrich, 1979, Hartig, Mang, & Evans, 1991)  Interaction in natural environments also increase problem solving, creativity, capacity to concentrate and focus (Ulrich, 1993, Katcher& Wilkins, 1993)  Enhances feelings of awe, mystery, spiritual transcendence (Besthorn& Saleeby, 2003) WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  32. 32. A number of specific fields of psychological study have been seen to have potential value for architects. The most obvious are: (a) Perception/cognition; (b) Color; (c) Proxemics (the study of people spacing, and including studies of crowding and privacy); (d) Wayfinding; (e) Affect (the relation of emotion and/or mood to variations in physical environment). Sargasso Cloud, by Philip Beesley, is a room-sized sculptural environment produced by students during a two-week summer workshop in Denmark. Photo: Terri Peters Specific Areas of Significance in Architectural Psychology WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  33. 33. STREET FOR LIFE By Elizabeth Burton And Lynne Mitchell TOPIC designing environments to suit people of all ages and abilities. In particularly the relationships between built environments and mental health and cognitive impairment. OUTPUT how the environment could be designed to give these people as good a quality of life as possible dementia project findings leaflet (Burton, Mitchell and Raman, 2004). WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  34. 34. Dementia is the most common cause of permanent memory problems in older people (DSDC, 1995; Barberger- Gateau and Fabrigoule, 1997). The difference between general forgetfulness in old age and the memory problems experienced by people with dementia is that the former is typically a temporary struggle to recall inessential information while the latter represents a more permanent and dramatic loss of memory for important information and past experiences, along with other cognitive impairments (Reisberg et al., 1986). WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  35. 35. Although negative feelings were less common, the participants did report feeling: ■ Anxious ■ Fearful ■ Bored ■ Intimidated (especially people with dementia, in formal spaces with imposing architecture) ■ Confused ■ Embarrassed (particularly when getting lost) ■ Lonely. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  37. 37. LEGIBILITY Legibility refers to the extent to which streets help older people to understand where they are and to identify which way they need to go. Legible streets have an easy to understand network of routes and junctions with simple, explicit signs and visible, unambiguous features. Crazy signals WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  38. 38. LEGIBILITY The most legible street layout for older people, especially those with dementia, are streets laid out on a deformed or irregular grid. The irregular grid creates a more interesting overall street pattern, provides direct, connected routes which are easy to understand and gives people a clearer view ahead than the 90° turns and blind bends created by uniform grids WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  39. 39. fractals in typical Ethiopian village architecture … organisms, computer programs, buildings, neighbourhoods, and cities share the same general rules governing a complex hierarchical system. MORPHOGENETIC PROCESS WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  40. 40. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG Musei Vaticani, Rome
  43. 43. THE BIOPHILIC CITY BIOPHILIA is the innately emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms “Wilson and other Biophilia theorists assert that human beings not only derive specific aesthetic benefits from interacting with nature, but that the human species has an instinctive, genetically determined need to deeply affiliate with natural setting and life-forms.” (Besthorn& Saleeby, 2003) WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  44. 44. What is Biophilia? “For human survival and mental health and fulfillment, we need the natural setting in which the human mind almost certainly evolved and in which culture has developed over these millions of years of evolution.”  An intersection between psychology and biology the connection is genetic – it resides in the common parts of our DNA WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  45. 45. What is Biophilia?  from Descartes's dictum “I think, therefore I am" (an anthropocentric conception of human identity) to "as a land-user thinketh, so is he" (a biocentric view of selfhood) WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  46. 46. What role does Green Space play in the Urban Environment? BENEFIT FROM BIOPHILIC DESIGN •Environmental •Psychological •Physical Health •Social WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  47. 47. Psychological Benefits Increase • Visual • Composition of landscape (shelter & security) • Fascination (water, wildlife, colour) • Access & Participation (physical activity –challenge, increased communication) BENEFIT FROM BIOPHILIC DESIGN WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  48. 48. Physical fitness •Reduced blood pressure / pulse rate •Gardening -delays onset of dementia •School gardening helps children adopt the 5-a- day fruit and veg scheme. BENEFIT FROM BIOPHILIC DESIGN WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  49. 49. BIOPHILIA AND HEALTH  Human beings require contact with the geometry of biological structures  Experiments in hospitals show much faster post- operative healing in rooms looking out at trees  Social and mental health deteriorates in nature-less and minimalist surroundings WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  50. 50. Using Gardens to Improve Health Care Psychological and Physical Health Healing Garden at Legacy Good Samaritan Hospital The 13,000-square-foot garden in Portland, Oregon, is designed to meet the needs of people with a variety of abilities. Wide paths, raised beds, and lots of seating options make it user-friendly for people in wheelchairs or those who are ill. The garden is used informally by patients, family members, and staff, and for patients‘ therapy. The garden contains an assortment of plants designed to provide interest throughout the year and attract birds and butterflies. The pattern of the paths, seating options, and spaces for horticulture, therapy, and socializing encourage visitors to interact with each other and the environment. Photos courtesy of Legacy Health System WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  51. 51. Environmental Gardens & green space can account for 30-50% of city space and help mitigate many of the environmental problems associated with the built environment Urban ‘Heat Island’ effect  Concrete & other building material absorb heat  ―Heat wave‖ in 2003 thought to cause 35,000 premature deaths in central Europe  Turf 25oC cooler than Asphalt  Parks can be 5.9oC cooler at night than suburbs  ‗Leafy‘ suburb 2-3oC cooler than new suburb –(Wolf 2004)  Trees in school playgrounds –surface temp 25oC cooler, air temp 10oC cooler –(Moog-Soulis, 2002)  10% increase in city Greenspace–reduce temps by 4oC –(Gill et al. 2007) BENEFIT FROM BIOPHILIC DESIGN WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  52. 52. Social and Educational (Morris, 2003) •Personal and social communication skills •Spiritual, sensory and aesthetic awareness •Ability to assert personal control and direct one‘s own well-being •Reduced sickness from work •Increased productivity •Educational BENEFIT FROM BIOPHILIC DESIGN WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  53. 53. access to open and/or moving water These more conventional water features are also accessible to the majority, are easier to maintain and cleaner than the traditional paddling pool. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  54. 54. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG Vegetable Façade • Edable fruits (e.g. Wine) • Biomass production • Dust reduction • Heavy metal reduction • Thermal insulation • Energy savings • Noise reduction • Biodiversity • Evapotranspiration cooling
  55. 55. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG Vegetable Façade COPENHAGEN (DK) - In central Copenhagen a living map of Europe has appeared on the facade of the European Environment Agency (EEA) offices. Designed by architect Johanna Rossbach, with Mangor & Nagel Arkitektirma, the vegetative, custom-fitted screen celebrates the old continent's biodiversity, with plants arranged according to their respective regional origins. Reflecting a burgeoning trend toward living facades in urban contexts, the forward-thinking project stresses the use of indigenous species when choosing to 'green' the urban environment, an essential step toward the preservation of local ecologies.
  56. 56. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG California Academy of Sciences / Renzo Piano
  57. 57. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG California Academy of Sciences / Renzo Piano A new link in an ecological corridor for wildlife, the new Academy‘s living roof is planted with nine native California species that will not require artificial irrigation. The planted area measures 2.5 acres; it is now the largest swath of native vegetation in San Francisco. Approximately 1.7 million plants blanket the living roof. The Living Roof
  58. 58. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG By absorbing rainwater, the new Academy‘s living roof will prevent up to 3.6 million gallons of runoff from carrying pollutants into the ecosystem each year (about 98% of all storm water). Reclaimed water from the City of San Francisco will be used to flush the toilets, reducing the use of potable water for wastewater conveyance by 90%.
  60. 60. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG Folding Bamboo Houses
  61. 61. Frequent opportunities for spontaneous interaction with nature WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  62. 62. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG ufficio nei boschi realizzato dagli architetti Jose Selgas e Lucia Cano Architects
  64. 64. Palio de Bougainvilleas, Avenida Roosevelt, San Juan, Puerto Rico Wind Adapted Road Canopy Structure WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  65. 65. Vertical Garden, Fair Street Housing, London, United Kingdom As a scaffolding framework, it is an organizing structure that can accommodate a modular planting strategy; its crossbeam and stair structure allows for installation and ongoing maintenance, as well as functioning as a support for an irrigation system. 1. A salvaged fire escape is installed against a London tenement wall. 2 Conceptual diagram shows integrated water flow and irrigation in fire escape structure. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  66. 66. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG Vertical Garden, Fair Street Housing, London, United Kingdom
  67. 67. G-Sky Green Wall Panels WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  68. 68. Attributes of Biophilic Design  sensory connections with nature  complexity and order the retention of natural landscapes within the city, together with their use for educational purposes, may enable many people who have lost their ‗rural roots‘ to enjoy and feel in harmony with nature. . .’ and reach some kind of understanding about how features and processes of the ecosystem provide constraints on population (Gill and Bonnett 1973 p.ix). WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  69. 69. Attributes of Biophilic Design Fundamental natural forms (biomimetic models, fractals, natural progressions of scale, rhythm, proportion, repetition, symmetry, gradients) Siena. Aerial view Lucignano. Aerial view Local natural materials (connect the site to the building and interior spaces) WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  70. 70. Building emulate nature WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG The most astonishing ventilation syste ms, however, have been developed by various species of termites. one example of sustainable architecture that uses dram atically less energy by imitat ing the successful strategies of indigenous natural syste ms. The building, the countr y's largest commercial and s hopping complex, uses the s ame heating and cooling pri nciples as a local termite mo und
  71. 71. Designing for sensory interest options: A sensory garden: A self-contained area that concentrates a wide range of sensory experiences. A sensory trail: similar objectives to the sensory garden, but it has more association with movement. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  72. 72. A sensory garden: A self-contained area that concentrates a wide range of sensory experiences. The Sonic Garden Lab at "Castello del Bisarno“, Firenze WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  73. 73. this sound modules are able to excite and re-design the acoustic perception of space. Unconventional shapes will allow dedicated sound composition or a simple music selection to be focused, projected, diverted, constrained or widened in order to re-design the sound experience of a human habitat. From city noise masking to sophisticated interior sound design, from therapeutic acoustic comfort to car audio design and urban events sound design. The aesthetic way to applied acoustics. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  74. 74. this sound modules are able to excite and re-design the acoustic perception of space. Unconventional shapes will allow dedicated sound composition or a simple music selection to be focused, projected, diverted, constrained or widened in order to re-design the sound experience of a human habitat. From city noise masking to sophisticated interior sound design, from therapeutic acoustic comfort to car audio design and urban events sound design. The aesthetic way to applied acoustics. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG Movie
  75. 75. Designing for sensory interest A sensory trail: similar objectives to the sensory garden, but it has more association with movement. Disabled access and Sensory Trail, London WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  76. 76. Using Sound to Influence Architectural Experience Image: Ptoone | Dreamstime Have you ever toyed with the notion of designing a space strictly based on sound quality? Perhaps acoustics have played a major role in certain projects where sound formulas served to construct space. But — what about “aural architecture”? It becomes interesting to understand what happens to architecture beyond physics. When experienced via our auditory senses, architecture gains another dimension that significantly influences occupants. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  77. 77. Using Sound to Influence Architectural Experience While concepts such as architecture, acoustics, sound, perception, and anthropology have been part of our culture for centuries, they are usually considered in isolation from a narrow perspective. In contrast, aural architecture combines and reconciles them into a single interdisciplinary perspective, providing a new way of looking at the human experience of sound and space. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  78. 78. Zadar Sea Organ, Croatia WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  79. 79. The 35 organ pipes are built subterraneanly, into tunnels attached to the flank of a central service channel. Each organ pipe is blown by a column of air, pushed in turn by a column of wave-moved water, through a plastic tube immersed into the water. The pipes' sound emanates to the surroundings through appertures in the vertical planes of the uppermost stairs. The 7 successive groups of pipes are alternately tuned to two musically cognate chords of the diatonic major scale. The outcome of played tones and/or chords is a function of random time- and space distribution of the wave energy to particular organ pipes. Tube-pipe tandem, architect's sketch. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  80. 80. Enjoying in the concert of waves and hidden pipes... Source Turistička zajednica grada Zadra WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  81. 81. Under the dome of the Baptistery in Pisa a stunning acoustic effect can be heard. Notes sung here last so long, it’s actually possible to sing with yourself: new notes will harmonize with old ones still reverberating around the space. The Baptistery Guards will often demonstrate this beautiful effect. The key to the remarkable acoustic is that there is very little soft material about to absorb the sound. Consequently, notes rattles around the space for a long time, some suggest for over 12 seconds, before the sound dies away and becomes inaudible. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  83. 83. References Alexander, Christopher (2000) The Nature of Order (New York, Oxford University Press). (in press) Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I. and Angel, S. (1977) A Pattern Language (New York, Oxford University Press). Alexander, C., Neis, H., Anninou, A. and King, I. (1987) A New Theory of Urban Design (New York, Oxford University Press). Batty, Michael and Longley, Paul (1994) Fractal Cities (London, Academic Press). Bovill, Carl (1996) Fractal Geometry in Architecture and Design (Boston, Birkhäuser). Salingaros, Nikos A. (1995) "The Laws of Architecture from a Physicist's Perspective", Physics Essays, Vol. 8 pp. 638-643. Salingaros, Nikos A. (1998) "Theory of the Urban Web", Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 3 pp. 53-71. [Earlier version published electronically by Resource for Urban Design Information in 1997 Salingaros, Nikos A. (1999) "Urban Space and its Information Field", Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 4 pp. 29-49. Salingaros, Nikos A. (2000) "Structure of Pattern Languages", Architectural Research Quarterly, Vol. 4 pp. 149-161. Salingaros, Nikos A. and West, Bruce J. (1999) "A Universal Rule for the Distribution of Sizes", Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 26 pp. 909-923. Caperna A., Introduction to The Pattern Language, Caperna A., ICT per un Progetto Urbano Sostenibile,