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DIRECT
AND
INDIRECT SPEECH
Secondary 2
GRAMMAR:
Success Criteria
Aim
• Statement 1 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.
• Statement 2
• Sub statement
Success Criteria
Aim
• OLI: To explain the differences between direct and indirect speech.
• I can identify direct and indirect speech in writing.
• I can recognise where inverted commas are needed to punctuate
direct speech.
• I can change direct speech into indirect speech (and vice-versa).
• I can create examples of direct and indirect speech.
Using Speech within Writing
Within writing, there are two ways to narrate the words spoken by a
character. These are called:
• direct speech
• indirect (or reported) speech
In a direct speech sentence, we would narrate Iggy’s spoken words like
this:
“I bid you farewell Earthlings!” shouted Iggy from his spaceship.
If we were writing an indirect speech sentence, we would narrate Iggy’s
spoken words like this:
From his spaceship, Iggy bid farewell to the Earthlings.
I bid you
farewell
Earthlings!
Reporting speech
There are two ways of reporting what
somebody says;
• direct speech
• indirect (or reported) speech.
Using Direct Speech
Let’s look carefully at the direct speech sentence.
What do you notice?
I bid you
farewell
Earthlings!
“I bid you farewell Earthlings!” shouted Iggy from his spaceship.
The exact
words of the
speaker are
enclosed in
inverted
commas
(speech
marks).
In direct
speech, the
exact words
of the
speaker are
quoted with
no change to
their content
or order.
There is often a reporting clause
to explain who said the speech.
Sometimes the reporting clause
can be extended with an adverb,
subordinate clause or
prepositional phrase to explain
more about how, where or when
the speech was said. The
reporting clause can appear
before or after the spoken words
themselves.
The correct
punctuation
is used
before the
inverted
commas
close.
Punctuating Direct Speech
• The exact words spoken must be enclosed in speech
marks/inverted commas.
• The first word of the speech must begin with a capital
letter.
• The words in the speech marks must be separated from
the rest of the sentence by a comma, in case of
commands, exclamations, and questions, use the
exclamation mark or question mark.
Using Indirect speech
• Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech) does not use the
exact words of the speaker. Instead, we reports what was said.
• Sometimes we need to change pronouns and verb tenses.
• It does not use speech marks/inverted commas.
• Using reporting verbs.
“I am going
home.”
Helen said she was going
home.
Are Inverted Commas Needed?
Look at these speech sentences. Are they examples of direct or indirect speech?
If they are examples of direct speech, where should we place inverted commas?
Kayla explained that she used to live in New York.
This is an example of indirect
speech and does not need inverted
commas. The sentence is reporting
what Kayla explained.
Are Inverted Commas Needed?
Look at these speech sentences. Are they examples of direct or indirect speech?
If they are examples of direct speech, where should we place inverted commas?
Watch out! screamed George as he launched the frisbee.
This is an example of direct speech and
does need inverted commas around the
spoken words. Where should they go?
“ ”
Are Inverted Commas Needed?
Look at these speech sentences. Are they examples of direct or indirect speech?
If they are examples of direct speech, where should we place inverted commas?
Guthrum announced that they should charge towards to the village.
This is an example of indirect speech and does
not need inverted commas. The sentence is
reporting what Guthrum announced.
Are Inverted Commas Needed?
Look at these speech sentences. Are they examples of direct or indirect speech?
If they are examples of direct speech, where should we place inverted commas?
The doctor gently said, Open your mouth as wide as possible.
This is an example of direct speech
and does need inverted commas
around the spoken words. Where
should they go?
“ ”
• In all sentences, the quotation marks and the
comma are removed.
• The word "that" is usually inserted after the
reporting verb.
Example: She said, “I’ll be there.”
She said that she would be here.
General Rules
• If the reporting verb is in the present tense
we don't need to change the tense, though
we do need to change the pronoun.
• “
She says, “I like ice cream”
.”
• She says that she likes ice cream.
• But, if the reporting verb is in the past tense,
we change the tenses in the reported speech:
• “
She said, “I like ice cream”
.”
• She said that she liked ice cream.
3. Tense Changes
Direct speech Indirect speech
Present simple
S+V1
She said, "It's cold."
Past simple
S+V2
She said it was cold.
Present continuous
S+is/am/are+V1+ing+O
She said, "I'm teaching
English online."
Past continuous
S+was/were+V1+ing+O
She said she was teaching English
online.
Present perfect simple
S+has/have+V3+O
She said, "I’ve written the
article since Monday."
Past perfect simple
S+had+V3+O
She said she had written the article
since Monday.
Present perfect continuous
S+has/have+been+V1+ing+O
She said, "I've been teaching
English for seven years."
Past perfect continuous
S+had+been+V1+ing+O
She said she had been teaching
English for seven years.
Past simple
S+V2+O
She said, "I taught online
yesterday."
Past perfect
S+had+V3+O
She said she had taught online
yesterday.
Past continuous
S+was/were+V1+ing
She said, "I was teaching earlier."
Past perfect continuous
S+had+been+V1+ing
She said she had been teaching earlier.
Past perfect
S+had+V3
She said, “The lesson had started
when he arrived.”
NO CHANGE
S+had+V3
She said the lesson had started when
he arrived.
Past perfect continuous
S+had+been+V1+ing
She said, "I'd been teaching for five
minutes."
NO CHANGE
S+had+been+V1+ing
She said, "I'd been teaching for five
minutes."
Other tense changes
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Will
She said, "I'll teach English online."
Would
She said she would teach English online.
Can
She said, "I can teach English online."
Could
She said she could teach English online.
Must
She said, "I must have a computer to teach
English online."
Had to
She said she had to have a computer to
teach English online.
Shall
She said, "What shall we learn today?"
Should
She asked what we should learn today.
May
She said, "May I open a new browser?"
Might
She asked if she might open a new
browser.
4. Time and place changes
Now › Then
Today › That day
Here › There
This › That
These › Those
Tomorrow › The following day
The next day
The day after
Next week ›
the following week
the next week
the week after
Yesterday ›
the previous day
the day before
Last week ›
the previous week
the week before
Ago ›
previously
before
2 weeks ago ›
2 weeks previously
2 weeks before
Tonight › that night
Last Saturday ›
the previous Saturday
the Saturday before
Next Saturday ›
the following Saturday
the next Saturday
the Saturday after
that Saturday
 Examples:
 I went to the theatre last night.
He said he had gone to the theatre the
night before.
 I'm staying here until next week.
He said he was staying there until the
following week.
5. Pronouns
• Personal pronouns need to be changed
according to the situation.
 “I run 5 km every day”, she said.
 She said she ran 5 km every day.
6. Reporting Verbs
Said, told and asked are the most common
verbs used in indirect speech.
We use “asked” to report questions:
I asked Lynne what time the lesson started.
We use “told” with an object.
Lynne told me she felt tired.
We usually use “said” without an object.
Lynne said she was going to teach online.
If “said” is used with an object we must include
“to”.
Example:
Lynne said to me that she'd never been to China.
accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed,
apologised, begged, boasted, complained,
denied, explained, implied, invited, offered,
ordered, promised, replied, suggested and
thought.
-There are many other verbs we can use
apart from said, told and asked. These
include:
7. Indirect Questions
• Direct question: He said, “Where is she going?”
• Indirect question: He asked where she was going.
A. General rules
a. Tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives, and adverbs of time and place
change as in statements.
b. The interrogative form of the verb changes to the affirmative form.
c. The question mark is omitted in indirect questions.
D. WH- Questions:
• He said, “Why didn’t you put on the brake?”
Changes:
1. Subject + asked
2. WH- word + inversion of subject order;
3. Change pronouns, time and place expressions and tenses;
He asked why she hadn’t
put on the brake.
She said to him, “What do
you want?”
She asked what he wanted.
E. YES/NO Questions:
o “Can you pass me the salt?” she asked me.
Changes:
1. Subject + asked + if / whether….
2. Inversion of the subject order
3. Change pronouns, time and place expressions and tenses:
She asked if I could pass her the salt.
“Is anyone there?” he asked ?
He said to her, “Can you
swim?”
He said to me, “Will you
have time to do it?”
8. Commands, Requests, Advice and Order in Indirect
Speech
 Verb of command/request/advice + object + infinitive.
• Direct command: He said, “Lie down, Tom”.
• Indirect command:
a. Verbs used: advise, ask, beg, command, order, remind, tell, warn etc.
o He said, “Get your coat, Tom!” He told Tom to get his coat.
o ‘Stir it with your spoon,’ his sister said. His sister advised him to stir it with a
spoon.
b. Negative commands, requests, advice and order are
usually reported by not + infinitive:
“Don’t swim out too far, boys”, I said
I warned/told the boys not to swim out too far.
• Positive imperative
Close the door!
oTold + (Object) + to infinitive
He told me to close the door.
• Negative imperative
Don't speak!
oTold + (Object) + not to infinitive
He told me not to speak.
9. Offers, Suggestions, Promise
and others in Indirect Speech
A. OFFERS:
• “Shall I bring you some tea?” He offered to
bring me some tea.
B. SUGGESTIONS:
• “Shall we meet at the theatre? He suggested
meeting at the theatre.
11. Indirect Speech: MIXED
TYPES
 “I don’t know the way. Do you?” he asked.
He said he didn’t know the way and asked her if she did/if she knew it.
 He said, “Someone is coming. Get behind the screen.”
He said that someone was coming and told me to get behind the screen.
 ‘Hello!’ my friend said to me. ‘How are you?’
My friend greeted me and asked how I was.
Changing Indirect Speech to
Direct Speech
Do you remember this indirect speech sentence from earlier? Could you
turn it into a direct speech sentence?
Guthrum announced that they should charge towards to the village.
“We should charge towards the village!” announced Guthrum.
What has changed? Why?
Changing Direct Speech to
indirect Speech
Now, can you do the opposite? Could you turn this direct speech sentence
from earlier into a line of indirect speech?
The doctor gently said, “Open your mouth as wide as possible.”
The doctor gently told the patient that he should open his mouth as wide
as possible.
What has changed? Why?
Writing Direct and Indirect
Speech Sentences
Look at this photograph. Can you invent both a direct and an indirect
speech sentence based upon it?
Direct Speech
Example Sentences
“I want an ice cream!” shouted the angry
little boy.
Indirect Speech
The angry little boy shouted that he
wanted an ice cream.
Writing Direct and Indirect
Speech Sentences
Look at this photograph. Can you invent both a direct and an indirect
speech sentence based upon it?
Direct Speech
Example Sentences
The championship driver shrieked, “We won
the race!”
Indirect Speech
The championship driver shrieked that they
had won the race.
Writing Direct and Indirect
Speech Sentences
Look at this photograph. Can you invent both a direct and an indirect
speech sentence based upon it?
Direct Speech
Example Sentences
“Say cheese, dad, ” pleaded the girl
as she was taking the photograph.
Indirect Speech
As she was taking the
photograph, the girl pleaded for
her dad to say cheese.

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GRAMMAR SECONDARY 2_direct-and-indirect-speech-ppt.pptx

  • 2. Success Criteria Aim • Statement 1 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. • Statement 2 • Sub statement Success Criteria Aim • OLI: To explain the differences between direct and indirect speech. • I can identify direct and indirect speech in writing. • I can recognise where inverted commas are needed to punctuate direct speech. • I can change direct speech into indirect speech (and vice-versa). • I can create examples of direct and indirect speech.
  • 3. Using Speech within Writing Within writing, there are two ways to narrate the words spoken by a character. These are called: • direct speech • indirect (or reported) speech In a direct speech sentence, we would narrate Iggy’s spoken words like this: “I bid you farewell Earthlings!” shouted Iggy from his spaceship. If we were writing an indirect speech sentence, we would narrate Iggy’s spoken words like this: From his spaceship, Iggy bid farewell to the Earthlings. I bid you farewell Earthlings!
  • 4. Reporting speech There are two ways of reporting what somebody says; • direct speech • indirect (or reported) speech.
  • 5. Using Direct Speech Let’s look carefully at the direct speech sentence. What do you notice? I bid you farewell Earthlings! “I bid you farewell Earthlings!” shouted Iggy from his spaceship. The exact words of the speaker are enclosed in inverted commas (speech marks). In direct speech, the exact words of the speaker are quoted with no change to their content or order. There is often a reporting clause to explain who said the speech. Sometimes the reporting clause can be extended with an adverb, subordinate clause or prepositional phrase to explain more about how, where or when the speech was said. The reporting clause can appear before or after the spoken words themselves. The correct punctuation is used before the inverted commas close.
  • 6. Punctuating Direct Speech • The exact words spoken must be enclosed in speech marks/inverted commas. • The first word of the speech must begin with a capital letter. • The words in the speech marks must be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma, in case of commands, exclamations, and questions, use the exclamation mark or question mark.
  • 7. Using Indirect speech • Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech) does not use the exact words of the speaker. Instead, we reports what was said. • Sometimes we need to change pronouns and verb tenses. • It does not use speech marks/inverted commas. • Using reporting verbs. “I am going home.” Helen said she was going home.
  • 8. Are Inverted Commas Needed? Look at these speech sentences. Are they examples of direct or indirect speech? If they are examples of direct speech, where should we place inverted commas? Kayla explained that she used to live in New York. This is an example of indirect speech and does not need inverted commas. The sentence is reporting what Kayla explained.
  • 9. Are Inverted Commas Needed? Look at these speech sentences. Are they examples of direct or indirect speech? If they are examples of direct speech, where should we place inverted commas? Watch out! screamed George as he launched the frisbee. This is an example of direct speech and does need inverted commas around the spoken words. Where should they go? “ ”
  • 10. Are Inverted Commas Needed? Look at these speech sentences. Are they examples of direct or indirect speech? If they are examples of direct speech, where should we place inverted commas? Guthrum announced that they should charge towards to the village. This is an example of indirect speech and does not need inverted commas. The sentence is reporting what Guthrum announced.
  • 11. Are Inverted Commas Needed? Look at these speech sentences. Are they examples of direct or indirect speech? If they are examples of direct speech, where should we place inverted commas? The doctor gently said, Open your mouth as wide as possible. This is an example of direct speech and does need inverted commas around the spoken words. Where should they go? “ ”
  • 12. • In all sentences, the quotation marks and the comma are removed. • The word "that" is usually inserted after the reporting verb. Example: She said, “I’ll be there.” She said that she would be here. General Rules
  • 13. • If the reporting verb is in the present tense we don't need to change the tense, though we do need to change the pronoun. • “ She says, “I like ice cream” .” • She says that she likes ice cream. • But, if the reporting verb is in the past tense, we change the tenses in the reported speech: • “ She said, “I like ice cream” .” • She said that she liked ice cream.
  • 14. 3. Tense Changes Direct speech Indirect speech Present simple S+V1 She said, "It's cold." Past simple S+V2 She said it was cold. Present continuous S+is/am/are+V1+ing+O She said, "I'm teaching English online." Past continuous S+was/were+V1+ing+O She said she was teaching English online. Present perfect simple S+has/have+V3+O She said, "I’ve written the article since Monday." Past perfect simple S+had+V3+O She said she had written the article since Monday.
  • 15. Present perfect continuous S+has/have+been+V1+ing+O She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years." Past perfect continuous S+had+been+V1+ing+O She said she had been teaching English for seven years. Past simple S+V2+O She said, "I taught online yesterday." Past perfect S+had+V3+O She said she had taught online yesterday. Past continuous S+was/were+V1+ing She said, "I was teaching earlier." Past perfect continuous S+had+been+V1+ing She said she had been teaching earlier.
  • 16. Past perfect S+had+V3 She said, “The lesson had started when he arrived.” NO CHANGE S+had+V3 She said the lesson had started when he arrived. Past perfect continuous S+had+been+V1+ing She said, "I'd been teaching for five minutes." NO CHANGE S+had+been+V1+ing She said, "I'd been teaching for five minutes."
  • 17. Other tense changes Direct Speech Indirect Speech Will She said, "I'll teach English online." Would She said she would teach English online. Can She said, "I can teach English online." Could She said she could teach English online. Must She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online." Had to She said she had to have a computer to teach English online. Shall She said, "What shall we learn today?" Should She asked what we should learn today. May She said, "May I open a new browser?" Might She asked if she might open a new browser.
  • 18. 4. Time and place changes Now › Then Today › That day Here › There This › That These › Those Tomorrow › The following day The next day The day after
  • 19. Next week › the following week the next week the week after Yesterday › the previous day the day before Last week › the previous week the week before Ago › previously before 2 weeks ago › 2 weeks previously 2 weeks before Tonight › that night Last Saturday › the previous Saturday the Saturday before Next Saturday › the following Saturday the next Saturday the Saturday after that Saturday
  • 20.  Examples:  I went to the theatre last night. He said he had gone to the theatre the night before.  I'm staying here until next week. He said he was staying there until the following week.
  • 21. 5. Pronouns • Personal pronouns need to be changed according to the situation.  “I run 5 km every day”, she said.  She said she ran 5 km every day.
  • 22. 6. Reporting Verbs Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech. We use “asked” to report questions: I asked Lynne what time the lesson started. We use “told” with an object. Lynne told me she felt tired.
  • 23. We usually use “said” without an object. Lynne said she was going to teach online. If “said” is used with an object we must include “to”. Example: Lynne said to me that she'd never been to China.
  • 24. accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologised, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought. -There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked. These include:
  • 25. 7. Indirect Questions • Direct question: He said, “Where is she going?” • Indirect question: He asked where she was going. A. General rules a. Tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives, and adverbs of time and place change as in statements. b. The interrogative form of the verb changes to the affirmative form. c. The question mark is omitted in indirect questions.
  • 26. D. WH- Questions: • He said, “Why didn’t you put on the brake?” Changes: 1. Subject + asked 2. WH- word + inversion of subject order; 3. Change pronouns, time and place expressions and tenses; He asked why she hadn’t put on the brake. She said to him, “What do you want?” She asked what he wanted.
  • 27. E. YES/NO Questions: o “Can you pass me the salt?” she asked me. Changes: 1. Subject + asked + if / whether…. 2. Inversion of the subject order 3. Change pronouns, time and place expressions and tenses: She asked if I could pass her the salt. “Is anyone there?” he asked ?
  • 28. He said to her, “Can you swim?” He said to me, “Will you have time to do it?”
  • 29. 8. Commands, Requests, Advice and Order in Indirect Speech  Verb of command/request/advice + object + infinitive. • Direct command: He said, “Lie down, Tom”. • Indirect command: a. Verbs used: advise, ask, beg, command, order, remind, tell, warn etc. o He said, “Get your coat, Tom!” He told Tom to get his coat. o ‘Stir it with your spoon,’ his sister said. His sister advised him to stir it with a spoon.
  • 30. b. Negative commands, requests, advice and order are usually reported by not + infinitive: “Don’t swim out too far, boys”, I said I warned/told the boys not to swim out too far. • Positive imperative Close the door! oTold + (Object) + to infinitive He told me to close the door. • Negative imperative Don't speak! oTold + (Object) + not to infinitive He told me not to speak.
  • 31. 9. Offers, Suggestions, Promise and others in Indirect Speech A. OFFERS: • “Shall I bring you some tea?” He offered to bring me some tea. B. SUGGESTIONS: • “Shall we meet at the theatre? He suggested meeting at the theatre.
  • 32. 11. Indirect Speech: MIXED TYPES  “I don’t know the way. Do you?” he asked. He said he didn’t know the way and asked her if she did/if she knew it.  He said, “Someone is coming. Get behind the screen.” He said that someone was coming and told me to get behind the screen.  ‘Hello!’ my friend said to me. ‘How are you?’ My friend greeted me and asked how I was.
  • 33. Changing Indirect Speech to Direct Speech Do you remember this indirect speech sentence from earlier? Could you turn it into a direct speech sentence? Guthrum announced that they should charge towards to the village. “We should charge towards the village!” announced Guthrum. What has changed? Why?
  • 34. Changing Direct Speech to indirect Speech Now, can you do the opposite? Could you turn this direct speech sentence from earlier into a line of indirect speech? The doctor gently said, “Open your mouth as wide as possible.” The doctor gently told the patient that he should open his mouth as wide as possible. What has changed? Why?
  • 35. Writing Direct and Indirect Speech Sentences Look at this photograph. Can you invent both a direct and an indirect speech sentence based upon it? Direct Speech Example Sentences “I want an ice cream!” shouted the angry little boy. Indirect Speech The angry little boy shouted that he wanted an ice cream.
  • 36. Writing Direct and Indirect Speech Sentences Look at this photograph. Can you invent both a direct and an indirect speech sentence based upon it? Direct Speech Example Sentences The championship driver shrieked, “We won the race!” Indirect Speech The championship driver shrieked that they had won the race.
  • 37. Writing Direct and Indirect Speech Sentences Look at this photograph. Can you invent both a direct and an indirect speech sentence based upon it? Direct Speech Example Sentences “Say cheese, dad, ” pleaded the girl as she was taking the photograph. Indirect Speech As she was taking the photograph, the girl pleaded for her dad to say cheese.