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Società Internazionale di
Biourbanistica
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
Open Pism
Antonio Caperna, PhD
INTRODUZIONE ALLA
BIOURBANISTICA
Fondamenti epistemologici per un
nuovo modello di urbanist...
Antonio Caperna, PhD
His actual research (conducted in cooperation with Eleni Tracada, Head
of Built Environment Research ...
Key words
biourbanism, homology, evolutionary
biology, architecture, urbanism, biophilic
design, morphogenetic process, dy...
“The Universe is built on a plan the profound
symmetry of which is somehow present in the
inner structure of our intellect...
A New Epistemology
(complexity, emergence, self-organization, … )
Life Science, Architecture and Urban
Environment
network...
ORDER, NATURE AND
SCIENCE DURING
DETERMINISTIC ERA
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOU...
Mechanistic
picture of the
world
Pendulum of the world's creation, designed by
Passant motion carried by Roques, bronzes F...
The Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm contends that the
physical world is made up of basic entities with distinct
properties di...
The science of the last 150 years has profoundly shaped our
culture and our civilization
This has changed:
 Our Knowledge...
The Cartesian method show
aprioristic reduction and
aprioristic analysis
(Descartes, 1637, pp. 20-21).
analysing complex ...
Descartes’ mind-matter ontological
dualism.
Mind and matter are separated
substances.
This means that they have an
indepen...
Atoms
World as mechanism explained by science
CARTESIAN ONTOLOGICAL "MIND-MATTER" DUALISM
DISCONNECTEDNESS
“I” and “value”...
A Global paradigm
and its consequence
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
In the last decades architecture has ripped
urban core and sociality
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio ...
Zoning has enclose our cities (civitates) with
alien bodies
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna –...
Globalization has create an Hyperreal architecture
where people is a “piece of spectacle”
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistic...
LIFE SYSTEM
30% of the world’s energy consumption
is used by the transport sector;
People spend 10% of their time in
trans...
A year's carbon dioxide emissions from New York City: 54,349,650 one-tonne sphere
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open ...
Unregulated economic globalization without concern for social and environmental
consequences
More inequality between human...
The purpose of The
Limits to Growth was
not to make specific
predictions, but to
explore how
exponential growth
interacts ...
Health costs of air and water pollution in China amount to about 4.3 percent
of its GDP.
By adding the non-health impacts ...
SAME PARADIGM
FOR A DIFFERENT SKIN
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
Post-industrial economics rose up, and got oriented towards another kind of
techno-city, relying on advancements in commun...
Hyperreality describes an inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from a
simulation of reality, especially in te...
images of beautiful products and fashion models (as beautiful as
unreal, in their desirability, frozen perfection, and ete...
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
“... top-down process ....
It substitutes
- places with non-places
- space with hyper-space, and
- connections and scales ...
Our current socio-economical, and
ecological regime (PARADIGM) and its set
of interconnected worldviews,
institutions, and...
L’approccio
biourbanistico tenta
di riconnette
territorio, società ed
economia, fornendo
un nuovo modello di
sostenibilità...
Can we built an urban environments able
to support human well-being?
How?
Why do just certain works of art,
artifacts, bui...
essential problems of architecture
1. value, that cannot be separated from the main task of serving
functional needs
2. is...
We believe that
architectural (urban) design
can be founded on scientific principles
that are analogous to structural laws...
The last scientific developments of the past decade, such
as fractals, complexity theory, evolutionary biology, and
artifi...
Biourbanism goal:
a new human-oriented architecture
that combine the best qualities of
traditional architecture with the
l...
Biourbanism scientific ground
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
The science of the last 150 years has profoundly shaped our culture
and our civilization changing:
 Our Knowledge
 how w...
The reform in thinking is a key anthropological and
historical problem. This implies a mental revolution
of considerably g...
The Meaning of a Systems Approach
A "systems approach" means to "approach" or
"see" things (or phenomena) as systems
A sys...
«Nothing happens in
isolation»
Barabasi, 2002
«life consists of a network
of relationships in which
we interact»
(Capra, 1...
Metabolic Network
Nodes: chemicals (substrates)
Links: bio-chemical reactions
Neuronal Network
“The construction and struc...
Every complex system has a
hierarchical structure; i.e.,
different processes are occurring
on different scales or levels.
...
OPTIMAL FORM
SCALING LAW
PATTERNS AND CODES
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM...
THE LAWS OF FORM
In addition (and often substitution of) to natural selection mathematical
and physical and chemical laws ...
The Parthenon in Athens: its facade is said to be circumscribed by golden rectangles,
although some scholars argue this is...
Bejan shows that these shapes
emerge as part of an
evolutionary phenomenon
that facilitates the flow of
information from t...
allometry, also called
biological scaling, in
biology, the change in
organisms in relation to
proportional changes in
body...
Allometry happen in fractal structure and this law are
ubiquitous in nature.
In “Scaling laws in cognitive sciences” schol...
Scaling crime, income, etc. with city population
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURB...
morphogenesis in biology: the way that organisms grow and
transform into endless beautiful and varied shapes
adaptive morp...
Sustainable ecosystems use patterns
adaptive morphogenesis
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – ...
fractals in typical
Ethiopian village
architecture
… organisms, computer programs, buildings, neighbourhoods, and
cities s...
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
MORPHOGENETIC ADAPTATION IN
SPONTANEOUS CITY
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANIS...
PRIMITIVE
VILLAGES ON
PROMONTORIES
FROM PRIMITIVE
VILLAGES TO
MEDIEVAL TOWNS:
ORGANIC
ADAPTATION TO
THE NATURAL
OROGRAPHY
...
Tuscania
Pitigliano
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
Tuscania
Pitigliano
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
Tuscania
Pitigliano
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
Tuscania
Pitigliano
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
Nepi
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
Blera
Orvieto
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
Artena
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
SERMONETA
MORPHOLOGICAL GROWTH
Mathematically a Pattern arise from:
- a way to understanding and possibly control a
complex system;
Each "pattern" repres...
Pattern...
… is a careful description of a perennial solution to a
recurring problem within a building context, describing...
Patterns become a language
… is a network of patterns that call upon
one another.
Patterns help us remember insights and
k...
"language" combines
the nodes together
into an organizational
framework
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Anton...
BIOPHILIC DESIGN
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
BIOPHILIC DESIGN IN PRACTICE
NATURALISTIC
DIMENSION
Patterns
15 geometrical
properties
STRUCTURAL
CRITERIA
COGNITIVE
CRITE...
naturalistic dimension of biophilic design, defined as
shapes and forms in the built environment that directly,
indirectly...
• Contact with nature has been
linked to cognitive functioning
on tasks requiring concentration
and memory.
• Healthy chil...
BIOPHILIC DESIGN
STRUCTURAL CRITERIA
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
Human sensory systems have evolved to
respond to natural geometries of fractals,
colours, scaling, symmetries
“Introduzion...
Fundamental natural forms
(biomimetic models, fractals,
natural progressions of scale,
rhythm, proportion, repetition,
sym...
The pedestrian networks of medieval Rome have a fractal
structure, extending into the buildings and even the rich
ornament...
Plan of a non-fractal contemporary
city.
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
Scaling over four stages in a Doric cornice.
Koch curve and Gothic column compared.
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Ope...
BIOPHILIC DESIGN
COGNITIVE CRITERIA
“PATTERNS, CODES AND GEOMETRICAL
PROPERTIES”
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open P...
POSITIVE SPACE
In coherent systems every bit of space is coherent, well
shaped; and the space between coherent bits of spa...
Refers to Gestalt psychology
 Ties into the basis of human perception
 Convexity plays a major role in defining an
objec...
POSITIVE SPACE
People feel comfortable in spaces which are "Positive" and use these
spaces;
people feel relatively uncomfo...
An outdoor space is positive when
it has a distinct and definite shape
 it has been shaped over the time by people
 it h...
POSITIVE SPACE
Another way of defining the difference between "Positive" and
"negative" outdoor spaces is by their degree ...
POSITIVE SPACE
degree of enclosure
Positive spaces are partly enclosed and the "virtual" area
which seems to exist is conv...
POSITIVE SPACE
Camillo Sitte, in City Planning According to Artistic
Principles shows that the successful spaces - those
w...
POSITIVE SPACE
enclosure goes back to our most primitive instincts
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Ca...
POSITIVE SPACE
partly enclosed
Transform this . . . . . . to this.
And when an existing open space
is too enclosed, it may...
PHISICAL DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF URBAN SEQUENCES (STREETS AND PIAZZAS);
HUMAN COMFORT; SENSE OF CONFINEMENT;
PHISICAL DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF URBAN SEQUENCES (STREETS AND PIAZZAS);
HUMAN COMFORT; SENSE OF CONFINEMENT;
PHISICAL DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF URBAN SEQUENCES (STREETS AND PIAZZAS);
HUMAN COMFORT; SENSE OF CONFINEMENT;
PHISICAL DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF URBAN SEQUENCES (STREETS AND PIAZZAS);
HUMAN COMFORT; SENSE OF CONFINEMENT;
PHISICAL DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF URBAN SEQUENCES (STREETS AND PIAZZAS);
HUMAN COMFORT; SENSE OF CONFINEMENT;
CONCLUSION
i. When environments are built by biourbanism approach
(complexity + biological roots) they will of their own a...
References
• S. Serafini, «L’architettura come salute psicobiologica quotidiana: morfogenesi e biofilia», Atti del I
Conve...
BIOURBANISM AS NEW
EPISTEMOLOGICAL
PERSPECTIVE….
“Introduzione alla Biourbanistica”
Open PISM
Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURB...
OK, but… what is Biourbanism?
The first definition of the term “biourbanism” has been given in
2010 by the philosopher and...
Biourbanism focuses on the urban organism, considering it as a hypercomplex system, according to
its internal and external...
Biourbanism acts in the real world by applying a participative and helping
methodology. It verifies results inter-subjecti...
Biourbanism adds to such a scientific trend the connection to life
sciences, and their new model grounded on the direct ro...
Introduction to Biourbanism. Epistemology for a new Architecture, by Antonio Caperna
Introduction to Biourbanism. Epistemology for a new Architecture, by Antonio Caperna
Introduction to Biourbanism. Epistemology for a new Architecture, by Antonio Caperna
Introduction to Biourbanism. Epistemology for a new Architecture, by Antonio Caperna
Introduction to Biourbanism. Epistemology for a new Architecture, by Antonio Caperna
Introduction to Biourbanism. Epistemology for a new Architecture, by Antonio Caperna
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Introduction to Biourbanism . Epistemology for a new Architecture, by Antonio Caperna

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Biourbanism focuses on the urban organism, considering it as a hypercomplex system, according to its internal and external dynamics and their mutual interactions.

The urban body is composed of several interconnected layers of dynamic structure, all influencing each other in a non-linear manner. This interaction results in emergent properties, which are not predictable except through a dynamical analysis of the connected whole. This approach therefore links Biourbanism to the Life Sciences, and to Integrated Systems Sciences like Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Operations Research, and Ecology in an essential manner. The similarity of approaches lies not only in the common methodology, but also in the content of the results (hence the prefix “Bio”), because the city represents the living environment of the human species. Biourbanism recognizes “optimal forms” defined at different scales (from the purely physiological up to the ecological levels) which, through morphogenetic processes, guarantee an optimum of systemic efficiency and for the quality of life of the inhabitants. A design that does not follow these laws produces anti-natural, hostile environments, which do not fit into an individual’s evolution, and thus fail to enhance life in any way.
Biourbanism acts in the real world by applying a participative and helping methodology. It verifies results inter-subjectively (as people express their physical and emotional wellbeing through feedback) as well as objectively (via experimental measures of physiological, social, and economic reactions).

The aim of Biourbanism is to make a scientific contribution towards: (i) the development and implementation of the premises of Deep Ecology (Bateson) on social-environmental grounds; (ii) the identification and actualization of environmental enhancement according to the natural needs of human beings and the ecosystem in which they live; (iii) managing the transition of the fossil fuel economy towards a new organizational model of civilization; and (iv) deepening the organic interaction between cultural and physical factors in urban reality (as, for example, the geometry of social action, fluxes and networks study, etc.).

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Introduction to Biourbanism . Epistemology for a new Architecture, by Antonio Caperna

  1. 1. Società Internazionale di Biourbanistica “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  2. 2. Open Pism Antonio Caperna, PhD INTRODUZIONE ALLA BIOURBANISTICA Fondamenti epistemologici per un nuovo modello di urbanistica
  3. 3. Antonio Caperna, PhD His actual research (conducted in cooperation with Eleni Tracada, Head of Built Environment Research Group at University of Derby, UK, and Prof. Nikos Salingaros, Faculty of Mathematics at University of Texas at San Antonio, USA) deals with ICT and Cities and application of the last scientific development, such as fractals, complexity theory, evolutionary biology and physics for a human‐oriented architecture and urbanism. He is expert at the Portuguese Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education - A3ES, Head of the International Society of Biourbanism, Associated Editor of International Journal of E- Planning Research (IJEPR), member of scientific council of Space and FORM ,co-editor of Journal of Biourbanism, and member of several professional bodies. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  4. 4. Key words biourbanism, homology, evolutionary biology, architecture, urbanism, biophilic design, morphogenetic process, dynamic complex systems, life sciences. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  5. 5. “The Universe is built on a plan the profound symmetry of which is somehow present in the inner structure of our intellect” Paul Valery “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  6. 6. A New Epistemology (complexity, emergence, self-organization, … ) Life Science, Architecture and Urban Environment network science, patterns, codes, morphogenesis, wholeness Dal biologico al neurofisiologico fractals, art, cognitive process, Biophilic Design “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  7. 7. ORDER, NATURE AND SCIENCE DURING DETERMINISTIC ERA “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  8. 8. Mechanistic picture of the world Pendulum of the world's creation, designed by Passant motion carried by Roques, bronzes François- Thomas Germain, presented on a pedestal Bellangé (1834) 1754, 1834 “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  9. 9. The Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm contends that the physical world is made up of basic entities with distinct properties distinguishing one element from another. Isolating and reducing the physical world to is most basic entities, its separate parts, provides us with completely knowable, predictable, and therefore controllable physical universe. . . .The Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm contends that the physical universe is governed by immutable laws and therefore is determined and predictable, like an enormous machine. In principle, knowledge of the world could be complete in all its details. (De Jong) “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  10. 10. The science of the last 150 years has profoundly shaped our culture and our civilization This has changed:  Our Knowledge  how we look at ourselves  how we think and feel,  how we view our social and political institutions,  the findings of science have intentionally separated the process of forming mechanical models of physics from the process of feeling “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  11. 11. The Cartesian method show aprioristic reduction and aprioristic analysis (Descartes, 1637, pp. 20-21). analysing complex things into simple constituents (its parts) understood a system in terms of its isolated parts Phenomena can be reduced to simple cause & effect relationships governed by linear laws relationships are not important “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  12. 12. Descartes’ mind-matter ontological dualism. Mind and matter are separated substances. This means that they have an independent existence and the difference between the two is infinite (see Descartes, 1642; Heidegger, 1962; Fuenmayor, 1985). “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  13. 13. Atoms World as mechanism explained by science CARTESIAN ONTOLOGICAL "MIND-MATTER" DUALISM DISCONNECTEDNESS “I” and “value” out of our picture of the world “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  14. 14. A Global paradigm and its consequence “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  15. 15. In the last decades architecture has ripped urban core and sociality “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  16. 16. Zoning has enclose our cities (civitates) with alien bodies “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  17. 17. Globalization has create an Hyperreal architecture where people is a “piece of spectacle” “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  18. 18. LIFE SYSTEM 30% of the world’s energy consumption is used by the transport sector; People spend 10% of their time in transport Mobility is critical for the functioning of our society “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  19. 19. A year's carbon dioxide emissions from New York City: 54,349,650 one-tonne sphere “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  20. 20. Unregulated economic globalization without concern for social and environmental consequences More inequality between humans than any pt in history “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  21. 21. The purpose of The Limits to Growth was not to make specific predictions, but to explore how exponential growth interacts with finite resources. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  22. 22. Health costs of air and water pollution in China amount to about 4.3 percent of its GDP. By adding the non-health impacts of pollution, which are estimated to be about 1.5 percent of GDP, the total cost of air and water pollution in China is about 5.8 percent of GDP (circa $ 400 billions) Source. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/EXTEAPREGTOPENVIRONMENT/0,, contentMDK:21252897~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:502886,00.html “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  23. 23. SAME PARADIGM FOR A DIFFERENT SKIN “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  24. 24. Post-industrial economics rose up, and got oriented towards another kind of techno-city, relying on advancements in communication and information technology Konza Technology City (Kenya) “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  25. 25. Hyperreality describes an inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from a simulation of reality, especially in technologically advanced post-modern societies. Hyperreality is seen as a condition in which what is real and what is fiction are seamlessly blended together so that there is no clear distinction between where one ends and the other begins “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  26. 26. images of beautiful products and fashion models (as beautiful as unreal, in their desirability, frozen perfection, and eternal juvenility), dominate the senses and imagination in almost every urban environment “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  27. 27. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  28. 28. “... top-down process .... It substitutes - places with non-places - space with hyper-space, and - connections and scales with information flows and mere degrees of interface .... City with anti-city (Source: Caperna, Serafini, biourbanism as new framework ..... In GIS and Smart cities, 2014) “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  29. 29. Our current socio-economical, and ecological regime (PARADIGM) and its set of interconnected worldviews, institutions, and technologies all support the goal of unlimited growth of material production and consumption as a proxy for quality of life. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  30. 30. L’approccio biourbanistico tenta di riconnette territorio, società ed economia, fornendo un nuovo modello di sostenibilità strutturale, ovvero incentrata sulle esigenze degli esseri umani concreti, di un tangibile benessere sociale, economico, fisico e psicologico. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  31. 31. Can we built an urban environments able to support human well-being? How? Why do just certain works of art, artifacts, buildings, public space have particularly feeling / life / well being? “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  32. 32. essential problems of architecture 1. value, that cannot be separated from the main task of serving functional needs 2. issue of context — a building grows out of, and must complement, the place where it appears. 3. issue of design and creation - processes capable of generating unity. 4. issue of human feeling: no building can be considered if it does not connect, somehow, to human feeling as an objective matter. 5. issue of ecological and sustainable and biological connection to the land. 6. issue of social agreement regarding decision making in regards to a complex system “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  33. 33. We believe that architectural (urban) design can be founded on scientific principles that are analogous to structural laws in theoretical physics and biology “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  34. 34. The last scientific developments of the past decade, such as fractals, complexity theory, evolutionary biology, and artificial intelligence give us an idea of how human beings interact with their environment. EVIDENCES organisms, computer programs, buildings, neighborhoods, and cities share the same general rules governing a complex hierarchical system. All matter (biological as well as inanimate) organizes itself into coherent structures. The human mind has evolved in order to adapt to complex patterns in the natural world, so the patterns we perceive around us influence our internal function as human beings. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  35. 35. Biourbanism goal: a new human-oriented architecture that combine the best qualities of traditional architecture with the latest technological and scientific advances. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  36. 36. Biourbanism scientific ground “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  37. 37. The science of the last 150 years has profoundly shaped our culture and our civilization changing:  Our Knowledge  how we look at ourselves  how we think and feel,  how we view our social and political institutions, the findings of science have intentionally separated the process of forming mechanical models of physics from the process of feeling Kuhn used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  38. 38. The reform in thinking is a key anthropological and historical problem. This implies a mental revolution of considerably greater proportions than the Copernican revolution. Never before in the history of humanity have the responsibilities of thinking weighed so crushingly on us. (E. Morin) “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  39. 39. The Meaning of a Systems Approach A "systems approach" means to "approach" or "see" things (or phenomena) as systems A system is "a group of interrelated, interdependent, or interacting elements forming a collective unity" (Collins English Dictionary, 1979, p. 1475) "a complex whole" (The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1976, p. 1174). “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  40. 40. «Nothing happens in isolation» Barabasi, 2002 «life consists of a network of relationships in which we interact» (Capra, 1997:14) “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  41. 41. Metabolic Network Nodes: chemicals (substrates) Links: bio-chemical reactions Neuronal Network “The construction and structure of graphs or networks is the key to understanding the complex world around us” (Barabási) “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  42. 42. Every complex system has a hierarchical structure; i.e., different processes are occurring on different scales or levels. Connections exist both on the same levels, and across levels (Mesarovic, Macko et al., 1970). “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  43. 43. OPTIMAL FORM SCALING LAW PATTERNS AND CODES “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  44. 44. THE LAWS OF FORM In addition (and often substitution of) to natural selection mathematical and physical and chemical laws explain the spontaneous self- organization and emergence of optimal form and functions in nature “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  45. 45. The Parthenon in Athens: its facade is said to be circumscribed by golden rectangles, although some scholars argue this is a coincidence. Photograph: Katerina Mavrona/EPA GOLDEN RATIO According to Adrian Bejan, professor of mechanical engineering at Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina, the human eye is capable of interpreting an image featuring the golden ratio faster than any other “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  46. 46. Bejan shows that these shapes emerge as part of an evolutionary phenomenon that facilitates the flow of information from the plane to the brain, in accordance with the constructal law of generation and evolution of design in nature. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  47. 47. allometry, also called biological scaling, in biology, the change in organisms in relation to proportional changes in body size. An example of allometry can be seen in mammals. Ranging from the mouse to the elephant, as the body gets larger, in general, hearts beat more slowly, brains get bigger, bones get proportionally shorter and thinner, and life spans lengthen. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  48. 48. Allometry happen in fractal structure and this law are ubiquitous in nature. In “Scaling laws in cognitive sciences” scholars have demonstrate that the scaling laws pervade neural, behavioral and linguistic activities suggesting the existence of processes or patterns that are repeated across scales of analysis. “Scaling laws in cognitive sciences” (Kello, C. T., Brown, G. D. A., Ferrer-i-Cancho, R., Holden, G., Linkenkaer-Hansen, K., Rhodes, T. & Van Orden, G. C., 2010), “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  49. 49. Scaling crime, income, etc. with city population “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  50. 50. morphogenesis in biology: the way that organisms grow and transform into endless beautiful and varied shapes adaptive morphogenesis Process proceed from the transformation of patterns of previous configurations. They adapt to the environment and to each other as they transform their shape “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  51. 51. Sustainable ecosystems use patterns adaptive morphogenesis “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  52. 52. fractals in typical Ethiopian village architecture … organisms, computer programs, buildings, neighbourhoods, and cities share the same general rules governing a complex hierarchical system. MORPHOGENETIC PROCESS “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  53. 53. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  54. 54. MORPHOGENETIC ADAPTATION IN SPONTANEOUS CITY “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  55. 55. PRIMITIVE VILLAGES ON PROMONTORIES FROM PRIMITIVE VILLAGES TO MEDIEVAL TOWNS: ORGANIC ADAPTATION TO THE NATURAL OROGRAPHY “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  56. 56. Tuscania Pitigliano “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  57. 57. Tuscania Pitigliano “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  58. 58. Tuscania Pitigliano “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  59. 59. Tuscania Pitigliano “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  60. 60. Nepi “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  61. 61. Blera
  62. 62. Orvieto “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  63. 63. Artena “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  64. 64. SERMONETA MORPHOLOGICAL GROWTH
  65. 65. Mathematically a Pattern arise from: - a way to understanding and possibly control a complex system; Each "pattern" represents a rule governing one working piece of a complex system - create a system structurally coherent “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  66. 66. Pattern... … is a careful description of a perennial solution to a recurring problem within a building context, describing one of the configurations which brings life to a building. Alexander et al, 1977 ACTIVITY POCKETS The life of a public square forms naturally around its edge. If the edge fails, then the space never becomes lively “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  67. 67. Patterns become a language … is a network of patterns that call upon one another. Patterns help us remember insights and knowledge about design and can be used in combination to create solutions. Alexander et al, 1977 “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  68. 68. "language" combines the nodes together into an organizational framework “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  69. 69. BIOPHILIC DESIGN “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  70. 70. BIOPHILIC DESIGN IN PRACTICE NATURALISTIC DIMENSION Patterns 15 geometrical properties STRUCTURAL CRITERIA COGNITIVE CRITERIA Scaling law Fractal syntax network Source: Caperna A., Biourbanism Principles “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  71. 71. naturalistic dimension of biophilic design, defined as shapes and forms in the built environment that directly, indirectly, or symbolically reflect the inherent human affinity for nature. The components of human settlement (building–human– nature) Source. “Biophilic and Bioclimatic Architecture” “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  72. 72. • Contact with nature has been linked to cognitive functioning on tasks requiring concentration and memory. • Healthy childhood maturation and development has been correlated with contact with natural features and settings. • The human brain responds functionally to sensory patterns and cues emanating from the natural environment. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  73. 73. BIOPHILIC DESIGN STRUCTURAL CRITERIA “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  74. 74. Human sensory systems have evolved to respond to natural geometries of fractals, colours, scaling, symmetries “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  75. 75. Fundamental natural forms (biomimetic models, fractals, natural progressions of scale, rhythm, proportion, repetition, symmetry, gradients) Siena. Aerial view Lucignano. Aerial view Local natural materials (connect the site to the building and interior spaces) “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  76. 76. The pedestrian networks of medieval Rome have a fractal structure, extending into the buildings and even the rich ornamental details of the buildings themselves. These “place networks” offer pedestrians a dense and overlapping set of choices of movement, views, and other enriching experiences (Drawings/Photos: Michael Mehaffy). “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  77. 77. Plan of a non-fractal contemporary city. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  78. 78. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  79. 79. Scaling over four stages in a Doric cornice. Koch curve and Gothic column compared. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  80. 80. BIOPHILIC DESIGN COGNITIVE CRITERIA “PATTERNS, CODES AND GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES” “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  81. 81. POSITIVE SPACE In coherent systems every bit of space is coherent, well shaped; and the space between coherent bits of space are also coherent and well-shaped. Positive space in the cell structure of wood issue “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  82. 82. Refers to Gestalt psychology  Ties into the basis of human perception  Convexity plays a major role in defining an object or a space (area or volume)  Mathematical plus psychological reasons  Strongly applicable to the spaces we inhabit  Threat felt from objects sticking out “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  83. 83. POSITIVE SPACE People feel comfortable in spaces which are "Positive" and use these spaces; people feel relatively uncomfortable in spaces which are "negative" and such spaces tend to remain unused. PHISICAL DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF URBAN SEQUENCES (STREETS AND PIAZZAS); HUMAN COMFORT; SENSE OF CONFINEMENT; “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  84. 84. An outdoor space is positive when it has a distinct and definite shape  it has been shaped over the time by people  it has therefore taken a definite, cared for shape with meaning and purpose  Every bit of space is very intensely useful  There is NO leftover waste space which in not useful “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  85. 85. POSITIVE SPACE Another way of defining the difference between "Positive" and "negative" outdoor spaces is by their degree of enclosure and their degree of convexity. space is non-convex, when some lines joining two points lie at least partly outside the space space is convex when a line joining any two points inside the space itself lies totally inside the space. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  86. 86. POSITIVE SPACE degree of enclosure Positive spaces are partly enclosed and the "virtual" area which seems to exist is convex. Negative spaces are so poorly defined that you cannot really tell where their boundaries arc, and to the extent that you can tell, the shapes are non-convex. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  87. 87. POSITIVE SPACE Camillo Sitte, in City Planning According to Artistic Principles shows that the successful spaces - those which are greatly used and enjoyed - have two properties: - partly enclosed; - they are open to one another, so that each one leads into the next. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  88. 88. POSITIVE SPACE enclosure goes back to our most primitive instincts “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  89. 89. POSITIVE SPACE partly enclosed Transform this . . . . . . to this. And when an existing open space is too enclosed, it may be possible to break a hole through the building to open the space up. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  90. 90. PHISICAL DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF URBAN SEQUENCES (STREETS AND PIAZZAS); HUMAN COMFORT; SENSE OF CONFINEMENT;
  91. 91. PHISICAL DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF URBAN SEQUENCES (STREETS AND PIAZZAS); HUMAN COMFORT; SENSE OF CONFINEMENT;
  92. 92. PHISICAL DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF URBAN SEQUENCES (STREETS AND PIAZZAS); HUMAN COMFORT; SENSE OF CONFINEMENT;
  93. 93. PHISICAL DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF URBAN SEQUENCES (STREETS AND PIAZZAS); HUMAN COMFORT; SENSE OF CONFINEMENT;
  94. 94. PHISICAL DEFINITION OF THE EDGES OF URBAN SEQUENCES (STREETS AND PIAZZAS); HUMAN COMFORT; SENSE OF CONFINEMENT;
  95. 95. CONCLUSION i. When environments are built by biourbanism approach (complexity + biological roots) they will of their own accord become sustainable. ii. Adopt incremental and bottom-up strategy iii. Good form-based on “genetic codes” can generate healthy environments (geometry, patterns  biomimicry) iv. Urban community is a consequence of a successful public space v. Small-scale funding introduces a bottom-up component of development to balance the usual top-down process vi. building to enhance the life of sites vii. Re-configure road structure for optimum pedestrian connectivity viii. Create mixed-use urban centers “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  96. 96. References • S. Serafini, «L’architettura come salute psicobiologica quotidiana: morfogenesi e biofilia», Atti del I Convegno Internazionale su Psiche e Architettura, Roma-Siracusa, 2009-2010, Franco Angeli: Milano, in stampa. • A. Caperna, S. Serafini, «Biourbanism as a new framework for smart cities studies», in: M. Vinod Kumar (ed.), Geographic Information System for Smart Cities, Copal Publishing Group: Ghaziabad/London, 2013. • A. Caperna, S. Serafini, «Biourbanistica come nuovo modello epistemologico», in: A. Caperna, A. Giangrande, P. Mirabelli, E. Mortola (eds.), Partecipazione e ICT: per una città vivibile, Gangemi: Roma, 2013. • A. Caperna, S. Serafini, «Biourbanism as new epistemological perspective between Science, Design and Nature», in: Ahmed Z. Khan (ed.), Architecture and Sustainability: Critical Perspectives. Generating sustainability concepts from an architectural perspective. Sint-Lucas Architecture Press (Brussels) (Forth printing) • Christopher Alexander, The Nature of Order, 4 volumes, Berkeley, CA: Center for Environmental Structure, 2001-2005. • Antonio Caperna, Biourbanism Principles: Design foStephen R. Kellert and Edward O. Wilson, Editors, The Biophilia Hypothesis, Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. • r a Human Built Environment, Rome, 2012. • Stephen R. Kellert, Judith Heerwagen and Martin Mador, Editors, Biophilic Design: the Theory, Science and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life, New York: John Wiley, 2008. • Edgar Morin, La Méthode I: La Nature de la Nature, Paris: Seuil, 1977. • Nikos Salingaros, Twelve Lectures on Architecture. Algorithmic Sustainable Design, Solingen: Umbau Verlag, 2010. • Nikos Salingaros, Antonio Caperna, Michael Mehaffy, Geeta Mehta, Federico Mena-Quintero, Agatino Rizzo, Stefano Serafini and Emanuele Strano, “A Definition of P2P (Peer-To‐Peer) Urbanism”, AboutUsWiki, the P2P Foundation, DorfWiki, Peer to Peer Urbanism (September 2010). Presented by Nikos Salingaros at the International Commons Conference, Heinrich Böll Foundation, Berlin, 1 November 2010. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  97. 97. BIOURBANISM AS NEW EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE…. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  98. 98. OK, but… what is Biourbanism? The first definition of the term “biourbanism” has been given in 2010 by the philosopher and psychologist Stefano Serafini (ISB), the bio-statistician and expert in complexity theory Alessandro Giuliani (Italian NIH), the architects Antonio Caperna and Alessia Cerqua (Roma Tre University), and the mathematician and urban theorist Nikos A. Salingaros (University of Texas at San Antonio) Source: www.biourbanism.org/biourbanism-definition/. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  99. 99. Biourbanism focuses on the urban organism, considering it as a hypercomplex system, according to its internal and external dynamics and their mutual interactions. The urban body is composed of several interconnected layers of dynamic structure, all influencing each other in a non-linear manner. This interaction results in emergent properties, which are not predictable except through a dynamical analysis of the connected whole. This approach therefore links Biourbanism to the Life Sciences, and to Integrated Systems Sciences like Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Operations Research, and Ecology, in an essential manner. The similarity of approaches lies not only in the common methodology, but also in the content of the results (hence the prefix “Bio”), because the city represents the living environment of the human species. Biourbanism recognizes “optimal forms” defined at different scales (from the purely physiological up to the ecological levels) which, through morphogenetic processes, guarantee an optimum of systemic efficiency and for the quality of life of the inhabitants. A design that does not follow these laws produces anti-natural, hostile environments, which do not fit into an individual’s evolution, and thus fail to enhance life in any way. The morphology of urban structure follows its own intrinsic set of rules, analogous to the rules determining biological growth and function. These rules arise from the process of self- organization combined and balanced with direct intervention: two competing mechanisms of bottom- up versus top-down design of urban fabric. Living urban regions complement and continue nature by extending rules for biological growth. But just bringing nature into city centers is superficial, an “image approach to planning” that reveals a basic lack of understanding of urban morphology. In fact, rural and urban typologies follow very different rules and cannot be mixed. Most cities throughout history were largely spontaneous, with interventions implemented later in an effort to organize a situation that had grown into unmanageable complexity. Intelligent urbanists discover the rules for spontaneous urban growth from watching a city evolve and from studying historical urban fabric. Only with the arrogance and iconoclasm of the twentieth century did humankind empower “unintelligent experts” who were ignorant of organic urbanism to plan our cities, with disastrous results. “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  100. 100. Biourbanism acts in the real world by applying a participative and helping methodology. It verifies results inter-subjectively (as people express their physical and emotional wellbeing through feedback) as well as objectively (via experimental measures of physiological, social, and economic reactions). The aim of Biourbanism is to make a scientific contribution towards: (i) the development and implementation of the premises of Deep Ecology (Bateson) on social-environmental grounds; (ii) the identification and actualization of environmental enhancement according to the natural needs of human beings and the ecosystem in which they live; (iii) managing the transition of the fossil fuel economy towards a new organizational model of civilization; and (iv) deepening the organic interaction between cultural and physical factors in urban reality (as, for example, the geometry of social action, fluxes and networks study, etc.). “Introduzione alla Biourbanistica” Open PISM Antonio Caperna – WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  101. 101. Biourbanism adds to such a scientific trend the connection to life sciences, and their new model grounded on the direct role of chemical– physical rules in designing the living systems. Concepts like biological periodicity, self-evolution, laws of form, Constructal law, and systemic integration can be very helpful to understand how cities grow, unfold, and live. In particular, the systemic study of the morphogenetic processes – introduced by Lewis Wolpert at the beginning of the 1960s – allows us to understand and facilitate the vitalising connections within the system, and thus those between man and the environment, operating at different levels on the geometry of space. Different researches have proved the structural homology on which those connections are based, noticing the experimental bases of the tributes coming from the Gestalttheorie, the Tartu-Moscow-School, and the generative grammar (e.g. the discovery of shared structures in language, cognitive processes, brain) .

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