Types of claims


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Types of claims

  2. 2. CLAIMS <ul><li>Most important part of the Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Claims define the scope of legal protection of your invention </li></ul><ul><li>In other words claims are the part of patent which defines the boundary of the invention claimed </li></ul><ul><li>Claims must particularly point out and distinctly claim what applicant regard as his invention </li></ul><ul><li>Only patentable subject matter can be claimed, in other words claim should relate to one or more patentable subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>There needs to be an unity of invention in what has been claimed </li></ul><ul><li>The need of claims: </li></ul><ul><li>Patent right exists in claims i.e A patent is a right that prevent others from making, using, selling or offering for sale the subject matter defined by the claims. </li></ul><ul><li>Claims form the protective boundary that lets others know when they are infringing on your rights </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Requirements in Drafting of Claims <ul><li>Usually drafted in a single sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Always in the present tense </li></ul><ul><li>First claim is generally broader and then progress to narrower claims </li></ul><ul><li>Claim minimum number of elements </li></ul><ul><li>A claim generally has three parts </li></ul><ul><li>- Preamble </li></ul><ul><li>- Transition </li></ul><ul><li>- Body </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Preamble: </li></ul><ul><li>It is an introductory statement indicating the subject matter of the invention </li></ul><ul><li>- An apparatus for cleaning… </li></ul><ul><li>- A method of making herbal oil… </li></ul><ul><li>Transition: </li></ul><ul><li>It is the next part of the claim and stands between preamble and a body. </li></ul><ul><li>- An apparatus for cleaning the wall comprising of… </li></ul><ul><li>- A method of making herbal oil comprising… </li></ul><ul><li>An indicative list of regularly used open ended transitions is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Containing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An indicative list of regularly used closed ended transitions is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consisting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Body of the claim: </li></ul><ul><li>It recites the elements/limitations/steps and describes how the elements cooperate with one another [structurally functionally or physically] </li></ul><ul><li>Positive recitation-every element has to be introduced before describing it </li></ul><ul><li>Can be in the form of a single paragraph or subparagraph </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>A banana slicing machine comprising: </li></ul><ul><li>a. A top section and a bottom section mounted on a frame; </li></ul><ul><li>b. The said top section fitted with plurality of feed chutes </li></ul><ul><li>and forced feed system; and </li></ul><ul><li>c. The said bottom section is adapted with a main shaft, fly </li></ul><ul><li>wheel, knives, adjuster and knife spacer. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of claims <ul><li>Two basic types of claims </li></ul><ul><li>Independent claim </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent claim </li></ul><ul><li>Independent claim </li></ul><ul><li>Stand alone claim/does not depend on any claim </li></ul><ul><li>Broadest claim </li></ul><ul><li>Different embodiments of the same invention can have an independent claim such as a method, apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>But should be covered by the unity of invention </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>A product to boost photosynthesis and yield in agriculture and horticulture crops comprising Melamine. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Dependent claim </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on another claim </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on an independent claim or another dependent claim </li></ul><ul><li>It incorporates all the limitations of the claim on which it is dependent on </li></ul><ul><li>- as claimed in 1 </li></ul><ul><li> - a method according to claim 1 </li></ul><ul><li>- an apparatus of claim 1 </li></ul><ul><li>A dependent claim may add to the claim on which it is dependent on </li></ul><ul><li>- one or more elements </li></ul><ul><li>- a further description or limitation of one or more elements </li></ul><ul><li>of the parent claim, or </li></ul><ul><li>- both </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>1. A weighing apparatus comprising: Weighing balance; Electric circuit; and Power supply source. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein weighing balance comprises a beam, weight measuring pans, metal strip and bracket. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The apparatus as claimed in claim 2, wherein the metal strip freely suspends at middle of the beam. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Major Types of Claims <ul><li>Product Claim </li></ul><ul><li>A claim that covers a structure, apparatus or composition of a product, article etc </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: A machine for husking areca nut comprising: Feed hopper; Husking chamber; Husk blower; Connecting shaft; and Motor for husking disk. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Process or Method Claim </li></ul><ul><li>A claim that covers the method by which an invention is performed by defining the steps to be followed. It can be method or manufacture of a product. </li></ul><ul><li>A process may be a mechanical, electrical or chemical. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: A method for removing ammonia from fly ash comprising subjecting ammonia containing fly ash to a water mist or fog wherein the water mist or fog contacts the ammonia containing fly-ash and removes the ammonia from the fly ash and then subjecting the fly ash to gas/particle separation to produce a fly ash of reduced ammonia content. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Product by process Claim </li></ul><ul><li>This is a product claim where the product is defined by its process of manufacture, especially in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: 1. A product obtained by the process of claim </li></ul><ul><li>X </li></ul><ul><li>2. A resistor comprising: a ceramic core; a coating of carbon deposited on the core by decomposing a hydrocarbon gas in the presence of the core: and a stripe conductive material. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Two part/Jepson type Claim </li></ul><ul><li>It recites all or some of the elements of a known article, process, composition or combination in the preamble, includes a transition that states ‘wherein the improvement comprises of’ and recites in the body of the claim the new or modified elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: An improved writing device having a writing device and an erasing device wherein the improvement comprises: a connector wherein the said writing device is connected to the said erasing device. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Mean plus function Claim </li></ul><ul><li>It includes a technical feature expressed in functional terms of the type ‘means for converting a digital signal to analog signal’. It covers the recited functions described in the specification and at equivalents there of, to the extent that the specification provides such disclosure. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: An apparatus for shaking articles in a container comprising: means for oscillating the container to shake the articles. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Markush Claim </li></ul><ul><li>A Markush claim recites members as being selected from the group consisting of A, B,C. The specific members should be in the generic field. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: A compound of formula 1 wherein Y is selected from S, O and NR1; wherein R1 is selected from alkyl group; wherein X is selected from one or more substituents selected from halo, cyano and nitro. </li></ul><ul><li>The motor vehicle of claim 1, wherein the fluid is a gas selected from a group consisting of air, nitrogen, propane and fluorine. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Swiss Claim </li></ul><ul><li>It is intended to cover the second or subsequent medical use of a known substance or composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: A process for the manufacture of a medicament for use in the treatment of medical condition Y characterized by the use of substance X. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Dependent Claims </li></ul><ul><li>A multiple dependent claim is any dependent claim which refers to more than one other claim. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: A method according to anyone of the claims 1 to 3, wherein the said connector includes bolt, rivet. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Omnibus Claim </li></ul><ul><li>It includes a reference to the description or drawings without stating explicitly any technical features of the product or process claimed. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: An apparatus as described in the description </li></ul><ul><li>A device as shown in Fig 1 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thank you