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WARM AND HUMID
CLIMATE
SUBMITTED BY:
SUMITA KUMARI
SUBHAJIT GOSWAMI
CLIMATE
 CLIMATE IS A MEASURE OF THE AVERAGE PATTERN
OF VARIATION IN TEMPERATURE , HUMIDITY ,
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE , WIND ,
PRECIPITATION , ATMOSPHERIC PARTICLE
COUNT IN A GIVEN REGION OVER LONG PERIOD OF
TIME, SAY 30 YEAR.
 THE CLIMATE OF A LOCATION IS AFFECTED BY ITS
LATITUDE, TERRAIN, AND ATTITUDE AS WELL
AS NEARBY WATER BODIES AND THEIR
CURRENT.
WORLDWIDE CLIMATE CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF
CLIMATE:
THE TROPICAL REGIONS OF EARTH ARE DIVIDED
INTO THREE MAJOR CLIMATIC ZONES:-
WARM AND HUMID EQUATORIAL CLIMATE
HOT DRY DESERT CLIMATE
COMPOSITE OR MONSOON CLIMATE
NOW WE ARE GOING TO EXPLAIN ABOUT
WARM AND HUMID EQUATORIAL CLIMATE.
WARM AND HUMID CLIMATE
A CLIMATE WITH AN EXCESS OF MOISTURE, IN WHICH
THE SOLAR HEAT RECEIVED IS SUFFICIENT TO EVAPORATE
ALL MOISTURE OCCURING IN THE FORM OF
PRECIPITATION.
THIS CLIMATE IS FOUND IN BELT NEAR EQUATOR
EXTENDING TO ABOUT 15◦ NORTH & SOUTH.
THERE IS VERY LESS SEASONAL VARIATION
THROUGHOUT THE YEAR.
EXAMPLE – COLOMBO, SINGAPORE, HAWAII , MALASIA
ETC.
REASONS FOR WARM AND HUMID CLIMATE
PLACES THAT ARE CLOSE TO SEAS OR OCEANS
HAVE A HUMID CLIMATE AS THERE IS LARGE
AMOUNT OF WATER VAPOUR IN THE AIR.
ACTUALLY WHAT HAPPENS, LAND AND WATER
DON’T GET HEATED AT THE SAME RATE. LAND
GETS HEATED FASTER SO IT RADIATES THE
ENERGY, THAT HEATS THE AIR ABOVE THE
LAND, AS A RESULT OF WHICH AIR ABOVE THE
LAND GETS HEATED FASTER THAN AIR ABOVE
THE WATER BODIES. NOW HOT AIR IS LIGHTER
SO IT MOVES UP AND THE SURROUNDING AIR
ABOVE THE SEAS RUSHES TO TAKE ITS PLACE
WHICH HAS LOTS OF WATER VAPOUR IN IT.
THIS IS THE REASON FOR WARMNESS AND
CHARACTERISTICS
1. TEMPERATURE:
 DURING DAY BETWEEN 27◦C AND 32◦C.
 AT NIGHT BETWEEN 21◦C AND 27◦C.
2. HUMIDITY:
 RELATIVE HUMIDITY REMAIN HIGH, 75% FOR MOST OF THE
TIME, BUT VARY FROM 55% TO ALMOST 100%.
3. VAPOUR PRESSURE:
 BETWEEN 2500 TO 3500 N/M2.
4. PRECIPITATION:
 HIGH PRECIPITATION THROUGHOUT THE YEAR(RAINFALL).
 GENERALLY BECOMES MORE INTENSE FOR SEVERAL
CONSECUTIVE MONTH.
 ANNUAL RAINFALL- 2000 TO 5000 MM.
 OCCURANCE OF GUSTY WINDS AND ELECTRIC STORMS.
5. SKY CONDITION:
 ARE FAIRLY CLOUDY THROUGHOUT THE YEAR.
 CLOUD COVER- 60 TO 90%.
6. WIND:
 WIND VELOCITY IS LOW, CALM AND PERIODIC BUT MAY BE
STRONG DURING RAIN SQUALLS.
7. SOLAR RADIATION:
 THE INTENSITY OF SOLAR RADIATION IS HIGH DURING
SUMMERS AND MODERATE DURING WINTERS.
8. VEGETATION:
 GROWS QUICKLY DUE TO FREQUENT RAINS & HIGH
TEMPERATURE.
 DIFFICULT TO CONTROL.
 HIGH HUMIDITY ACCELARATES MOULD AND ALGAE GROWTH,
RUSTING AND ROTTING.
AREAS INFLUENCED BY THIS CLIMATE:
• GOA
• MUMBAI
• VISHAKHAPATNAM
• THIRUVANANTHAPURAM
• CHENNAI
• KOLKATA
• PURI
• TRIPURA
CLIMATE AND ARCHITECTURE
SINCE BEGINNING CLIMATE HAS ITS EFFECTS ON
MAN, SURROUNDINGS AND ARCHITECTURE.
A CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE
TAKES ADVANTAGE OF THE FREE ENERGY IN THE
FORM OF HEAT AND LIGHT.
A ADAPTIVE THERMAL COMFORT DESIGN IS
ESSENTIAL.
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
BUILDING DESIGN FOR THIS CLIMATE ARE:
• SITE
a. LANDFORM
FOR FLAT SITES, DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR LANDFORM
IS IMMATERIAL.
IN CASE OF SLOPES AND DEPRESSIONS, THE BUILDING SHOULD
BE LOCATED ON THE WINDWARD SIDE OR CREST TO TAKE
ADVANTAGE OF COOL BREEZE.
b. WATER BODIES
WATER BODIES ARE NOT ESSENTIAL AS THEY WOULD TEND
TO FURTHER INCREASE THE HUMIDITY.
c. STREET WIDTH AND ORIENTATION
THE WIDTH OF THE STREET SHOULD BE SUCH THAT THE
INTENSE SOLAR RADIATION DURING LATE MORNING AND EARLY
NOON IS AVOIDED DURING THE SUMMER.
MAJOR STREET SHOULD BE ORIENTED PARALLEL TO OR
WITHIN 30 DEGREE OF THE PREVALLING WIND DIRECTION
DURING SUMMER MONTHS TO ENCOURAGE VENTILATION IN
WARM AND HUMID REGIONS.
d. OPEN SPACE AND BUILT FORM
BUILDINGS SHOULD BE SPREAD OUT WITH LARGE OPEN
SPACES IN BETWEEN FOR UNRESTRICTED AIR MOVEMENT.
IN CITIES BUILDINGS ON STILTS CAN PROMOTE VENTILATION
AND CAUSE COOLING AT THE GROUND LEVEL.
• VENTILATION
WINDOW TYPE FOR GOOD AIR FLOW
EXTRA VENTILATING DEVICES USED
FOR PROPER AIR CIRCULATION
• BUILDING PLANNING
TO PROVIDE SHELTER FROM RAIN AND HEAT, THE FORM OF
THE BUILDING SHOULD BE PLANNED TO PROMOTE AIR FLOW.
• MATERIALS
MATERIALS WITH HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY SUCH AS BRICKS AND
CONCRETE ARE OF LITTLE BENEFIT, A LIGHTER HOUSE
CONSTRUCTION (TIMBER , FIBRO) WILL COOL QUICKLY AT NIGHT.
TIMBER HOUSE FIBRO HOUSE
• COLOUR AND TEXTURE
 THE WALLS SHOULD BE PAINTED WITH LIGHT WHITEWASHED,
WHILE THE SURFACE OF THE ROOF CAN BE BROKEN GLAZED
TILE TO REFELECT THE SUN BACK TO THE ENVIRONMENT.
• BOUNDARY FENCES SHOULD NOT BLOCK
AIRFLOW.
• MAKE SURE TO BLOCK THE SUMMER BREEZES.
• SPACING OF BUILDINGS SHOULD BE CAREFULLY
CONSIDERED TO AVOID OBSTRUTION OF WIND.
CASE STUDY ON KERALA:
• WIND-
WINDS HAVE WESTERLY COMPONENT DURING THE DAY AND EASTERLY
COMPONENTS DURING THE NIGHT THROUGHOUT THE YEAR.
IN GENERAL WINDS ARE QUITE STRONG DURING DAYTIME WHEN
THERMAL CIRCULATION IS BEST DEVELOPED AND WEAK DURING NIGHT.
• HUMIDITY-
RELATIVE HUMIDITY RANGES FROM 53% TO 72% DURING THE HOT
WEATHER SEASON.
IT IS ABOUT 85% OR ABOVE DURING THE MOONSOON SEASON.
• AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL-
RECEIVES AN AVERAGE RAINFALL OF 3300MM.
Stations 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Trivandrum
city
31.6 31.9 31.5 31.9 31.8 31.5 32 31.7 32 32.5
Kozhikode
city
31.2 31.4 31.3 32.1 32.3 31.3 31.5 31.4 32 32.2
Punalur 33.2 33.4 33.4 32.9 33.1 31.9 33.1 33 33.6 34.1
Trivandrum
(AP)
31.3 31.4 30.9 31.6 31.7 31 31.3 30.9 31.3 31.6
Kottayam 31.9 32.2 32.4 33 32 31.8 31.7 31.7 32 32.3
Kannur 31.7 32.3 32.1 32.6 32.3 31.8 31.9 31.9 32.7 32.8
Pallakkad 32.1 32 31.4 31.1 31.2 30.9 32.6 Dna dna Dna
Kochi (AP) 31.1 31.3 31.1 31.4 31.3 31 30.9 30.9 31.1 31.5
Allappuzha 31.6 31.8 31.6 32.2 32.2 31.4 30.3 31.6 31.6 31.9
Karipur
(AP)
31.6 31.8 31.7 32.2 31.9 31.4 31.6 31.5 32 32.2
Vellanikara Dna 32.1 31.8 33.7 32.1 31.6 31.9 31.8 31.3 32.3
MEAN MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
Stations 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Trivandrum
city
23.5 23.4 23.3 23.5 24.1 23.4 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.1
Kozhikode
city
24.0 24.3 24.2 24.5 24.9 24.2 24.2 24.4 24.5 24.7
Punalur dna 22.2 22.1 22.1 23.0 22.3 21.9 22.0 22.1 22.1
Trivandrum
(AP)
23.8 23.9 23.7 24.0 24.1 23.9 24.2 23.8 23.4 24.1
Kottayam 22.9 23.6 23.3 23.5 23.6 22.8 21.4 22.7 22.8 22.9
Kannur 23.4 23.5 23.4 23.7 24.1 23.5 23.5 23.4 23.7 23.7
Palakkad 22.7 23.4 23.6 23.6 24.1 23.4 dna dna dna dna
Kochi (AP) 24.2 24.4 24.4 24.3 24.7 24.4 24.1 24.5 24.7 24.1
Alappuzha 24.1 24.3 24.1 24.3 24.6 23.9 23.9 23.6 23.3 22.6
Karipur 23.4 23.6 23.4 23.7 24.2 23.6 23.4 23.5 23.3 23.5
Vellanikkara dna 22.5 23.2 33.7 23.1 23 23.1 23.4 23.3 23.5
MEAN MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
THIS TYPE OF ROOF ALLOW RAINWATER FLOW DOWN
HOT AND COLD BREEZES MAINTAINS THE
TEMPERATURE
VERANDAH IS USED FOR PROPER VENTILATION AND
PROTECTION FROM DIRECT SUN RADIATION
DOUBLE WINDOW SHEDS ARE USED FOR PROTECTION
FROM SOLAR RADIATION
THANK YOU…..
QUERIES??????....

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Warm and humid climate

  • 1. WARM AND HUMID CLIMATE SUBMITTED BY: SUMITA KUMARI SUBHAJIT GOSWAMI
  • 2. CLIMATE  CLIMATE IS A MEASURE OF THE AVERAGE PATTERN OF VARIATION IN TEMPERATURE , HUMIDITY , ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE , WIND , PRECIPITATION , ATMOSPHERIC PARTICLE COUNT IN A GIVEN REGION OVER LONG PERIOD OF TIME, SAY 30 YEAR.  THE CLIMATE OF A LOCATION IS AFFECTED BY ITS LATITUDE, TERRAIN, AND ATTITUDE AS WELL AS NEARBY WATER BODIES AND THEIR CURRENT.
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION OF CLIMATE: THE TROPICAL REGIONS OF EARTH ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR CLIMATIC ZONES:- WARM AND HUMID EQUATORIAL CLIMATE HOT DRY DESERT CLIMATE COMPOSITE OR MONSOON CLIMATE NOW WE ARE GOING TO EXPLAIN ABOUT WARM AND HUMID EQUATORIAL CLIMATE.
  • 5. WARM AND HUMID CLIMATE A CLIMATE WITH AN EXCESS OF MOISTURE, IN WHICH THE SOLAR HEAT RECEIVED IS SUFFICIENT TO EVAPORATE ALL MOISTURE OCCURING IN THE FORM OF PRECIPITATION. THIS CLIMATE IS FOUND IN BELT NEAR EQUATOR EXTENDING TO ABOUT 15◦ NORTH & SOUTH. THERE IS VERY LESS SEASONAL VARIATION THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EXAMPLE – COLOMBO, SINGAPORE, HAWAII , MALASIA ETC.
  • 6.
  • 7. REASONS FOR WARM AND HUMID CLIMATE PLACES THAT ARE CLOSE TO SEAS OR OCEANS HAVE A HUMID CLIMATE AS THERE IS LARGE AMOUNT OF WATER VAPOUR IN THE AIR. ACTUALLY WHAT HAPPENS, LAND AND WATER DON’T GET HEATED AT THE SAME RATE. LAND GETS HEATED FASTER SO IT RADIATES THE ENERGY, THAT HEATS THE AIR ABOVE THE LAND, AS A RESULT OF WHICH AIR ABOVE THE LAND GETS HEATED FASTER THAN AIR ABOVE THE WATER BODIES. NOW HOT AIR IS LIGHTER SO IT MOVES UP AND THE SURROUNDING AIR ABOVE THE SEAS RUSHES TO TAKE ITS PLACE WHICH HAS LOTS OF WATER VAPOUR IN IT. THIS IS THE REASON FOR WARMNESS AND
  • 8.
  • 9. CHARACTERISTICS 1. TEMPERATURE:  DURING DAY BETWEEN 27◦C AND 32◦C.  AT NIGHT BETWEEN 21◦C AND 27◦C. 2. HUMIDITY:  RELATIVE HUMIDITY REMAIN HIGH, 75% FOR MOST OF THE TIME, BUT VARY FROM 55% TO ALMOST 100%. 3. VAPOUR PRESSURE:  BETWEEN 2500 TO 3500 N/M2.
  • 10. 4. PRECIPITATION:  HIGH PRECIPITATION THROUGHOUT THE YEAR(RAINFALL).  GENERALLY BECOMES MORE INTENSE FOR SEVERAL CONSECUTIVE MONTH.  ANNUAL RAINFALL- 2000 TO 5000 MM.  OCCURANCE OF GUSTY WINDS AND ELECTRIC STORMS. 5. SKY CONDITION:  ARE FAIRLY CLOUDY THROUGHOUT THE YEAR.  CLOUD COVER- 60 TO 90%. 6. WIND:  WIND VELOCITY IS LOW, CALM AND PERIODIC BUT MAY BE STRONG DURING RAIN SQUALLS.
  • 11. 7. SOLAR RADIATION:  THE INTENSITY OF SOLAR RADIATION IS HIGH DURING SUMMERS AND MODERATE DURING WINTERS. 8. VEGETATION:  GROWS QUICKLY DUE TO FREQUENT RAINS & HIGH TEMPERATURE.  DIFFICULT TO CONTROL.  HIGH HUMIDITY ACCELARATES MOULD AND ALGAE GROWTH, RUSTING AND ROTTING.
  • 12. AREAS INFLUENCED BY THIS CLIMATE: • GOA • MUMBAI • VISHAKHAPATNAM • THIRUVANANTHAPURAM • CHENNAI • KOLKATA • PURI • TRIPURA
  • 13. CLIMATE AND ARCHITECTURE SINCE BEGINNING CLIMATE HAS ITS EFFECTS ON MAN, SURROUNDINGS AND ARCHITECTURE. A CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE TAKES ADVANTAGE OF THE FREE ENERGY IN THE FORM OF HEAT AND LIGHT. A ADAPTIVE THERMAL COMFORT DESIGN IS ESSENTIAL.
  • 14. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BUILDING DESIGN FOR THIS CLIMATE ARE: • SITE a. LANDFORM FOR FLAT SITES, DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR LANDFORM IS IMMATERIAL. IN CASE OF SLOPES AND DEPRESSIONS, THE BUILDING SHOULD BE LOCATED ON THE WINDWARD SIDE OR CREST TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF COOL BREEZE.
  • 15. b. WATER BODIES WATER BODIES ARE NOT ESSENTIAL AS THEY WOULD TEND TO FURTHER INCREASE THE HUMIDITY. c. STREET WIDTH AND ORIENTATION THE WIDTH OF THE STREET SHOULD BE SUCH THAT THE INTENSE SOLAR RADIATION DURING LATE MORNING AND EARLY NOON IS AVOIDED DURING THE SUMMER. MAJOR STREET SHOULD BE ORIENTED PARALLEL TO OR WITHIN 30 DEGREE OF THE PREVALLING WIND DIRECTION DURING SUMMER MONTHS TO ENCOURAGE VENTILATION IN WARM AND HUMID REGIONS.
  • 16. d. OPEN SPACE AND BUILT FORM BUILDINGS SHOULD BE SPREAD OUT WITH LARGE OPEN SPACES IN BETWEEN FOR UNRESTRICTED AIR MOVEMENT. IN CITIES BUILDINGS ON STILTS CAN PROMOTE VENTILATION AND CAUSE COOLING AT THE GROUND LEVEL.
  • 17. • VENTILATION WINDOW TYPE FOR GOOD AIR FLOW
  • 18. EXTRA VENTILATING DEVICES USED FOR PROPER AIR CIRCULATION
  • 19. • BUILDING PLANNING TO PROVIDE SHELTER FROM RAIN AND HEAT, THE FORM OF THE BUILDING SHOULD BE PLANNED TO PROMOTE AIR FLOW.
  • 20. • MATERIALS MATERIALS WITH HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY SUCH AS BRICKS AND CONCRETE ARE OF LITTLE BENEFIT, A LIGHTER HOUSE CONSTRUCTION (TIMBER , FIBRO) WILL COOL QUICKLY AT NIGHT. TIMBER HOUSE FIBRO HOUSE
  • 21. • COLOUR AND TEXTURE  THE WALLS SHOULD BE PAINTED WITH LIGHT WHITEWASHED, WHILE THE SURFACE OF THE ROOF CAN BE BROKEN GLAZED TILE TO REFELECT THE SUN BACK TO THE ENVIRONMENT.
  • 22. • BOUNDARY FENCES SHOULD NOT BLOCK AIRFLOW. • MAKE SURE TO BLOCK THE SUMMER BREEZES. • SPACING OF BUILDINGS SHOULD BE CAREFULLY CONSIDERED TO AVOID OBSTRUTION OF WIND.
  • 23. CASE STUDY ON KERALA: • WIND- WINDS HAVE WESTERLY COMPONENT DURING THE DAY AND EASTERLY COMPONENTS DURING THE NIGHT THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. IN GENERAL WINDS ARE QUITE STRONG DURING DAYTIME WHEN THERMAL CIRCULATION IS BEST DEVELOPED AND WEAK DURING NIGHT.
  • 24. • HUMIDITY- RELATIVE HUMIDITY RANGES FROM 53% TO 72% DURING THE HOT WEATHER SEASON. IT IS ABOUT 85% OR ABOVE DURING THE MOONSOON SEASON. • AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL- RECEIVES AN AVERAGE RAINFALL OF 3300MM.
  • 25. Stations 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Trivandrum city 31.6 31.9 31.5 31.9 31.8 31.5 32 31.7 32 32.5 Kozhikode city 31.2 31.4 31.3 32.1 32.3 31.3 31.5 31.4 32 32.2 Punalur 33.2 33.4 33.4 32.9 33.1 31.9 33.1 33 33.6 34.1 Trivandrum (AP) 31.3 31.4 30.9 31.6 31.7 31 31.3 30.9 31.3 31.6 Kottayam 31.9 32.2 32.4 33 32 31.8 31.7 31.7 32 32.3 Kannur 31.7 32.3 32.1 32.6 32.3 31.8 31.9 31.9 32.7 32.8 Pallakkad 32.1 32 31.4 31.1 31.2 30.9 32.6 Dna dna Dna Kochi (AP) 31.1 31.3 31.1 31.4 31.3 31 30.9 30.9 31.1 31.5 Allappuzha 31.6 31.8 31.6 32.2 32.2 31.4 30.3 31.6 31.6 31.9 Karipur (AP) 31.6 31.8 31.7 32.2 31.9 31.4 31.6 31.5 32 32.2 Vellanikara Dna 32.1 31.8 33.7 32.1 31.6 31.9 31.8 31.3 32.3 MEAN MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
  • 26. Stations 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Trivandrum city 23.5 23.4 23.3 23.5 24.1 23.4 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.1 Kozhikode city 24.0 24.3 24.2 24.5 24.9 24.2 24.2 24.4 24.5 24.7 Punalur dna 22.2 22.1 22.1 23.0 22.3 21.9 22.0 22.1 22.1 Trivandrum (AP) 23.8 23.9 23.7 24.0 24.1 23.9 24.2 23.8 23.4 24.1 Kottayam 22.9 23.6 23.3 23.5 23.6 22.8 21.4 22.7 22.8 22.9 Kannur 23.4 23.5 23.4 23.7 24.1 23.5 23.5 23.4 23.7 23.7 Palakkad 22.7 23.4 23.6 23.6 24.1 23.4 dna dna dna dna Kochi (AP) 24.2 24.4 24.4 24.3 24.7 24.4 24.1 24.5 24.7 24.1 Alappuzha 24.1 24.3 24.1 24.3 24.6 23.9 23.9 23.6 23.3 22.6 Karipur 23.4 23.6 23.4 23.7 24.2 23.6 23.4 23.5 23.3 23.5 Vellanikkara dna 22.5 23.2 33.7 23.1 23 23.1 23.4 23.3 23.5 MEAN MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
  • 27. THIS TYPE OF ROOF ALLOW RAINWATER FLOW DOWN
  • 28. HOT AND COLD BREEZES MAINTAINS THE TEMPERATURE
  • 29. VERANDAH IS USED FOR PROPER VENTILATION AND PROTECTION FROM DIRECT SUN RADIATION
  • 30. DOUBLE WINDOW SHEDS ARE USED FOR PROTECTION FROM SOLAR RADIATION