Wt4603 unit6 week8-24-10-2011

1,493 views

Published on

Wood Dust and Risk Assessment

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,493
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
51
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Wt4603 unit6 week8-24-10-2011

  1. 1. WT4603Wood Processing Safety &PracticeAUTUMN 2011Lecture Unit 6 – 24/10/2011  WOOD DUST & RISK ASSESSMENT  Lecturer: Mr. Joseph Lyster  joseph.lyster@ul.ie  Notes prepared by: Mr. Michael Brennan and Mr. Joseph Lyster  Notes available on www.slideshare.net/WT4603
  2. 2. WT4603 Wood Dust • A hazard is anything which has the potential to cause harm to life, health, property or the environment • Generally speaking, untreated timber in bulk is not classified as a hazard • However, when worked and processed some of the wood is broken down into tiny dust particles which can cause severe health problems • Traditionally, wood dust was seen as an inconvenience in the workplace. However, in recent years research has highlighted the dangers of wood dust Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  3. 3. WT4603Wood dust and Cancer • Research , such as that of Greenberg (2003) found that “workers exposed to dust in occupations such as furniture making, sanding and wood machining may have an increased risk of nasal and paranasal sinus cancer. Thus in 1994 the International Agency for Research on Cancer designated wood dust as a known carcinogen” • Hardwood and M.D.F. have been classified by the I.A.R.C. as a class 1 carcinogen Hard wood dust air sampling Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  4. 4. WT4603 Occupational Asthma • Asthma is a chronic (long term) lung disease • Asthma affects the airways • A persons airway is made up by a system of small tubes which carries air in and out of the lungs • Asthma causes the airways to become extremely sensitive • This sensitivity causes the airways to react to things which would not normally cause a problem, for example, cold air and wood dust • As the airways react to these stimuli, the muscular walls of the airways contract, making breathing difficult. The lining of the airways also gets swollen, which promotes the production of mucus. This mucus clogs up the airways, hence adding to the difficulty breathing Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  5. 5. WT4603 Occupational Asthma • Tightening of the muscles around the airways (an asthma attack) can happen very quickly and is the most likely cause of mild asthma • Such an attack can be relived quickly using the correct inhaler. Swelling of the mucus however takes much longer to treat and is particular dangerous in a bad asthma attack • The main symptoms of asthma include  shortness of breath,  tightening of the chest  dyspnoea  wheezing  coughing. • These symptoms may develop at any time in ones life and may be episodic or persistent Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  6. 6. WT4603 Formaldehyde •In accordance with the 1995 London Hazard Centre Fact Sheet on Wood Based Boards, manufactured boards can be divided into three sub groups: Laminated Boards Particle Boards Fibre Boards •These boards consist of wood particles which may be glued or bonded together by formaldehyde resin •Formaldehyde is a strong irritant and sensitizer to humans and animals. The two main routes of exposure are inhalation and dermal contact Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  7. 7. WT4603 Formaldehyde •The short term health effects of formaldehyde exposure include “When formaldehyde is present in the air at levels exceeding 0.1 ppm, some individuals may experience health effects such as watery eyes; burning sensations of the eyes, nose, and throat; coughing; wheezing; nausea; and skin irritation. Some people are very sensitive to formaldehyde, while others have no reaction to the same level of exposure.” (www.cancer.gov) •Although there is a lot of research and evidence on the short term health effects of formaldehyde exposure, very little is known about the long term health effects. •Many carcinogenicity studies have been carried out, the most relevant being the IARCs (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 2004 reclassification of formaldehyde as a known human carcinogen. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  8. 8. WT4603 Isocyantes •Isocyanates are chemical compounds. When they react with compounds containing alcohol (Hydroxyl) they produce polyurethane polymers, which are the basis of all polyurethane products, for example, polyurethane paint and glue •In the woodwork room, Isocyanates are used as binders in manufactured boards such as Orientated Strad Board (O.S.B.), Medium Density Fibre Board (M.D.F.) and Particle Board •Isocyanates are very suited for this role as being a urethane adhesive they have very good bonding properties. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  9. 9. WT4603 Isocyantes •Although very useful, Isocyantes can have ill effects on human health. “Acute or chronic exposure to high concentrations of isocyanates can result in respiroratry health effects through a direct irritant action” (Davies, 1984) •Isocyanates have been shown to cause occupational asthma through a sensitising mechanism •Subsequently, Isocyanates are now deemed to be the number one cause of occupational asthma (Chun-Yeung and Malo, 1994) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  10. 10. WT4603 Isocyantes •As with all occupational asthma triggers, asthma symptoms vary in development “Extended exposure to isocyanate vapour at barely measureable levels can cause asthma or asthma like conditions in some individuals. Alternatively, a single event involving a high exposure may have similar effects.” (Steven et al, 1999) •Once a person has become sensitised, the individual may develop asthma like conditions after exposure to very low concentrations of isocyantes, even less than the Occupational Exposure Limit (O.E.L.) •In the Technology room, the main form of isocyanate exposure comes from inhalation of dust from manufactured boards. Another potential route of exposure is the use of polyurethane based paints and varnishes (evaporation and sanding). Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  11. 11. WT4603Wood Dust Explosion •Dust explosions are not a new phenomenon. Records such as those of the British coal mines during the nineteenth century highlight the existence of such incidents. What exactly is a dust explosion? “The phenomenon named dust explosion is in fact quite simple and easy to envisage in terms of daily light exposure. Any solid material that can burn in air will do so with a violence and speed that increases with increasing degree of subdivision of the material” (Eckhoff 2003, p.1) •This can be simplified as illustrated in fig 1.1. If a combustible material such as wood is ignited in a large solid form it burns slowly, releasing heat and energy over a long period of time. If the same piece of timber is cut up, it burns quicker and releases more energy due to the increased surface area exposed to oxygen in the air. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  12. 12. WT4603Wood Dust Explosion Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  13. 13. WT4603Wood Dust Explosion •The effects of a dust explosion can include death or serious injury to workers, destruction of plant and building, a large fireball, secondary explosions and fire. Dust explosions in wood dust extraction systems can be very catastrophic as : “When a dust cloud ignites in an enclosed volume it results in a very rapid rise in pressure within the container. Typical peak pressures in laboratory apparatus are in the range 8-10 bar. In normal circumstances the plant or building will not be strong enough to withstand the pressure from the explosion and it will fail in a sudden and uncontrolled manor. Anyone close to exploding plant or inside a room where an explosion occurs is likely to be killed or seriously injured (Health And Safety Executive 2003) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  14. 14. WT4603 Creation of Wood Dust •Processing wood results in the creation of airborne dust particles. •These particles vary in size •It is commonly acknowledged that there are two particle size ranges which are of concern when studying Local Exhaust Ventilation. Respirable – Reach the depth of the lungs Inhalable – Dust that can be breathed in but gets caught in the nose, mouth and upper respiratory tract Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  15. 15. WT4603 Creation of Wood Dust •The size of wood dust particles depends on various factors Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  16. 16. WT4603 L.E.V •Local exhaust ventilation (L.E.V.) is the most common method of removing potential airborne wood particles from a class room •L.E.V. involves having an extraction unit located in close proximity of a dust source (i.e., a machine), which, in turn, draws the dust away before it becomes airborne •Although it is almost impossible to have complete dust extraction, extraction systems are of vital importance as they control dust levels to within the occupational exposure limit •There are two different types of L.E.V. which are used in Irish post primary schools and are specifically highlighted in circular letter M45/01. They are (a) Local system and (b) Centralised system Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  17. 17. WT4603 L.E.V •Local system comprises a fan and filter collection unit mounted adjacent to the machine and connected to dust outlets or a fan and filter collection unit that forms part of the machine Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  18. 18. WT4603 L.E.V •A centralised system comprises one or more larger fans and filter collection unit that is situated remote to the machine. A system of ductwork is connected to the central unit and the machines. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  19. 19. WT4603 Occupational Exposure Limits • An Occupational Exposure Limits (O.E.L.) is the concentration of a hazardous substance in the workplace air which most people can be exposed to without any negative effects. • The Occupational Exposure Limit for wood dust is laid down in the Health, Safety and Welfare (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 2001  10mg/m³ for inhalable dust  5mg/m³ for respirable dust  Circular letter M45/01  D.E.S. Incentive for the provision of wood dust extraction systems in Irish second level schools Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  20. 20. WT4603 (Reproduced from: Australian Wood Panel Association, 2006) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  21. 21. WT4603 (Reproduced from: Australian Wood Panel Association, 2006) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  22. 22. WT4603 (Reproduced from: Australian Wood Panel Association, 2006) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  23. 23. WT4603 (Reproduced from: Australian Wood Panel Association, 2006) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  24. 24. WT4603 (Reproduced from: Australian Wood Panel Association, 2006) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  25. 25. WT4603 (Reproduced from: Australian Wood Panel Association, 2006) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  26. 26. WT4603 (Reproduced from: Australian Wood Panel Association, 2006) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  27. 27. WT4603 (Reproduced from: Australian Wood Panel Association, 2006) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  28. 28. WT4603 (Reproduced from: Australian Wood Panel Association, 2006) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  29. 29. WT4603 (Reproduced from: Australian Wood Panel Association, 2006) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  30. 30. WT4603Risk Assessment Introduction: (Page 1 – side 1) i. Outline the purpose of this booklet ii. Outline the sections to be contained iii. Outline the machines to be assessed Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  31. 31. WT4603Risk Assessment Nature of Environment: (Page 1 – side 1) i. Outline location (Main work shop SR2-047) ii. Outline who uses the environment iii. Outline activities carried out in the environment Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  32. 32. WT4603Risk Assessment Health & Safety: (Page 1 – side 2) i. Outline risk assessment as in HSA act 2005 ii. Outline risk assessment as in BS4163 iii. Both articles are quoted in Unit 1 and Unit 2 lecture notes Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  33. 33. WT4603Risk Assessment Machine Provision: (Page 2 – side 1) i. Simple floor plan sketch of the workshop and the position of each machine to be assessed ii. Note safe paths marked out on workshop floor iii. Also note main power control and isolator positions iv. Note that machines are CE marked Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  34. 34. WT4603Risk Assessment Hazards, Risks and Risk Control Measures (Page 2 – side 2) i. Define a hazard (Give an example) ii. Define a risk (Give an example) iii. Define a risk control measure (Give an example) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  35. 35. WT4603Risk Assessment Risk Assessment Procedure (Page 2 – side 2) i. Show HSA cyclical model (Briefly explain each part of model) ii. Risk Assessment (Show a blank risk assessment matrix template – explain parts) iii. Risk Magnitude (Show a blank risk magnitude matrix template – explain parts) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  36. 36. WT4603Risk Assessment Workshop Health & Safety Management (Page 3 – Side 1) i. Note any regulations, conditions of work etc… posted on the walls. ii. Outline the different types of safety signage in the workshop (Show images) Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  37. 37. WT4603Risk Assessment Machine & Power Tool Risk Assessment (Page 3 – 10: Side 1 & 2) i. Machines to be assessed – Rip Saw, Surface Planer, Thicknesser, Bandsaw, Morticer, Pillar Drill and Router. Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  38. 38. WT4603Risk Assessment i. Machine a. Describe Machine purpose b. Max of 2-3 labelled images c. List Existing Hazards/Control Measures (Use a table – 2 columns x No. of rows) d. Risk Magnitude matrix for each Hazard Identified (Can vary depending on Machine) e. Complete Risk Assessment matrix table outlining all information Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  39. 39. WT4603Risk Assessment: HSA Model Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  40. 40. WT4603Risk Magnitude Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  41. 41. WT4603Risk Magnitude Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  42. 42. WT4603Risk Assessment RISK ASSESSMENTLocation: SR2-047 Date: 24-09-2010 Assessment Carried out by: Mr. Joe LysterAssessment of: PILLAR DRILL CE Marking (Machines): Yes □ No □Page 1 of 1 Assessment Review Date: 24-09-2010 RISK MAGNITUDE PERSONS AT RISK EXISTING CONTROLS REQUIRED CONTROLS PERSONS RESPONSIBLE TARGET DATE HAZARD Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  43. 43. WT4603 More information can be found by consulting manufacturer’s manual Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  44. 44. WT4603Health & Safety at Work Act 2005 Pg. 30 of Health & Safety at Work Act 2005 Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  45. 45. WT4603 Wood Turning Lathe Hazards Risk Control Measures 1 Entanglement Lab coats, securing of long hair and loose garments/Jewellery 2 Violent Ejection Secure work piece properly, lock tailstock to bed 3 Piece Spinning RPM/Material size 4 Electric Shock Ensure electrical casing intact for all components 5 Cuts Swarf ejection, hand jewellery 6 Inadvertent Starting Flush start, stop cap control system, isolator 7 Pinch Point Mechanical belt adjustment 8 Moving Tool Rest Lock/clamp handle Risk Assessment Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  46. 46. WT4603 SEVERITY 1. ENTANGLEMENT Slightly Moderately Quite Very Extremely Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Highly Trivial Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Unlikely LIKELIHOOD Quiet Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Unlikely Likely Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Quite Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Likely Highly Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Intolerable Likely Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  47. 47. WT4603 SEVERITY 2. VIOLENT EJECTION Slightly Moderately Quite Very Extremely Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Highly Trivial Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Unlikely LIKELIHOOD Quiet Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Unlikely Likely Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Quite Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Likely Highly Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Intolerable Likely Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  48. 48. WT4603 SEVERITY 3. PIECE SPINNING Slightly Moderately Quite Very Extremely Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Highly Trivial Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Unlikely LIKELIHOOD Quiet Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Unlikely Likely Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Quite Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Likely Highly Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Intolerable Likely Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  49. 49. WT4603 SEVERITY 4. ELECTRIC SHOCK Slightly Moderately Quite Very Extremely Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Highly Trivial Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Unlikely LIKELIHOOD Quiet Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Unlikely Likely Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Quite Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Likely Highly Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Intolerable Likely Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  50. 50. WT4603 SEVERITY 5. CUTS Slightly Moderately Quite Very Extremely Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Highly Trivial Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Unlikely LIKELIHOOD Quiet Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Unlikely Likely Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Quite Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Likely Highly Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Intolerable Likely Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  51. 51. WT4603 6. INADVERTENT SEVERITY STARTING Slightly Moderately Quite Very Extremely Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Highly Trivial Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Unlikely LIKELIHOOD Quiet Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Unlikely Likely Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Quite Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Likely Highly Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Intolerable Likely Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  52. 52. WT4603 SEVERITY 7. PINCH POINT Slightly Moderately Quite Very Extremely Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Highly Trivial Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Unlikely LIKELIHOOD Quiet Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Unlikely Likely Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Quite Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Likely Highly Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Intolerable Likely Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  53. 53. WT4603 8. MOVING TOOL SEVERITY REST Slightly Moderately Quite Very Extremely Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Harmful Highly Trivial Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Unlikely LIKELIHOOD Quiet Tolerable Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Unlikely Likely Tolerable Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Quite Moderate Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Likely Highly Moderate Substantial Substantial Intolerable Intolerable Likely Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  54. 54. WT4603 RISK ASSESSMENTLocation: SR2-047 Date: 24-09-2010 Assessment Carried out by: Mr. Joe LysterAssessment of: WOOD TURNING LATHE CE Marking (Machines): Yes □̷ No □Page 1 of 1 Assessment Review Date: 12-11-2010 HAZARD RISK MAGNITUDE PERSONS AT RISK EXISTING CONTROLS REQUIRED CONTROLS PERSONS RESPONSIBLE TARGET DATE Lab coats, securing of1. Entanglement Intolerable User of Machine Securing Clothes/Hair long hair and loose Teacher/Students 12-11-2010 garments/Jewellery Headstock/Tail stock Secure work piece 12-11-20102. Violent Ejection Substantial All in Class – material properly, lock Teacher/Students preparation tailstock to bed Clamping/Speed Set 12-11-20103. Piece Spinning Substantial All in Vicinity up RPM/Material size Teacher/Students4. Electric Shock Inspection of Electrical casing intact Teacher/Students 12-11-2010 Moderate User of MachineHazards Equipment for all components Swarf ejection, hand jewellery, tool 12-11-20105. Cuts Substantial User of Machine Training/PPE handing, User PPE i.e. Teacher/Students face shield Flush start, stop cap6. Inadvertent Lockable Isolator Teacher/Students 12-11-2010 Moderate All in Vicinity control system,Starting Switch isolator Mechanical belt adjustment, chuck 12-11-20107. Pinch Point Substantial User of Machine Training removal, tool Teacher/Students handling 12-11-20108. Moving Tool Rest Substantial User of Machine Bed lock handle Bed lock handle Teacher/Students Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  55. 55. WT4603Revised Drawer Detail Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering
  56. 56. WT4603Revised Drawer Detail Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering

×