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- an extended expression of thoughts or ideas
- utterance, talk, speech, discussion, and
* The ideas in discourse are not connected or do
not have a particular structure.
- a large unit of written language
- a group of ideas put together to make a point or
one central idea
- has a structure which requires the ideas in the
discourse to be relevant to each other
- an actually connected discourse
Properties of a Well-written Text
- refers to the arrangement of ideas in a text
* Creating an outline of ideas before you start
writing can help your work become organized.
- provides a format in which ideas can be
arranged in a hierarchy- that is, it distinguishes
the general ideas from the specific or
2. Coherence and Cohesion
- refer to the connection of ideas and
connection between sentences and between
* In order for you to assure coherence and
cohesion, you need to use transitional or
3. Appropriate Language Use
- refers to the acceptable style of language for a
particular form of text
4. Proper Mechanics
- refers to the conventions of writing which
includes capitalization, punctuation, spelling,
numerals, abbreviations, acronyms and
- the study of words, how they are formed, and
their relationship to other words in the same
- analyzes the structure of words and parts of
words, such as root words, prefixes, and
Two Types of Morpheme:
1. Free Morpheme
2. Bound Morpheme
- the smallest grammatical unit in a language
1. Free Morpheme
- can function independently as a word
Examples: house, cat, blood
2. Bound Morpheme
- a word element attached to a root word
(the main part of a word) to give it another
- cannot function independently as a word
Examples: affixes (prefixes and suffixes)
- a morpheme that is attached to a root word to
form a new word
- a morpheme that comes before a root word
- a morpheme that comes after a root word
Two Varieties of Suffixes
- modify the grammatical class of words by
signaling a change in number, tense, degrees
of comparison, and so on, but they do not shift
the base form into another word class
1. Inflectional Suffixes
Inflectional Morphemes Added to Examples
-s plural Nouns She got two guitars.
-'s possessive Nouns Zeynep's hair is too long.
-er comparative Adjectives Zeynep hair is longer than Derya.
-est superlative Adjectives Zeynep has the longest hair.
-s 3rd person singular
Verbs Zeynep plays the guitar.
-ed past tense Verbs She played the guitar at the party.
-ing progressive Verbs She is playing the guitar at the party.
-en past participle Verbs She has taken the guitar at the party.
- modify either the part of speech or the actual
meaning of a word
2. Derivational Suffixes
Derivational Morpheme Meaning Examples
-al relating to formal, postal, practical
-less without homeless, hopeless
-ous full of famous, cautious
-hood state, condition, quality brotherhood, neighborhood
- combination of two different words
back + ward = backward (towards the reverse direction)
book + shelf = bookshelf (storage of books)
full + moon = full moon (a moon appearing as a bright circle)
six + pack = six-pack (often in reference to a pack of drinks)
- are words, phrases, and sentences that
surround an unfamiliar word and help you
recognize the meaning of an unknown word
The narrator in the poem was euphoric at his son's
victory, for he cried out triumphantly when the boy
- victorious; triumphant; very happy and excited
1. Synonyms - used when the text has words or
phrases that ae similar in meaning to the unknown
a. This situation is a conundrum - a puzzle.
- a confusing or a difficult situation
b. Humpty Dumpty took great pleasure in
obfuscating the poem's meaning to Alice. His
explanations about the poem were confusing
- making more difficult to understand;
c. We are planning a picnic for today. It is
sunny and warm outside. It will be an idyllic
day - just perfect for a picnic.
- perfect; very peaceful, happy, and enjoyable
Although Mary was willing to play in the snow,
Jack was reluctant because he was so cold.
- not willing to do something
2. Antonyms - words that reveal the opposite meaning
in relation to the unknown word
a. Marty is gregarious, not like his brother
who is quiet and shy.
- sociable; outgoing; extrovert
b. The lanky dog was not fat, even though he
ate a lot.
c. The rich woman gave a paltry sum to the
charity even though she was able to give
-very small or too small in amount
Projectiles include those items that are shot forward
such as a cannon shell, bullet, or rocket.
- things (such as bullet or rocket) that are shot from
3. Examples - are specific details in a text that are
used to clarify the meaning of a word
a. Famous conquistadors include Cortes, who
conquered Aztec Mexico and Pizarro, who
conquered Inca Peru.
- conquerors; ones that take control of
(a country or city) through the use of force
b. A sleuth, such as Sherlock Holmes, can be
very helpful in solving crimes.
- someone who looks for information to solve
c. Precipitation, such as rain and snow, falls
from the sky.
- water that falls to the ground (such as rain
The prisoner was in a state of wrath—a feeling of
- extreme anger
4. Definition - is usually signaled by a form of the
verb to be (am, is, are, was, were) or by commas or
a. To shun someone is to have nothing to do
with that person.
- to avoid deliberately
b. He seemed to be ill, but it was merely a
ruse, that is, a clever trick to deceive us.
- a trick or act that is used to fool someone
- a wily subterfuge
c. Sedentary individuals, people who are not
very active, often have diminished health.
- not doing or involving much physical
An evanescent ring surrounded the moon as it rose.
It was there for a moment, and then it disappeared.
- lasting a very short time; brief; momentary
5. Explanation - words or phrases that explain the
unfamiliar word's meaning
a. Elis is a blithe young girl. She always
greets everyone with a smile.
- cheerful; happy, lighthearted
b. Katie appeared infallible in math class
because she had never gotten a problem
- not capable of being wrong
c. The tornado annihilated the whole town to
the point that nothing was left standing.
- destroyed; eradicated; exterminated;
- is identified by the use of “like,” “as,” “similar to,” and
the like. They compare dissimilar objects that share certain
1. When he walked into the room, the entire audience
looked up, like flowers turning towards the sun.
2. His headache was as painful as a root canal without the
benefit of laughing gas.
- directly refers to the object being described as being or
previously being the object it is compared or connected to
1. The boom of his voice, all thunder and lightning,
echoed through the entire hall.
2. The dog was a jack-in-the-box, trying to jump up on the
A text is a connected discourse, which
means that all ideas in the text must be
related in the sense that they would express
only one main idea, or that the text must
have unity by combining all ideas to
emphasize central idea.