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Designing & Learning from Passivhaus Education Buildings

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Keynote presented on behalf of Architype UK at the second South Pacific Passive House Conference, Melbourne, February 2016.
Presentation covered:
- Pre-Passivhaus Schools designed by Architype
- Passivhaus Schools 1.0
- Learning from the first generation of Passivhaus Schools
- Passivhaus Schools 2.0
- Monitoring the first and second generation of Passivhaus Schools
- Passivhaus Schools 3.0
- Passivhaus University

Published in: Design
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Designing & Learning from Passivhaus Education Buildings

  1. 1. Designing and Learning from PASSIVHAUS Education Buildings #SPPHC16 Melbourne 13 Feb 2016
  2. 2. We design Life Enhancing Genuinely Sustainable Architecture Elrond Burrell, Associate
  3. 3. Overview Pre-Passivhaus Schools Passivhaus Schools 1.0 Learning Passivhaus Schools 2.0 Monitoring Passivhaus Schools 3.0 Passivhaus University
  4. 4. Pre-Passivhaus Schools
  5. 5. St Luke’s
  6. 6. The Willows
  7. 7. Cwm Ifor
  8. 8. Passivhaus Schools 1.0
  9. 9. Optimise the form
  10. 10. Optimise the form Oakmeadow Primary School Bushbury Hills Primary School
  11. 11. How deep? Single storey Two storey 14m deep 18m deep 22m deep 22mdeepfaceE/W 14m deep 18m deep 22m deep 22mdeep faceE/W
  12. 12. (More) rational plan Oakmeadow Primary School
  13. 13. Bushbury Hills Primary School
  14. 14. GROUND FLOOR Total Gross Internal Area 1427.6 Sq m CANOPY CANOPY CANOPY CANOPY NURSERY TOILETS RECEPTION TOILETS B SHOWER TROLLEY Nom. 1950 x 750mm A B C A C KEY TEACHING AREAS STAFF AREAS AUXILLARY AREAS STORAGE MULTI-USE AREAS COMMUNITY FACILITIES CIRCULATION NURSERY 79.3m! RECEPTION PE. STORE STAGE/ SPECIAL STORE 9.8 CENTRAL STOCK ROOM ACC. TOILET ACC. TOILET REPRO. COMMU. STORE SPEC. STORE 4.5 COMMUNITY ROOM YEAR 3 YEAR 4 YEAR 5YEAR 6 KITCHEN SERVERY/ CHAIR STORE INTERVIEW ROOM 8.3 GROUP ROOM SENco HYGIENE ROOM MAIN HALL YEAR 1 YEAR 2 KS2 BOYS TOILETS 9.1 KS2 GIRLS TOILETS 9.1 SPECIAL STORE 12.5 GROUP ROOM KS1 BOYS TOILETS KS1 GIRLS TOILETS SOFT READING AREA LIBRARY AREA ICT AREA PRACTICAL AREA FOOD TECHNOLOGY READING AREA OFFICE DRY STORE TOILET LOBBY LOCKERS LOCKERS LOCKERS LOCKERS LOCKERS LOCKERS LOCKERS STAFFROOM FOOD PREP STO. 1.1 GENERAL OFFICE SEN THERAPY/ MI ROOM HEAD OFFICE/ MEETING ROOM MAIN RECEPTION/ WAITING AREA 18.1 Possiblefuturefoldingpartition LOBBY 6.7 OPENING ROOF LIGHT BARRIER MATTING WET AREA BARRIER MATTING WET AREABARRIER MATTING WET AREA BARRIER MATTING WET AREA BARRIER MATTINGWET AREA BARRIER MATTING WET AREA BARRIER MATTING WET AREA BARRIER MATTING WET AREA CANOPY LOW LEVEL PARTITION LOWLEVELPARTITION 2.2mFOLDINGPARTITION 2.2mFOLDINGPARTITION BARRIER MATTING BARRIER MATTING BARRIER MATTING SERVER LOCATION (TBC) CARETAKER/ CLEANER STORE LOCKERS CLOAKS CLOAKS 2.2mFOLDINGPARTITION CIRCULATION 32.6 CIRCULATION 10.2 CIRCULATION 11.6 KEY STAGE 2 HUB SPACE 152.8 KEY STAGE 1 HUB SPACE 78.6 Possible Access Hatch PLANT ROOM 26.8 void CIRCULATION 16.7 FIRST FLOOR Total Gross Internal Area 44.3 Sq m Swillington Primary School
  15. 15. (More) rational section Section: Oakmeadow Primary
  16. 16. Design out thermal bridges Structural slab Load Insulation Insulation Structural slab Load Insulation Insulation
  17. 17. Model + Test Structural slab Load Insulation Insulation Structural slab Load Insulation Insulation
  18. 18. Keep structure inside
  19. 19. . . . or outside
  20. 20. Design in airtightness
  21. 21. Optimise daylight & solar gain Oakmeadow Primary School Bushbury Hills Primary School
  22. 22. . . . and ventilation Simple secure night ventilation grilles Wolfgang loves it!
  23. 23. Reduce demand by design Induction hobs & low energy appliances • reduce surplus heat • reduce ventilation • reduce PE
  24. 24. Collaborate Across the whole team - consultants, specialists, client, contractor, and supply chain
  25. 25. Maintain design quality No compromise of brief, client aspiration, architectural quality or sustainable materials Bushbury Hills Primary School
  26. 26. Oakmeadow Primary School
  27. 27. Swillington Primary School
  28. 28. Client Outcomes “We feel that our children are more alert and attentive in lessons due to the amount of daylight in classrooms and the fresh air throughout the school. The fact that the new school is built to passivhaus standards means that learning has been enhanced. Our pupils are comfortable, secure and stimulated by their new environment; hence they learn very well!” Sara Morris, Head Teacher, Oak Meadow Primary School
  29. 29. Comparative costs (1.0) Capita Symonds ‘typical sustainable school’ St Luke’s 2009 BREEAM Excellent school Oakmeadow Passivhaus school Bushbury Hills Passivhaus school BCIS Schools Current Excludes: external works, fees, abnormals, ICT, FF&E Adjusted to current date and national average £2,151/sqm £2,080/sqm £1,855/sqm £1,820/sqm £1,782/sqm
  30. 30. Building services costs (1.0) Capita Symonds ‘typical sustainable school’ St Luke’s 2009 BREEAM Excellent school Oakmeadow Passivhaus school + Reduced M&E = Reduced maintenance costs £454/sqm £357/sqm £323/sqm
  31. 31. Construction budgets If you think it will cost more, it will
  32. 32. Passivhaus on budget 1. Work to the budget 2. Cost planning & design optimisation 3. Value engineer early (not cost cutting later) 4. Holistic design team approach 5. Procurement (Cost of competitive tender?) 6. Supply chain involvement 7. Open book negotiation (?)
  33. 33. Learning from 1.0
  34. 34. Airtight detailing: architect
  35. 35. Airtight detailing: subcontractor
  36. 36. Timber frame Airtight detailing: on site
  37. 37. Airtight detailing: on site Windows
  38. 38. MVHR & duct routes Fresh air supplied to all main rooms MVHR
  39. 39. MVHR & duct routes Cascade & simplified extract (even shorter routes) MVHR
  40. 40. Windows & curtain walling Clerestory windows, not curtain walling Actuators mounted on windows Only on high level windows = significantly less actuators
  41. 41. Bushbury Hill Primary School Figures are based first year readings. Gas 21kWh/(m2.a) Space heating*: 14kWh/(m2.a) Hot water*: 7kWh/(m2.a) Electric 55kWh/(m2.a) Lighting: 12kWh/(m2.a) Power & plant: 22kWh/(m2.a) Kitchen: 7kWh/(m2.a) Sprinklers: 14kWh/(m2.a) Primary energy is higher than the target 120 kWh/(m2.a) Sprinklers = 38kWh/(m2.a) PE Main success: Kitchen energy & comfort Main lessons: Issues with automatic lighting controls and sprinkler systems. Sprinklers
  42. 42. From standard uninsulated sprinkler pump housing to super-insulated pumphaus Sprinkler pumphouse
  43. 43. Great daylighting compromised by over complicated controls Lighting controls
  44. 44. Users and maintenance teams engage with a Passivhaus school Operations & maintenance
  45. 45. One gas boiler is more than enough Heating
  46. 46. Heating via kiddywatts
  47. 47. User “how-to” guides
  48. 48. Passivhaus Schools 2.0
  49. 49. Wilkinson Primary School
  50. 50. Ground Floor
  51. 51. First Floor
  52. 52. Sections
  53. 53. Just 1 boiler!
  54. 54. Comparative costs (2.0) Oakmeadow Passivhaus school Bushbury Hills Passivhaus school Wilkinson Passivhaus school BCIS Schools Current Excludes: external works, fees, abnormals, ICT, FF&E Adjusted to current date and national average £1,855/sqm £1,820/sqm £1,800/sqm £1,782/sqm
  55. 55. Monitoring
  56. 56. Monitoring method & studied parameters
  57. 57. 4 Oak Meadow 2011 5 Bushbury Hill 2011 6 Wilkinson 2013 Monitored Primary Schools Passivhaus schools Non-Passivhaus schools 1 Much Birch 1970 2 St Luke’s 2009 3 Willows 2010
  58. 58. 4 Oak Meadow 2011 5 Bushbury Hill 2011 6 Wilkinson 2013 Monitored Primary Schools Passivhaus schools Non-Passivhaus schools 1 Much Birch 1970 2 St Luke’s 2009 3 Willows 2010
  59. 59. 4 Oak Meadow 2011 5 Bushbury Hill 2011 6 Wilkinson 2013 Monitored Primary Schools Passivhaus schools Non-Passivhaus schools 1 Much Birch 1970 2 St Luke’s 2009 3 Willows 2010
  60. 60. 4 Oak Meadow 2011 5 Bushbury Hill 2011 6 Wilkinson 2013 Monitored Primary Schools Passivhaus schools Non-Passivhaus schools 1 Much Birch 1970 2 St Luke’s 2009 3 Willows 2010
  61. 61. 4 Oak Meadow 2011 5 Bushbury Hill 2011 6 Wilkinson 2013 Monitored Primary Schools Passivhaus schools Non-Passivhaus schools 1 Much Birch 1970 2 St Luke’s 2009 3 Willows 2010
  62. 62. 4 Oak Meadow 2011 5 Bushbury Hill 2011 6 Wilkinson 2013 Monitored Primary Schools Passivhaus schools Non-Passivhaus schools 1 Much Birch 1970 2 St Luke’s 2009 3 Willows 2010
  63. 63. Energy consumption Note: Gas / Biomass boilers supply both heating and hot water, except some localised electric water heating
  64. 64. 150 100 50 0 Total thermal energy consumed kWh/m2 TFA p.a. [All included: not just heating] Gas Biomass 2013 2014 Wilkinson 2nd generation PH / 2013 11 2013 2014 Bushbury Hill 1st generation PH / 2011 3733 Oak Meadow 1st generation PH / 2011 2013 2014 28 29 2013 2014 Willows pre-PH / 2010 St Luke’s pre-PH / 2009 5253 2013 2014 30 107 117 9 28 17 Monitoring Energy Use / Heating & hot water
  65. 65. kWh/sqm/year 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 CIBSE CIBSE TM46 BREEAM2Very2Good BREEAM2Excellent Passivhaus Passivhaus Passivhaus Typical Good2 pracGce Median Willows St2Lukes Oakmeadow Bushbury Wilkinson 90+%reduction Monitored thermal energy consumption vs UK Benchmarks
  66. 66. kWh/sqm/year 0 50 100 150 200 250 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 CIBSE CIBSE TM46 BREEAM2Very2Good BREEAM2Excellent Passivhaus Passivhaus Passivhaus Typical Good2 pracGce Median Willows St2Lukes Oakmeadow Bushbury Wilkinson Monitored total energy consumption vs UK Benchmarks 70+%reduction
  67. 67. Why monitor CO2 levels? A good proxy of indoor air quality Provides information on the ventilation rates Affects learning and performance Affects health, exposure to high concentration associated with symptoms, eg headaches
  68. 68. UK regulations for classrooms Absolute maximum 5000 ppm Average should not exceed 1500 ppm Occupants should be able to reduce to below 1000 ppm at any point
  69. 69. Indoor Environment / Indoor Air Quality / Winter
  70. 70. Indoor Environment / Indoor Air Quality / Winter
  71. 71. Indoor Environment / Indoor Air Quality / Winter
  72. 72. Indoor Environment / Indoor Air Quality / Winter
  73. 73. CO2 concentrations typical winter day
  74. 74. Indoor Environment / Indoor Air Quality / Summer
  75. 75. Indoor Environment / Indoor Air Quality / Summer
  76. 76. Indoor Environment / Indoor Air Quality / Summer
  77. 77. CO2 concentrations in occupied hours by season
  78. 78. Thermal Conditions in Winter Thermal comfort Has an effect on energy consumption
  79. 79. UK Guidelines In education spaces air temperature should remain between 19 °C and 23 °C
  80. 80. Indoor Environment / Thermal comfort / Winter
  81. 81. Indoor Environment / Thermal comfort / Winter
  82. 82. Indoor Environment / Thermal comfort / Winter
  83. 83. Indoor Environment / Thermal comfort / Winter
  84. 84. Thermal Conditions in Summer? Future climate projections for the UK indicate longer and more frequent hot spells and higher average temperatures. Overheating risk for all buildings is expected to increase in the next decades Guidelines are currently being reviewed & are bound to become stricter, influenced by overheating risk
  85. 85. UK regulations for classrooms Building Bulletin 101, 2006 Absolute maximum of 32 °C The upper limit of 28° C should not be exceeded for more than 120 occupied hours (75th percentile) Aim for temperatures between 19 °C and 23 °C
  86. 86. Indoor Environment / Thermal comfort / Summer
  87. 87. Indoor Environment / Thermal comfort / Summer
  88. 88. Indoor Environment / Thermal comfort / Summer
  89. 89. Indoor Environment / Thermal comfort / Summer
  90. 90. Passivhaus Schools 3.0 . . . more simplification, especially controls
  91. 91. Burry Port Community Primary No BMS - all manual controls
  92. 92. Trimsaran Primary School BMS for monitoring only Glazing further simplified Timber frame detailing standardised
  93. 93. Ground Floor
  94. 94. First Floor
  95. 95. Parc Y Tywyn
  96. 96. Ground Floor
  97. 97. First Floor
  98. 98. Passivhaus University
  99. 99. The Enterprise Centre University of East Anglia “Exemplary Low Carbon Building” Passivhaus BREEAM outstanding
  100. 100. Sketch Aerial Perspective from South West Future Phase Earlham Hall Enterprise Centre
  101. 101. Ground Floor
  102. 102. First Floor
  103. 103. Embodied carbon
  104. 104. Low embodied carbon
  105. 105. Embodied carbon by element
  106. 106. Lifecycle carbon by element EG. Floor construction Competition proposal Revised proposal (built)
  107. 107. Lifecycle carbon (cumulative) University Benchmark The Enterprise Centre 70+%reduction
  108. 108. Future climate analysis
  109. 109. Future climate cooling analysis 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 350.00 Base Case = 0.3 ACH nat vent, 0.3 ACH night purge, 1 ACH summer mech boost, med/light weight Base case - summer boost (no mech vent in summer) Base Case + 2 ACH summer nat vent Base Case + Increased efficiency cooling, COP 4 Base Case + 2 Massive surfaces (walls) Base Case + All massive construction Totalcarbonemissionsperm2to2100,kgCO2/m2 Total CO2 emissions over 87 yrs for different cooling strategies
  110. 110. + Typical embodied carbon 0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00 700.00 800.00 900.00 Base Case = 0.3 ACH nat vent, 0.3 ACH night purge, 1 ACH summer mech boost, med/light weight Base case - summer boost (no mech vent in summer) Base Case + 2 ACH summer nat vent Base Case + Increased efficiency cooling, COP 4 Base Case + 2 Massive surfaces (walls) Base Case + All massive construction Totalcarbonemissionsperm2to2100,kgCO2/m2 LCA CO2 emissions, operational & typical embodied, for different cooling strategies Net LCA carbon Operational Carbon to 2100
  111. 111. 6 Months operation Electricity = 34,732.6 kwh Heat (from district heating) = 11,228 kwh Using current ‘recharge rates’ of £0.11297 per kwh for elec and £0.02904 for heat the costs are below… Electricity = £3923.74 Heat = £326.06
  112. 112. Measured primary energy (to 14 December 2015)
  113. 113. Total energy use (to 14 December 2015)
  114. 114. Conclusion
  115. 115. Be ambitious and show leadership Your client might not ask for Passivhaus or have even heard of it - that’s no reason not to introduce it!
  116. 116. Use the PHPP as a design tool from day one Work with skilled Passivhaus experts Collaborate with the wider team at every stage Constantly focus on simplicity of design and detailing Relentlessly focus on value engineering to achieve cost
  117. 117. Hold focussed workshops with all key sub-contractors Make rigorous and frequent site inspections Undertake building monitoring and rigorous analysis of data Work with and help end users understand their new environment Learn lessons from monitored data and end user feedback and apply them to the next project
  118. 118. Perfection is achieved, not when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing left to take away. Antoine de Saint-Exupery French writer 1900 – 1944
  119. 119. www.architype.co.uk

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