Choices and Challenges

Lessons Learned in the Evolution of Online Education
in Support of Workforce Development
Dr. Andy ...
Where is this?

Stanford Center for Professional Development

• 2
Bangalore: Silicon Valley of India

Stanford Center for Professional Development

• 3
And what is it like to get there…

Stanford Center for Professional Development

• 4
An education and training opportunity?

Stanford Center for Professional Development

• 5
Online Education Continues to Evolve…
• Successfully established with mixed elements
of hype and reality and rapidly becom...
The Workforce of the Future
“The illiterate of the 21st century
will not be those who cannot read
and write, but those tha...
Industry and Education
Summary from Sloan funded Stanford/NYU/UMichigan Workshops with
Corporate VPs of Education and Trai...
Industry and Education
• Increased industry interest in outsourcing education
and training to university providers. Parado...
Industry and Education
• Companies are linking learning and university
partnerships to business strategies -- and a
“retur...
The Workforce of the Future
“In the new economy you graduate and
you’re set for 15 minutes. Working and
learning are fast ...
The Challenge
What Do Lifelong Learners and
Employers Want, Need and Expect of
Education Providers?

Stanford Center for P...
The Online Learner Challenge
• Assume responsibility for
increasing personal market
value as a means to advance in
their c...
Learning on the go….

Stanford Center for Professional Development

• 14
The Online Learner Challenge
• Convenience and flexibility with
a range of course and delivery
options and multiple avenue...
The Online Learner Challenge
• Well-designed, engaging and
continuously updated programs
which facilitate the transfer of
...
The Online Learner Challenge
• Self-directed, demand-driven
learning with control of the
sequence and pace of learning.
Im...
The Online Learner Challenge
• Personal learning paths based on
assessment of knowledge gaps,
learning styles and preferen...
The Online Learner Challenge
• Participation in a learning
community using social
networking tools for peer-to-peer
learni...
The Online Learner Challenge
• Interest in integrating courses from
a mix of sources: higher education,
professional assoc...
The Online Learner Challenge
• Development of lifelong digital
career portfolio to include papers,
projects, media, instru...
The Online Learner Challenge
• Timely, detailed and meaningful
forms of assessment and feedback.
Desire a data-rich pathwa...
So where are we headed with online
education?
• Access to learning independent of:
- time
- economic status
- distance
- p...
Venture Capital Prospectus
Online Higher Education Company
Higher Education…
• Is one of the most fertile new markets for
...
Venture Capital Prospectus
Online Higher Education Company
• Generates a large amount of revenue and its
market is increas...
Online Education Entrepreneurs Versus
Traditional Institutions
• Larger investments, more resources.
• Nimble, flexible, r...
Online Education Entrepreneurs Versus
Traditional Institutions
• Ability to easily capitalize on changes in
instructional ...
Online Education: How Does Stanford Do It?

Stanford Center for Professional Development

• 28
Stanford University
• Located in Silicon Valley and recognized as
offering high quality research and education
programs.
•...
Stanford University and Industry
•

“Stanford University fosters a climate
where collaboration with industry
thrives, gene...
Stanford Center for Professional Development

SCPD collaborates with Stanford faculty and industry
experts to develop and ...
SCPD Participants
2000 companies in 60 countries

Stanford Center for Professional Development

• 32
The Lifelong Learner Challenge
“What our employees are
saying is that the demands
of their jobs are such that
they can’t g...
Industry Education Delivery
• Stanford Online.

Stanford Center for Professional Development

• 34
Stanford Online

• Delivers asynchronous courses, certificates and degree
programs to industry students at over 2000 compa...
Industry Education Delivery
• Stanford Online.
• Tutored Video Instruction.

Stanford Center for Professional Development
...
Tutored Video Instruction
• Tutored Video Instruction (TVI) is a collaborative
learning approach in which a small group of...
Industry Education Delivery
• Stanford Online.
• Tutored Video Instruction.
• Flipped classroom.

Stanford Center for Prof...
Flipped Classroom
Shift from teacher-driven instruction to student-centered learning

• Digital technologies shifts instru...
Industry Education Delivery
• Stanford Online.
• Tutored Video Instruction.
• Flipped classroom.
• Mobile learning.

Stanf...
Mobile Delivery
Introduction to Electronics

• Students stream course videos and download support
materials to mobile devi...
Industry Education Delivery
• Stanford Online.
• Tutored Video Instruction.
• Flipped classroom.
• Mobile learning.
• Mass...
Stanford Engineering Everywhere

Open and free access to complete courses in
electrical engineering and computer science f...
Massively Open Online Courses
Stanford’s First Offering

• An experiment in distributed education in fall of 2011, the
cou...
Massively Open Online Courses
What are They?
• Online courses aimed at large-scale participation and open
access via the w...
Massively Open Online Courses
Who Are the Major Players?

Stanford Center for Professional Development

• 46
Massively Open Online Courses
Coursera
•

Hundreds of free online courses from 62 universities
in computer science, health...
Massively Open Online Courses
Udacity
•

Nearly 100 courses in engineering, math and physics
with students in over 200 cou...
Massively Open Online Courses
Others
• edX evolved from MITx. Now includes MIT,
Harvard, UC Berkeley, UTexas, Wellesley an...
Massively Open Online Courses
Why do institutions do it?
• Experiment to improve education for on campus students
• Meet r...
Massively Open Online Courses
How to Sustain?
• Charge fees for “secure assessments” to earn
certificates, badges and cred...
MOOCs: still an experiment…
“The optimists see MOOCs expanding access to
previously disenfranchised groups of students,
de...
Choices and Challenges
“Impressive advances in technology over the past
few years provide hope that technological
solution...
Converting Lessons Learned
Five Recommendations for Online Education
Providers in Support of Workforce Development

Stanfo...
Five Recommendations
1. Think strategically.
How are you different than what others are trying and
why is this approach of...
Five Recommendations
3.Think about scale.
Do you have the right resources: human, financial & technical?
Can you begin sma...
Final Thoughts…
• Online education in support of industry is not about
technology – it is about ways to innovate and impro...
Remember…

Technology has limitations on
what it can accomplish. You do
not!!

Stanford Center for Professional Developmen...
Questions and Conversations

adp@stanford.edu

scpd.stanford.edu
Stanford Center for Professional Development

• 59
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Choices and Challenges: Lessons Learned in the Evolution of Online Education in Support of Workforce Development 2014

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Washington Workforce Education Council Presentation
February 6, 2014

Choices and Challenges: Lessons Learned in the Evolution of Online Education in Support of Workforce Development

Dr. Andy DiPaolo, Stanford University

Presentation

What are the critical challenges and lessons learned in the use of online education to support workforce development? How can these lessons be applied to assess opportunities, create strategies and design innovative online offerings to take advantage of existing and emerging delivery technologies? This presentation will address the potential and risks of online education, identify the changing education needs and expectations of students and employers and offer advice on strategies for business, government and higher education to successfully deliver workforce development programs at a distance.


Presenter
Andy DiPaolo is Executive Director Emeritus of the Stanford Center for Professional Development. He founded and directed for nearly 25 years one of the largest continuing education organizations and distance education networks in the United States delivering degree, credit, certificate and professional programs to students at over 2000 companies in 60 countries. Dr. DiPaolo led the team to develop award-winning Stanford Online, the first system to use video technology to deliver academic courses on the internet and led the development of the world’s first online engineering degree. He also created “Stanford Engineering Everywhere” an initiative to provide free and open online courses to educators and learners around the world.
DiPaolo has a long history as a member of public sector and corporate boards and as an advisor to universities, corporations and government agencies on the strategic use of technology to meet education and training needs. Representative examples of organizations where he has provided advice include Cisco, University of Michigan, National Elevator Industry Educational Program, Danish Virtual University, International Air Transport Association, UCLA, Hewlett-Packard, U.S. Army, Norwegian Telecom, Higher Education Council – Israel, Northwestern University and the Agency for International Development. He has been elected to the U.S. Distance Learning Association Hall of Fame, appointed as a Fellow of the European Distance and E-Learning Network and is the 2013 recipient of the American Society for Engineering Education’s highest award for an individual in support of education for industry.
Contact Information
Stanford Center for Professional Development adp@stanford.edu 650-444-4694 SCPD.stanford.edu

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Choices and Challenges: Lessons Learned in the Evolution of Online Education in Support of Workforce Development 2014

  1. 1. Choices and Challenges Lessons Learned in the Evolution of Online Education in Support of Workforce Development Dr. Andy DiPaolo Executive Director Emeritus Stanford Center for Professional Development Stanford Center for Professional Development • 1
  2. 2. Where is this? Stanford Center for Professional Development • 2
  3. 3. Bangalore: Silicon Valley of India Stanford Center for Professional Development • 3
  4. 4. And what is it like to get there… Stanford Center for Professional Development • 4
  5. 5. An education and training opportunity? Stanford Center for Professional Development • 5
  6. 6. Online Education Continues to Evolve… • Successfully established with mixed elements of hype and reality and rapidly becoming mainstream. It is becoming a larger part of an institution’s approach for teaching students in residence and at a distance. • Many providers ranging from traditional universities to collaborations to start-ups. • Learners interest in online courses based on quality, cost, geography, pedagogy and brand -- and especially those most able to aid in employability and career growth. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 6
  7. 7. The Workforce of the Future “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those that cannot learn, unlearn and relearn.” Alvin Toffler “Rethinking the Future” Stanford Center for Professional Development • 7
  8. 8. Industry and Education Summary from Sloan funded Stanford/NYU/UMichigan Workshops with Corporate VPs of Education and Training • The US workforce requires continuous, careerlong education to maintain competitiveness. Concerned about gap between education levels and changing labor market needs. Worried about finding skilled workers at all levels as “baby boomers” exit. • Increased work and family demands and changing lifestyles reduces time for education and training. • Mobility of many employees means traditional approaches to education is difficult, especially during work hours. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 8
  9. 9. Industry and Education • Increased industry interest in outsourcing education and training to university providers. Paradox in some companies of no time/no $$. • Higher ed asked to be more responsive to specific education development needs of industry. Wants employees who can solve problems, think critically, be innovative, communicate and work in a team. • Companies want to work with colleges and universities who know how to teach students to transfer learning directly to industry applications. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 9
  10. 10. Industry and Education • Companies are linking learning and university partnerships to business strategies -- and a “return on learning” investment is expected. • Industry wants providers of degrees, courses and certificates to use proven, cost-effective and efficient approaches to learning. • Strong movement towards online and blended education. Want learning options independent of time and distance. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 10
  11. 11. The Workforce of the Future “In the new economy you graduate and you’re set for 15 minutes. Working and learning are fast becoming the same activity.” Don Tapscott “The Digital Economy” “The ability to learn faster than your competitors may be the only sustainable competitive advantage.” Peter Senge “The Fifth Discipline” •1 Stanford Center for Professional Development • 11
  12. 12. The Challenge What Do Lifelong Learners and Employers Want, Need and Expect of Education Providers? Stanford Center for Professional Development • 12
  13. 13. The Online Learner Challenge • Assume responsibility for increasing personal market value as a means to advance in their careers. Busy yet anxious to learn. • Access to learning anytime and anywhere. Learners want education to be part of the work day as well as having a mobile, on-the-go, 24/7 connection. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 13
  14. 14. Learning on the go…. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 14
  15. 15. The Online Learner Challenge • Convenience and flexibility with a range of course and delivery options and multiple avenues for learning. • Wide range of online degree, certification and career-building programs with flexibility around when programs start and end. Interest in short, focused modules. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 15
  16. 16. The Online Learner Challenge • Well-designed, engaging and continuously updated programs which facilitate the transfer of learning to direct application. Rapid mastery of knowledge and skills – employer relevant competencies – is the desire. • Emphasis on active, challenging scenario-based learning using real, vivid and familiar examples. Think games, simulations and immersivelearning environments. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 16
  17. 17. The Online Learner Challenge • Self-directed, demand-driven learning with control of the sequence and pace of learning. Impatient with inefficient methods. Want to be able to “test out” and be given credit for prior learning. • Choice of synchronous, asynchronous and blended learning options with small class sizes. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 17
  18. 18. The Online Learner Challenge • Personal learning paths based on assessment of knowledge gaps, learning styles and preferences. Think digital video recorder. Shift from “just-in-case” to “just-intime” to “just-for-me” education. • Expert facilitation – F-2-F or remotely – which includes opportunities for advising, tutoring, coaching and mentoring. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 18
  19. 19. The Online Learner Challenge • Participation in a learning community using social networking tools for peer-to-peer learning and relationship building. • Chance to learn, refine and apply online collaboration skills and knowledge management tools in group learning situations. Interest in multicultural and international interactions. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 19
  20. 20. The Online Learner Challenge • Interest in integrating courses from a mix of sources: higher education, professional associations, museums, publishers, govt agencies and companies – but want credit and formal “certification” from a college, university or recognized authority. • Preview of courses, rating of content and assignments, and review of evaluations before enrolling. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 20
  21. 21. The Online Learner Challenge • Development of lifelong digital career portfolio to include papers, projects, media, instructor reviews, etc. • Personal support services with the elimination of delays and inefficient procedures. • Competitive and variable pricing. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 21
  22. 22. The Online Learner Challenge • Timely, detailed and meaningful forms of assessment and feedback. Desire a data-rich pathway to improve their learning experience. • Delivery to mobile devices which are smarter, faster, cheaper and usable anywhere. • Ongoing educational renewal over an entire career with commitment from their institution to support learning for a lifetime. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 22
  23. 23. So where are we headed with online education? • Access to learning independent of: - time - economic status - distance - physical disability • Move instruction, not people to: - save time - provide choice - reduce cost - improve learning • Continued experimentation of new and innovative approaches to teaching, learning and assessment and broadly sharing the results in order to scale. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 23
  24. 24. Venture Capital Prospectus Online Higher Education Company Higher Education… • Is one of the most fertile new markets for investors in many years. • Presents the opportunity for very large scale activities. • Has many disgruntled current users. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 24
  25. 25. Venture Capital Prospectus Online Higher Education Company • Generates a large amount of revenue and its market is increasing and becoming global. • Poorly run, low in productivity, high in cost, and relatively low technology utilization. • Existing management is sleepy after years of monopoly and field is ripe for takeover, remaking and profits. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 25
  26. 26. Online Education Entrepreneurs Versus Traditional Institutions • Larger investments, more resources. • Nimble, flexible, responsive and speedy to market with a deep understanding of students and their needs. Changes are data-driven and evidence based. • Apply commercial grade marketing, sales, customer service, course design and production skills. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 26
  27. 27. Online Education Entrepreneurs Versus Traditional Institutions • Ability to easily capitalize on changes in instructional technology. • Freedom from academic politics and bureaucracy with strict instructor evaluation measures. • Regard education as a commodity. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 27
  28. 28. Online Education: How Does Stanford Do It? Stanford Center for Professional Development • 28
  29. 29. Stanford University • Located in Silicon Valley and recognized as offering high quality research and education programs. • Schools: Engineering, Medicine, Law, Business, Humanities, Earth Science and Education. • Research: over 5100 sponsored projects at $1.35B • Strong history of research and education innovation e.g. new Office of Vice Provost for Online Learning. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 29
  30. 30. Stanford University and Industry • “Stanford University fosters a climate where collaboration with industry thrives, generating both breakthrough discoveries and the science and technology that can support continuous innovation.” “With a long history of very productive relationships with corporations of all sizes, from startups to mature, successful enterprises, Stanford provides firms with education, research partnerships, consulting, and connections to world class faculty and students.” - Stanford Corporate Relations Stanford Center for Professional Development • • 30
  31. 31. Stanford Center for Professional Development SCPD collaborates with Stanford faculty and industry experts to develop and deliver courses and programs online, on campus and at work to meet the lifelong education needs of workers in industry. Offerings are designed to support career growth, increase productivity and strengthen industry and individual competitiveness. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 31
  32. 32. SCPD Participants 2000 companies in 60 countries Stanford Center for Professional Development • 32
  33. 33. The Lifelong Learner Challenge “What our employees are saying is that the demands of their jobs are such that they can’t get away from work. Since they are working many hours a week any education they get has to be at their convenience and available online.” - Manager of Education, Amp Inc. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 33
  34. 34. Industry Education Delivery • Stanford Online. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 34
  35. 35. Stanford Online • Delivers asynchronous courses, certificates and degree programs to industry students at over 2000 companies in 60 countries. • Rapid production process. • Courses updated annually. • Uses community and social tools for interaction. • Highly valued by industry and campus students. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 35
  36. 36. Industry Education Delivery • Stanford Online. • Tutored Video Instruction. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 36
  37. 37. Tutored Video Instruction • Tutored Video Instruction (TVI) is a collaborative learning approach in which a small group of students at a distant site studies a video of a presentation. • Tutor stops the video to address questions, discuss ideas and relate to workplace activities. Students receive more individualized help and attention from the tutor and peers and informal atmosphere encourages more sharing and involvement. • Tutor acquires management and leadership skills. • TVI student grades statistically higher than those of the on-campus students in traditional classroom. • Also successfully used with at-risk high school students and prison inmates. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 37
  38. 38. Industry Education Delivery • Stanford Online. • Tutored Video Instruction. • Flipped classroom. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 38
  39. 39. Flipped Classroom Shift from teacher-driven instruction to student-centered learning • Digital technologies shifts instruction outside of the group learning space to the individual learning space, usually via videos. • Class time becomes available for students to practice skills, collaborate with peers on projects and receive feedback. • Instructors devote more time to coaching, assisting and inspiring students. • Students become the agents of their own learning rather than the object of instruction. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 39
  40. 40. Industry Education Delivery • Stanford Online. • Tutored Video Instruction. • Flipped classroom. • Mobile learning. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 40
  41. 41. Mobile Delivery Introduction to Electronics • Students stream course videos and download support materials to mobile devices. • Participate asynchronously at distant sites with support from faculty, teaching assistant or facilitator. • Includes synchronous discussion and team activities with students in residence and at a distance. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 41
  42. 42. Industry Education Delivery • Stanford Online. • Tutored Video Instruction. • Flipped classroom. • Mobile learning. • Massively Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Stanford Center for Professional Development • 42
  43. 43. Stanford Engineering Everywhere Open and free access to complete courses in electrical engineering and computer science for use, reuse, adaptation and redistribution by educators, students, and self-learners. SEE.Stanford.edu Stanford Center for Professional Development • 43
  44. 44. Massively Open Online Courses Stanford’s First Offering • An experiment in distributed education in fall of 2011, the course was offered free and online to students worldwide. The course, led by a distinguished AI faculty member and the director of research at Google, offered materials, assignments and exams similar to the campus course and included feedback on progress and a statement of accomplishment. • Enrollment: over 150,000 Completion: 7157 • Left Stanford and founded Udacity Stanford Center for Professional Development • 44
  45. 45. Massively Open Online Courses What are They? • Online courses aimed at large-scale participation and open access via the web. No fees or registration as a regular student. Targets: high schoolers, college students and adults. • Students access course materials, online assessments, discussion group tools and materials developed during the course. Automated feedback through online assessments and crowd-sourced interaction for peer-review and group collaboration. • Typically no academic credit, but other forms of assessment or certification may be available. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 45
  46. 46. Massively Open Online Courses Who Are the Major Players? Stanford Center for Professional Development • 46
  47. 47. Massively Open Online Courses Coursera • Hundreds of free online courses from 62 universities in computer science, healthcare, biology, networks & information, humanities & social science, math , statistics, economics, finance and business. • Demographics: 20-39 years old, 75% have an undergrad degree. • Charges fees for its “Signature Track “ courses which issues a “Verified Certificate.” • Will soon offer “specializations” – 3-9 MOOCs – followed by a practical capstone project for students to include in their professional portfolios. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 47
  48. 48. Massively Open Online Courses Udacity • Nearly 100 courses in engineering, math and physics with students in over 200 countries. Partners include Google, NVIDIA, Microsoft, Autodesk, Cadence and Wolfram. • Highly interactive, self-paced and project based using bite-sized videos and real-world examples while engaged in an active community. All are closed captioned and many subtitled in other languages. • Students can take proctored exam through Pearson that will "count towards a credential that is recognized by employers.” • Recently pivoted to focus on industry education and training e.g. Georgia Tech initiative. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 48
  49. 49. Massively Open Online Courses Others • edX evolved from MITx. Now includes MIT, Harvard, UC Berkeley, UTexas, Wellesley and Georgetown and others. Investment: $30M each from MIT and Harvard and $10M from Texas. • Futurelearn – Launched by Open University and includes 33 UK universities and British Library. • MOOC2Degree – 40 universities with relationship to Academic Partnerships, a company that helps public universities move their courses online. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 49
  50. 50. Massively Open Online Courses Why do institutions do it? • Experiment to improve education for on campus students • Meet responsibility to be a global citizen by helping spread educational opportunities beyond the campus. • Pressures to lower cost of education. • Channel to potential students and alumni. • Enhance prestige for institution and faculty. • Fear of missing out. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 50
  51. 51. Massively Open Online Courses How to Sustain? • Charge fees for “secure assessments” to earn certificates, badges and credit. • Create sponsorships: PBS model. • License courses to other schools and industry. • Develop partnerships and alliances for grants. • Charge for student services e.g. TA, library use, post class activities. • Textbook, course reader and software sales. • Job recruitment: Coursera Career Services. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 51
  52. 52. MOOCs: still an experiment… “The optimists see MOOCs expanding access to previously disenfranchised groups of students, developing new methods of pedagogy for deeper, more sustained learning, and building global communities focused not on the latest fad or celebrity, but on education. Doomsayers predict the end of liberal learning, a generation unable to communicate in face-to-face classrooms, and even the eventual demise of the university.” ‘Studying Learning in the Worldwide Classroom: edX’s First MOOC” -- Journal of Research and Practice in Assessment Summer 2013. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 52
  53. 53. Choices and Challenges “Impressive advances in technology over the past few years provide hope that technological solutions, intelligently applied, can allow greater access, higher quality and lower cost per learner. To achieve massive improvements through technologies will require learning from past mistakes and careful analysis of how to innovate broadly and durably.” - Sir John Daniel Former Vice Chancellor, UK Open University Stanford Center for Professional Development • 53
  54. 54. Converting Lessons Learned Five Recommendations for Online Education Providers in Support of Workforce Development Stanford Center for Professional Development • 54
  55. 55. Five Recommendations 1. Think strategically. How are you different than what others are trying and why is this approach of value to the workforce audience you want to serve? Are you doing something unique? What data do you have that can be used to prove this difference and value? 2. Find your sweet spot. What’s the intersection of industry and community needs, institutional strengths, faculty interests and what people will pay for? Is it consistent with your mission, values, strengths and areas of distinction? Are you building upon previous successful programs and what you learned from failures? Stanford Center for Professional Development • 55
  56. 56. Five Recommendations 3.Think about scale. Do you have the right resources: human, financial & technical? Can you begin small in order to experiment, pilot, learn, improve and grow? Are there outside partners or alliances you can work with to strengthen and extend your program? How can you market offering to achieve scale and sustainability? 4. Create a service mentality. Have you identified every possible service interaction so that students, employers and instructors have a productive, positive rewarding experience? Are you fast, flexible and attentive? 5. Measure everything. Are you assessing learning effectiveness, application to work, access to course, cost effectiveness and satisfaction of learners, instructors and employers? Stanford Center for Professional Development • 56
  57. 57. Final Thoughts… • Online education in support of industry is not about technology – it is about ways to innovate and improve teaching and learning in order to strengthen competitiveness, support career growth and improve employee satisfaction and job security. • Think about delivering education as if you lived in Silicon Valley. Question everything like an entrepreneur. Disrupt and innovate and try something new. Have zero tolerance for mediocrity. Think boldly and daringly, execute steadily. • The scarce resource today is not bandwidth, but people who can create and innovate in the knowledge age. Stanford Center for Professional Development • 57
  58. 58. Remember… Technology has limitations on what it can accomplish. You do not!! Stanford Center for Professional Development • 58
  59. 59. Questions and Conversations adp@stanford.edu scpd.stanford.edu Stanford Center for Professional Development • 59

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