AS Biology 3.6 Describe applications of biotechnological techniques to meet human
needs and demands (3 credits)
Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence
• • •
Describe applications of Explain applications of Discuss applications of
biotechnological biotechnological biotechnological techniques
techniques to meet human techniques to meet human to meet human needs and
needs and demands. needs and demands. demands.
On completion of this unit you should be able to-
Understand biotechnological techniques:
Describe the action of restriction enzymes, giving the recognition sites for named
examples that produce DNA fragments with blunt and sticky ends.
Describe the role of DNA ligase in producing a molecule of recombinant DNA.Explain
how reverse transcriptase is used to create artificial genes, comparing it to the role
reverse transcriptase plays in retroviruses
Describe the steps involved in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and link DNA
amplification to its applications.
Explain how gene therapy works.
Describe the process of gel electrophoresis, linking it to its applications.
Explain how DNA sequencing works, linking the needs of the human genome project to
the development of automated DNA sequencing.
Describe the techniques involved in plant tissue culture, listing advantages and
disadvantages over traditional propagation methods.
Describe the methods used to clone animals from embryonic and non-embryonic tissues.
Understand biotechnological applications:
Describe some of the common vectors used in gene cloning, eg. plasmids.
Describe, using diagrams, the steps involved in gene cloning.
Explain what is meant by a transgenic organism, describing how transgenesis is carried
Explain how recombinant DNA technology, cloning and tissue culture have impacted on
the advance of biotechnology.
Describe the techniques behind DNA profiling and discuss some of its applications.
Describe the techniques behind genome analysis and discuss some of its applications.
Explain how the need for new pharmaceuticals and other products is linked to the
development of biotechnological techniques.