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AAUP 2010 Meeting Patron Driven Access Panel


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Rethinking Library Acquisition: Demand-Driven Purchasing for Scholarly Books
Librarians must reconsider how they collect monographs. Traditionally, academic libraries purchase books to support their curricular and research needs, without much consideration of use. Even though 40% or more of books in most academic libraries never get used, this model makes sense in a world in which books go out of print, shelf space is available, and collection budgets are stable. But the world has changed: as publishers shift to an electronic model, books will not go out of print, libraries are under pressure to convert shelf space to study space; and libraries have fewer funds to purchase books annually. This panel will discuss approaches to demand-driven acquisition of monographs at two institutions: the University of Arizona and the University of Denver. While discussing plans being developed at these libraries, we will also look at implications for libraries in general, scholarly publishing, book vendors and academia.

Moderator: Becky Clark, Marketing Director, Johns Hopkins University Press
Panelists: Matt Nauman, Director of Publisher Relations, Blackwell; Michael Levine-Clark, Collections Librarian, University of Denver; Stephen Bosch, Materials Budget, Procurement, and Licensing Librarian, University of Arizona Library; Kim Anderson, Senior Collection Development Manager and Bibliographer, YBP Library Services

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AAUP 2010 Meeting Patron Driven Access Panel

  1. 1. Rethinking Library Acquisition: Demand-Driven Purchasing for Scholarly Books <br />Becky Clark, Johns Hopkins University Press<br /><br />Matt Nauman, YBP<br /><br />Michael Levine-Clark, University of Denver<br /><br />Stephen Bosch, University of Arizona<br /><br />Kim Anderson, YBP<br /><br />
  2. 2. Why Demand-Driven Acquisition?<br />
  3. 3. University of Denver Data – All Books<br />2000-2009<br />252,718 titles (25,272 a year)<br />46.9% unused (118,387)<br />2000-2004<br />126,953 titles<br />39.6% unused (50,226)<br />FY 2010<br />Approx $1 million spent on monographs<br />
  4. 4. University of Denver Data – University Press Books*<br />2000-2009<br />40,058 titles (8,012 a year)<br />39.7% unused (15,883)<br />2000-2004<br />20,277 titles<br />31.0% unused (6,278)<br />*“University Press” in publisher field<br />
  5. 5. University of Denver Use Data (Titles Cataloged 2000-2004)<br /> All U.P.<br />4+ 23,854 (18.8%) 4,029 (19.9%)<br />3 10,461 (8.2%) 1,954 (9.6%)<br />2 16,257 (12.8%) 3,134 (15.5%)<br />1 26,155 (20.6%) 4,882 (24.1%)<br />0 50,266 (39.6%) 6,278 (31.0%)<br />
  6. 6. University of Denver Use Data (U.P. Titles Cataloged in 2000)<br /> Ever Used Used 2005 or Later<br />4+ 932 (22.1%) 882 (20.1%)<br />3 424 (10.0%) 349 (8.3%)<br />2 682 (16.1%) 439 (10.4%)<br />1 968 (22.9%) 475 (11.2%)<br />0 1,217 (28.8%) 2,078 (49.2%)<br />
  7. 7. The Universe of Titles<br />170,663 books published in the U.S. in 2008*<br />53,869 books treated on approval by Blackwell in FY 2008 (North America)<br />23,097 forms generated in FY 2008<br />4,687 titles ordered from forms<br />*Library and Book Trade Almanac 2009, p. 506 (preliminary data).<br />
  8. 8. Everything is Different<br />Users expect everything instantly<br />Born-digital books shouldn’t go out of print<br />We’re more accountable to our administrations<br />Budget<br />Shelf space<br />
  9. 9. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model<br />Two basic reasons for changing models:<br />ROI – return on investment<br />In a digital world dominated by network level discovery and access - it is not about the local collection anymore, follow the users.<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model<br />Circulation data by publisher is hard to gather since publisher is not a field in a MARC record that is “normalized” so many versions of a publisher could exist. <br />A rough working of our data shows that overall the average rate for circulating titles was about 55% for University Presses.<br />The larger University Presses do have higher rates of circulation than do the smaller presses.<br />
  12. 12. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model<br />ROI – in since 2000:<br />Total # of books purchased 448,840<br />Total exp for books $ 24,531,340 <br />Total # 0 circ books 237,885<br />Total exp for 0 circ books $ 13,001,610<br />Shelving costs $ 2,440,582<br />Processing costs $ 3,394,622 <br />Total cost of 0 circ books $ 18,836,814 <br />
  13. 13. Rethinking Monographic Acquisition: Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model<br />Network level discovery and access:<br />This is where our users are going and we need to have business models that support that type of user experience - not building local collections.<br />Users must have the broadest possible access w/o dead ends – one way or another they need to be able to quickly obtain the discovered information.<br />
  14. 14. Is this what the digital natives will find useful as a library? OR<br />
  15. 15. Is this the future “collection”?<br />
  16. 16. How We’re Implementing Demand-Driven Acquisition<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Developing a DDA Plan for DU<br />Jan 2009: Begin conversations with Blackwell<br />Spring 2009: Begin conversations with EBL<br />Summer/fall 2009: EBL/Blackwell platform development<br />Dec 2009: YBP/Blackwell announce merger<br />Jan 2010: Begin conversations with YBP<br />Spring 2010: Implement DDA with EBL<br />Spring 2010: Plan DDA with YBP<br />
  19. 19. The University of Denver Plan<br />Program will begin July 2010<br />Print and Electronic Books<br />YBP and EBL<br />Forms<br />No fiction, reprints, or textbooks<br />Discovery through the catalog<br />POD (eventually)<br />Automatic approval books will continue to come automatically (for now)<br />
  20. 20. The User Experience<br />Discovery (catalog)<br />Print and/or ebook(s)<br />Request (catalog)<br />Fast, seamless<br />Ordering<br />Baker & Taylor and Alternative Sources<br />Rush (in some cases)<br />Drop Ship (in some cases)<br />
  21. 21. Assessment<br />Feedback Form (p)<br />At Request<br />At Delivery<br />Slip “Ordering” (p)<br />Use Data (p and e)<br />
  22. 22. Developing the Demand Driven Acquisitions Program<br />
  23. 23. What Does Demand Driven Mean? Possible Workflows<br />YBP provides the title catalog records<br />Profiled each week from approval plan input<br />Weekly batch record load based on that title list<br />Library loads records into catalog<br />Full Record (OCLC Plus service from YBP)<br />Brief records<br />Load to OCLC WorldCat Local<br />
  24. 24. What Does Demand Driven Mean? Possible Workflows<br />Button for users to request the book<br />Options available to user (format, rush, normal, notify, don’t notify?)<br />Acquisitions retrieves requests daily and places orders<br />
  25. 25. University of Kansas DDA Workflow<br />
  26. 26. KU Uses a Special Location <br />for Patron Choice Titles<br />
  27. 27. Full record in KU OPAC<br />Identifier in catalog<br />record so Patron <br />Choice records can<br />easily be removed<br />after 6 months<br />
  28. 28. Considerations for DDA<br />Format?<br /><ul><li>Print books, eBooks, or both?</li></ul>Mediated or non-mediated?<br />Mediated: patron requests go to acquisitions staff, who make final decision on whether title gets ordered, fund availability, format in which title is ordered<br />Non-mediated: patron request is ordered immediately<br />
  29. 29. Considerations for DDA<br />Allow duplication between e and print formats?<br />Mirror existing approval plan profile, or set up a separate profile?<br />Budget control – monitoring so funds are available for duration of program or fiscal year <br />Must patrons authenticate to request a title?<br />
  30. 30. Considerations for DDA<br />How long will MARC records stay in OPAC? <br /><ul><li>How do we remove them?
  31. 31. Will selectors review before removal to order any that users didn’t want?</li></ul>How will the ‘request screen’ look in the ILS?<br />Reports<br /><ul><li>Which users requested what (how much, and in what subject areas)?</li></li></ul><li>What Universe of Titles Shall We Expose to Patrons?<br />Demand Driven Profile Components<br />Subject areas<br />Publishers<br />Non-Subject Parameters<br />How far back shall we go?<br />
  32. 32. Metrics<br />What type of material was requested?<br />By subject<br />By publisher<br />By Format<br />What was the ratio of records to requests?<br />By Subject<br />For Print<br />For Digital<br />
  33. 33. Metrics<br />What were the fulfillment times?<br />To the library<br />To the Patron<br />What was the Patron Type?<br />Faculty<br />Graduate Students<br />Undergraduate Students<br />
  34. 34. Metrics<br />What was the distribution of requests across subjects? <br />How did DDA requests compare to Librarian selections?<br />What savings did the institution experience?<br />Materials costs<br />Staff costs<br />
  35. 35. Was the Patron Satisfied?<br />
  36. 36. Implications<br />
  37. 37. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model<br />What about?<br />Collections of record<br />Current structures and processes in collection management and acquisitions<br />Traditional user expectations<br />
  38. 38. Impact on Scholars<br />Will they be able to<br />browse the collection?<br />get books as needed?<br />get older books?<br />
  39. 39. Impact on Libraries<br />What about Interlibrary Loan?<br />Blur between ILL/Acquisitions<br />eBook Rental Replaces ILL?<br />Are we still building collections, or are we just buying books?<br />
  40. 40. PDA will force changes in the way content moves from publishers to academic libraries<br />There will be implications throughout the supply chain<br />Four reasons PDA may be the way of the future:<br />Current model breaking down<br />Better technology exists for library decisions<br />Changing mission of academic libraries<br />Economic conditions<br />
  41. 41. How we got here and where we might be going<br />Collections have been built by Approval Plans<br />“Just in Case” Collections<br />Problems include budgets, space & usage statistics<br />Better technology makes new models possible<br />One model for getting started<br />Core, must have titles<br />PDA based on subject & publisher profiles<br />Includes print and ebooks<br />Integration with aggregator partners<br />“Just in Time” Ordering<br />
  42. 42. Impact on Academic Publishing<br />Print Books<br />“Fewer books, fewer copies, higher prices”<br />Frontlist sales will be reduced<br />Possible reduction in total copies sold<br />Both can lead to higher prices<br />Maybe some titles won’t be published, or<br />Published in another format<br />
  43. 43. Impact on Academic Publishing<br />Ebooks<br />Pilot libraries want E-Preferred PDA<br />Libraries and vendors working on electronic collection development services<br />Increased pressure for simultaneous P and E<br />Increased pressure on vendor for discovery and delivery systems<br />Potential for Ebooks first backed by POD<br />Usage-based pricing<br />
  44. 44. Impact on Book Vendors<br />New value and service proposition<br />Must provide an infrastructure for PDA<br />MARC records prior to purchase<br />Rush order and delivery for print<br />Improved discoverability & delivery<br />Print on Demand options<br />Direct to Consumer options<br />New processing options for print books<br />
  45. 45. Impact on Book Vendors<br />Vendors also forced to replace lost revenue<br />Potential for a new business model<br />Based on charging for services<br />Decrease library’s cost-per-use<br />Vendors and publishers will cooperate to make sure titles are discovered<br />PDA has to be built while maintaining traditional services<br />