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Identifying claims

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Identifying claims

  1. 1. IDENTIFYING CLAIMS:EXPLICIT & IMPLICITRooneyEnglish 207
  2. 2. Warning:  There is MUCH in this presentation to wrap your head around.  Don’t panic. 
  3. 3. Parts of an Argument  Claims  Reasons
  4. 4. Evaluating an Argument  Validity of the argument  Analyzing logic and evidence
  5. 5. Analyzing an Argument  Identify the claim: what is the single unifying idea the argument wants you to believe?  Separate the reasons from the other elements of the argument (such as appeals to other Line of Argument)  Separate the reasons from each other  Identify and state the implicit reason behind each of these explicit reasons (this is the hard part)  Identify the evidence necessary to prove each reason and evaluate whether or not the argument has adequately presented that evidence.  Examine the logic used to connect all these elements to the claim.
  6. 6. Basic Argument Outline Claim/Thesis: (Only one per argument) R1) Explicit Reason Supporting Claim: Evidence/Proof Supporting Explicit Reason: Implicit Reason/Assumption/Warrant: Evidence/Proof Supporting Implicit Reason: Evaluation Of This Reason; Why Is It Valid Or Invalid?: R2) Explicit Reason Supporting Claim: Evidence/Proof Supporting Explicit Reason: Implicit Reason/Assumption/Warrant: Evidence/Proof Supporting Implicit Reason: Evaluation Of This Reason; Why Is It Valid Or Invalid?: (and so on)
  7. 7. Explicit and Implicit ClaimsExplicit Implicit Usually found in argument  Assumptions & context Easily identified by linking (when, where & why) to “because”  Often infer values Example:  Values are dependent on  Jack is guilty of murder context  (because he killed Jill)  Example:  what is the difference between kill and murder? (on purpose, self defense, time of war?)
  8. 8. Basic Argument Outline Claim/Thesis: Jack murdered Jill  Explicit Reason Supporting Claim: because he shot her on the way down the hill  Evidence/Proof Supporting Explicit Reason: ??  Implicit Reason/Assumption/Warrant: he shot her on purpose  Evidence/Proof Supporting Implicit Reason: ??  Implicit Reason/Assumption/Warrant: the shooting was not justified  Evidence/Proof Supporting Implicit Reason: ??  Evaluation Of This Reason; Why Is It Valid Or Invalid?
  9. 9. Determining Validity Step 1: State the source’s Claim or Thesis as accurately and clearly as possible.
  10. 10. Determining Validity Step 2:  Locate and summarize the Explicit Reasons (ERs); state the ER as if it followed the Claim and the word “because”.  Example: “…because it is threatening the salmon population.”
  11. 11. Determining Validity Step 3:  Locate the Implicit Reasons (IRs) for each Explicit Reason.  To find the IR: write an “IF the IR (is true), THEN Claim (is true)” sentence.  You may need or want to broaden the Explicit Reason to state a general value or rule.  State the line of reasoning as charitably and accurately as possible.  Example:  “IF something threatens the salmon population, THEN it should be removed”  or, without the “IF, THEN” formula, the Implicit Reason could also read:  “threats to the salmon population should be removed” or, “the value of saving salmon outweighs the value of the dams”
  12. 12. Determining Validity Step 4:  Now, for each ER, find two sets of information:  a) evidence that the Explicit Reason is true and  b) evidence that the Implicit Reason is true:  ER Evidence = quotations and/or factual information. For our example, you simply need to prove that the dams indeed threaten the salmon population. Note proving this will be a matter of data, of numbers and facts.  IR Evidence = tricky - the IR is usually implied in the overall context the source speaks to. Since the implicit reason usually refers to values (valuing salmon, valuing dams), and because context refers to “who, what, where, when, why”, you will usually find there are no universal appeals to Implicit Reasons: if your farm depends on Snake River dams, you will value the dams more than, say, if your livelihood depends on salmon fishing.
  13. 13. Final Thoughts  Note that this process may reveal flaws and inconsistencies in the source’s argument.  More likely, though, this process will reveal the heart of the argument and point us to the real issues that need to be settled.
  14. 14. Review:Finding Explicit and Implicit Claims1. State the source’s Claim or Thesis as accurately and clearly as possible.2. Locate and summarize the Explicit Reasons (ERs); state the ER as if it followed the Claim and the word “because”.3. Locate the Implicit Reasons (IRs) for each Explicit Reason.  To find the IR: write an “IF the IR (is true), THEN Claim (is true)” sentence.  You may need or want to broaden the Explicit Reason to state a general value or rule.  State the line of reasoning as charitably and accurately as possible.4. Now, for each ER, find two sets of information:  evidence that the Explicit Reason is true and  evidence that the Implicit Reason is true

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