Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Are United States' Courts Adopting an Essential Elements Test for Patent Validity?

1,314 views

Published on

A review of decisions by the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit relating to the description requirement of 35 USC 112. Recent cases such as ICU Medical and Automotive Technologies v. BMW are discussed.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • D0WNL0AD FULL ▶ ▶ ▶ ▶ http://1lite.top/xcZsI ◀ ◀ ◀ ◀
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (Unlimited) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Are United States' Courts Adopting an Essential Elements Test for Patent Validity?

  1. 1. Is the U.S. Adopting an "Essential Element" Test for Patent Validity? David J. Thibodeau Jr. April 2009
  2. 2. 35 USC §112 <ul><ul><li>( ¶ 1) The specification shall contain a written description of the invention, and of the manner and process of making and using it, in such full, clear, concise, and exact terms as to enable any person skilled in the art to which it pertains, or with which it is most nearly connected, to make and use the same, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and shall set forth the best mode contemplated by the inventor of carrying out his invention. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 35 USC §112 <ul><ul><li>( ¶ 2) The specification shall conclude with one or more claims particularly pointing out and distinctly claiming the subject matter which the applicant regards as his invention ….. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( ¶ 6) An element in a claim for a combination may be expressed as a means or step for performing a specified function without the recital of structure, material, or acts in support thereof, and such claim shall be construed to cover the corresponding structure, material, or acts described in the specification and equivalents thereof. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The law prior to July 2005 <ul><li>Spectra Physics v. Coherent (Fed. Cir. 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;If the claimed invention pertains to an art where the results are predictable, e.g., mechanical or electrical versus chemical, </li></ul><ul><li> a broad claim can be enabled by the disclosure of a single embodiment and </li></ul><ul><li>is not invalid simply because it reads on another embodiment “ </li></ul>
  5. 5. The law prior to July 2005 <ul><li>Northern Telecom v. Datapoint (Fed. Cir. 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Where the claimed invention is not in the details of the program, but in the claimed combination of method steps, </li></ul><ul><li>the fact that many designs for the software are possible or whether each programmer would work out the details in an identical way is not relevant “ </li></ul>
  6. 6. The law prior to July 2005 <ul><li>S3 Inc. v. nVidia (Fed. Cir. 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; The purpose of the claims is not to explain the technology or how it works, but to state the legal boundaries of the patent grant …. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A claim is not indefinite simply because it is hard to understand &quot; </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Law circa 2005 <ul><li>Philips v. AWH (Fed. Cir. 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>A claim term is read not only in the context of the particular claim in which it appears, but in the context of the entire patent, including the specification. </li></ul><ul><li>The fact that the written description .. sets forth multiple objectives should not be read restrictively so as to require that the [claim] ... serve all of the [stated] objectives. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lizard Tech (October 2005)
  9. 9. Lizard Tech <ul><li>A method for selectively viewing areas of an image at multiple resolutions … comprising the steps of: … </li></ul><ul><li>performing on a computer one or more discrete wavelet transformation (DWT)-based compression processes over each said tile image data T ij (x,y) in a selected sequence to output each said T ij (x,y) as a succession of DWT coefficients . . . ; </li></ul><ul><li>maintaining updated sums of said DWT coefficients from said discrete tile image T ij (x,y) to form a seamless DWT of said I(x,y) </li></ul><ul><li>21. A method comprising the steps of: </li></ul><ul><li>performing one or more discrete wavelet transformation (DWT)-based compression processes on each said tile image data T.sub.ij (x,y) in a selected sequence to output each said discrete tile image data T.sub.ij (x,y) as a succession of DWT coefficients … </li></ul><ul><li>selecting a viewing set … to be viewed at a desired resolution. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lizard Tech <ul><li>Lourie, Michel and Newman (majority opinion): </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;[The c]laims must be interpreted, in light of the written description, but not beyond it , because otherwise they would be interpreted to cover inventions or aspects of an invention that have not been disclosed. Claims are not necessarily limited to preferred embodiments, but, if there are no other embodiments, and no other disclosure, then they may be so limited . &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Rader and Gajarsa (in dissent): </li></ul><ul><li>“ This court’s written description jurisprudence has become opaque to the point of obscuring other areas of the law.”   </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lizard Tech <ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Although the specification need only include enough detail to convince a person of skill in the art that the inventor possessed the invention, </li></ul><ul><li>one cannot always support broad claim language by describing only a single embodiment . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Automotive Tech v. BMW et al.
  13. 13. Automotive Tech <ul><li>A side impact crash sensor for a vehicle having front and rear wheels, said sensor comprising: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) a housing; </li></ul><ul><li>(b) a mass within said housing movable relative to said housing in response to accelerations of said housing; </li></ul><ul><li>(c) means responsive to the motion of said mass upon acceleration of said housing in excess of a predetermined threshold value, for initiating an occupant protection apparatus; and </li></ul><ul><li>(d) means for mounting said housing onto at least one of a side door of the vehicle … between the centers of the front and rear wheels. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Automotive Tech <ul><li>District Court (trial level): &quot;Markman&quot; hearing construed the means clause to include both mechanical and electronic sensors </li></ul><ul><li>CAFC: &quot;Under the district court’s construction, however, that full scope must be enabled… The specification’s enablement of one mode of practicing the invention (the mechanical sensor) was not sufficient to satisfy the enablement requirement for a broader claim directed to all types of sensors &quot; </li></ul>
  15. 15. Automotive Tech <ul><li>Observations: </li></ul><ul><li> One way to avoid this problem – draft the specification accordingly </li></ul><ul><li>Claims in “means plus function” format are not a panacea </li></ul><ul><li>Neither are broad claims ! </li></ul>
  16. 16. ICU Medical v. Alaris Medical
  17. 17. ICU Medical <ul><li>A medical valve comprising: </li></ul><ul><li>a body including an internal cavity … having an opening sufficiently large to receive a delivery end of a medical implement which transfers fluid through said delivery end; </li></ul><ul><li>a resilient seal which is adapted to be moved into a compressed state upon insertion of the medical implement into said opening … </li></ul><ul><li>[[[ a spike having a tip and a passageway with a hole that allows fluid to flow through said passageway ]]] </li></ul>
  18. 18. ICU Medical <ul><li>SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The valve of this invention has several features … </li></ul><ul><li>The first feature of this invention is that the valve has a body including wall structure defining an internal cavity …. The second feature is [a] spike [that] has a tip with at least one hole located at or near the tip, and a passageway in communication with the hole that allows fluid to flow. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Ex Parte Miyazaki <ul><li> &quot; if a claim is amenable to two or more plausible constructions, the USPTO is justified in requiring the applicant to more precisely define the metes and bounds of the claimed invention … </li></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusions and drafting tips <ul><li>The CAFC does not have an “essential elements” test </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>obtaining broad claim coverage requires careful consideration of what the invention truly is, with precisely described alternate embodiments. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusions and drafting tips <ul><li>- Means claims, while (a) newly important and (b) having the potential to avoid this issue, are not a panacea </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid statements in the specification and during prosecution such as “The invention is X….” or &quot;It is essential that Y&quot;, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguities (or even multiple plausible interpretations) of claim terms may lead to invalidity – more than before </li></ul>
  22. 22. For the litigators <ul><li>Expect accused infringers to try invalidating a claim under 112 ¶ 1 when </li></ul><ul><li>- patentee obtains a broad Markman ruling </li></ul><ul><li>- accused device encompass any &quot;embodiments&quot; not </li></ul><ul><li>explicitly disclosed in the specification </li></ul><ul><li>- a claim element is eliminated during prosecution </li></ul><ul><li>- a feature is described in the specification as being </li></ul><ul><li>“ the invention” “important” “essential” etc. </li></ul><ul><li>regardless of what the claims actually say </li></ul>
  23. 23. Case citations / further reading <ul><li>&quot;Written Description Training Materials&quot;, U.S. Patent Office, March 2008 see: www.uspto.gov/web/menu/written.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Ariad v. Eli Lilly (Fed. Cir. 2008-1248, decided April 3, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive Technologies v. BMW et al., 501 F.3d. 1274 (Fed. Cir. 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex Parte Miyazaki, 89 U.S.P.Q.2D (BNA) 1207 (Bd. Pat. App. Int. 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>ICU Medical v. Alaris Medical (Fed. Cir. 2008-1077 decided March 13, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Liebel-Flarsheim v. Medrad, 481 F3d 1371 (Fed. Cir. 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Lizard Tech v. Earth Resources Mapping, 424 F.3d 1336 (Fed. Cir. 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Telecom v. Datapoint, 908 F.2d 931 (Fed. Cir. 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>cert. denied, 498 U.S. 920 (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Philips v. AWH Corp. 415 F.2d 1303 (Fed. Cir. 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>S3 Inc. v. nVidia , 259 F.3d 1364 (Fed. Cir. 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Spectra Physics v. Coherent, 827 F.2d 1524 (Fed. Cir. 1987) </li></ul>

×