Nur yahya/ yahya choy1034 0003Reported speech / indirect speech
definition Indirect speech, also called reported speech orindirect discourse, is a means of expressing thecontent of statements, questions or other utterances,without quoting them explicitly as is done in directspeech. We often have to give information about what peoplesay or think. In order to do this you can use direct orquoted speech, or indirect or reported speech.
Statements The reported speech is typically introduced byverbs such as say, tell, admit, complain,explain, remind, reply, think, hope, offer,refuse etc. in the past tense. He said (that) he didnt want it. She explained that she had been at the seaside. If these verbs are in the past tense, we changethe following: a)verb tenses and verb forms, b) pronouns, c) the adverbs of time and place.
Type and exampledirect speech “I speak English.”reported speech(no backshift)He says that he speaksEnglishreported speech(backshift)He said that he spokeEnglish.
Questions When transforming questions, check whether youhave to change: pronouns present tense verbs (3rd person singular) place and time expressions tenses (backshift) Also note that you have to: transform the question into an indirect question use the interrogative or if / whether
Ex: Direct: “why don’t you speak English?” Reported: he asked me why I did not speakEnglish Direct: “do you speak English?” Reported: he asked me whether/if I spoke English
Commands, requests and advice The commands, requests and advice mostly havethe same form in English: verb + object + infinitive(advise, ask, beg, forbid, order, persuade,recommend, tell, urge, warn etc.). Unlike the direct speech the person addressed mustbe mentioned in the indirect speech.
"Get up!" he said. - He told me to get up. "Please, revise for the test," he said. - He urged meto revise for the test. "Put on your coat," I said. - I advised him to put onhis coat. “Sam, open the door.”- he told me to open the door.
Negative commands, requests and advice aremade by verb + object + not + infinitive. "Dont hesitate," he said. - He persuaded me not tohesitate. "Dont smoke," the doctor warned my father. - Thedoctor warned my father not to smoke.
Use of tell Tell can introduce statements, commands,requests or advice. The form is different,however. Statements with tell "Im leaving," he told me. - He told me that he wasleaving. Commands, requests or advice with tell "Leave the room," he told John. - He told John toleave the room. "Dont give up," the teacher told her students. - Theteacher told the students not to give up
exampletype Examplewith interrogative direct speech “Why don’t you speakEnglish?”reportedspeechHe asked me why I didn’tspeak English.without interrogative direct speech “Do you speak English?”reportedspeechHe asked me whether / if Ispoke English.
Requests When transforming questions, check whether youhave to change: pronouns place and time expressionstype exampleDirect speech “Carol, speak English.“Indirect speech He told Carol to speak Englis
Changes in time and place wordsnow then, at that timetoday that daytomorrow the following day, the next day, a day lateryesterday the previous day, the day beforeNext month the following month, the next month, a month laterNext ear the following year, the next, year, a year laterlast month the month before, the previous month, the precedingmonthLast year the year before, the previous year, the preceding yearin two daysweeks)two days from then, two weeks from then5 das ago five days before, five days earlierfive weeks ago five weeks before, five weeks earlierhere There
Exception If the reported sentence deals with a fact or generaltruth, the present tense is (can be) retained. She saidthat the moon causes the tides. If the speaker reports something immediately orsoon after it was said, the noun clause verb oftenremains as spoken.A: What did the conductor say?B: He said that the next stop is Northgate. If will is the modal in the reported utterance andexpresses future time, and if the situation describedin the quote still holds true at the time of the indirectreport, the will may not be changed to would eventhough the reporting verb is in the past tense:Mr. Arden said that a volcanic eruption will occur nextyear.