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Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Voices from the Front Lines What’s Happening in High Schools Now?

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  • Welcome I am ____ Today I am going to talk about the effectiveness of Ti and Writecycle as an instructional support tool for helping students become better writers. In the ed-tech field, we always have to ask about efficacy and whether a particular tech accomplishes the original design principles. We took on an in sdepth analysis of the usage data from Turnitin to try to get to the bottom of this question. The bottom line is that Turnitin delivers statistically-valid long term improvements in student writing … and some best practices emerge that I will also talk about. How many of you are current Tii users or have Tii at your institutions? How many Tii Admins? Libarary Media Specialists? WriteCycle users? Any questions that you would like to make sure I addresss before I go forward now? (use flip charts) I want to make sure I tailor this talk today to the expectations of this group.
  • Super majority of student open responses (74%) seek help to support academic integrity
  • Webinar2

    1. 1. Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Voices from the Front Lines What’s Happening in High Schools Now? November 18, 2009 Sponsors:
    2. 2. Moderator David Wangaard, Ed.D. School for Ethical Education Milford, CT
    3. 3. <ul><li>David Wangaard, Ed.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Director, School for Ethical Education (SEE), a non-profit character-education teaching agency in Milford, CT </li></ul><ul><li>Previously a biologist with USFWS, math teacher and school principal </li></ul><ul><li>Significant involvement in student extra-curriculars – track coach, sponsor of student councils, student led community service projects, student foreign travel, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Author of student/teacher workbooks for service-learning and ethical decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Current work includes study/ implementation of academic integrity programs - collaborating w/ Dr. Jason Stephens @ UConn; funded by The Templeton Foundation </li></ul>
    4. 4. Panelist Karen O. Clifford, Ph.D. Norfolk Collegiate School Norfolk, VA
    5. 5. <ul><li>Karen O. Clifford, Ph.D </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Student Services (grades K-12), Norfolk Collegiate School(independent college preparatory school in Norfolk, Virginia) for 9 years; previous experience in administrative positions (7 years) at Old Dominion University, the College of William and Mary, Longwood University, and Vanderbilt University. </li></ul><ul><li>Advisory Board member for the Center for Academic Integrity (C AI) at Clemson University for 2 years; Executive Board member for CAI for 4 years at Duke University prior to association’s move to Clemson University in 2007; member of CAI since its founding in 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctoral dissertation: Students’ Perceptions of Academic Integrity and Campus Climate at Small Colleges . </li></ul><ul><li>Co-editor of Academic Integrity Matters (NASPA monograph) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Panelist Bill Connolly Bentley University Waltham, MA
    7. 7. <ul><li>Bill Connolly </li></ul><ul><li>Senior at Bentley University, Waltham, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Major, Minors: Psychology, Communications </li></ul><ul><li>President: Academic Integrity Council </li></ul><ul><li>Council is a student-run initiative consisting of roughly 60 undergraduate students </li></ul><ul><li>NOT a Judicial Board, we deal strictly with promotion </li></ul>
    8. 8. Panelist Betsy Dawson East Chapel Hill High School
    9. 9. <ul><li>Betsy Dawson </li></ul><ul><li>High school Latin teacher for 41 years </li></ul><ul><li>Founder and Head of East Chapel Hill High School Academic Integrity Committee for 8 years </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor of Students for Academic Integrity and Leadership Group for 6 years </li></ul>
    10. 10. Panelist Barry Gilmore Lausanne Collegiate School Memphis, TN Author of:
    11. 11. <ul><li>Barry Gilmore </li></ul><ul><li>High school English and social studies teacher/department chair </li></ul><ul><li>Past-President, Tennessee Council of Teachers of English </li></ul><ul><li>National Board Certified Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Author: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plagiarism: Why It Happens and How to Prevent It (Heinemann 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plagiarism: A How-Not-To Guide for Students (Heinemann 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Is It Done Yet?”—Teaching Adolescents the Art of Revision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Heinemann 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tim O’Brien in the High School Classroom (NCTE 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking Volumes: How to Get Students Discussing Books—and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much More (Heinemann 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing the Line: Creative Writing Through the Arts (Calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islands 1999) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Panelist Jason M. Stephens, Ph.D. Neag School of Education University of Connecticut
    13. 13. <ul><li>Jason M. Stephens , Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Professor of Educational Psychology, Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut </li></ul><ul><li>Teach courses on human development, learning and motivation as well as research methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Research focuses on the interaction of motivation, morality, and academic misconduct during adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Author of numerous journal articles and book chapters on academic motivation, moral functioning and cheating behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Current research grants include a three-year intervention project, Achieving with Integrity, funded by the Templeton Foundation and in collaboration with David Wangaard. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Question 1 <ul><li>Please define plagiarism in a way that can be readily communicated to students. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Defining Plagiarism DW1 <ul><li>What is Plagiarism? According to the Merriam-Webster OnLine Dictionary , to ―plagiarize means </li></ul><ul><li>to commit literary theft </li></ul><ul><li>to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. </li></ul><ul><li>3) to steal or purloin and pass off as one‘s own the ideas, word, artistic productions of another; to use without due credit the ideas expressions or productions of another. </li></ul><ul><li>From Langley High School, McLean, VA – Public – http://www.fcps.edu/LangleyHS/honorcode.html </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism includes the copying of the language, structure, programming, computer code, ideas, and/or thoughts of another and passing off the same as one's own original work, or attempts thereof. Such acts include, but are not limited to, having a parent or another person write an essay (including the purchase of works on-line) or do a project which is then submitted as one's own work; failing to use proper documentation and bibliography. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Question 2 <ul><li>Acknowledging the research that indicates over 90% of US high school students self-report some form of cheating annually and 40-60% self-report some form of plagiarism, do we understand why students are cheating and how students define cheating? </li></ul>
    17. 17. In the Gap JS10 Judgment “ Cheating is Wrong” Action “ I cheated” “ I value morality but sometimes I fail to practice it.” -11th grade male believes cheating is morally wrong reports doing it anyway (Stephens, 2005)
    18. 18. <ul><li>Three Types of Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Educational </li></ul><ul><li>Undermining Learning and its Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental </li></ul><ul><li>Undermining the Development of Moral Identity and Character </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining the Relations between Moral Judgments and Actions </li></ul>Academic Dishonesty: Why We Should Care JS11
    19. 19. Why Do Students Cheat? JS2 Unable and Ashamed Under-Interested and Indifferent Under Pressure and Outraged Three Common Motivational Patterns
    20. 20. Current Research JS29.1 <ul><li>The following seven slides represent preliminary data from the Achieving with Integrity Project a collaboration of the School for Ethical Education and Dr. Jason Stephens at the University of Connecticut, Storrs </li></ul>
    21. 21. Students’ Beliefs and Behaviors: Plagiarizing a few sentences or paragraphs from the Internet is…. JS1 Behavior Belief   No Yes Total Not Wrong Count 27 130 157 % of Total 1.8% 8.5% 10.3% Personal Choice; Neither Right or Wrong Count 75 247 322 % of Total 4.9% 16.2% 21.1% Justifiable Depending on Situation Count 120 312 432 % of Total 7.8% 20.4% 28.3% Wrong because it's against school rules Count 158 144 302 % of Total 10.3% 9.4% 19.8% Always Wrong (regardless of school rules) Count 216 100 316 % of Total 14.1% 6.5% 20.7% All Students Count 596 933 1529 % of Total 39.0% 61.0% 100.0%
    22. 22. 84.5% 40.2% 81.4% 49.5% 46.6% 60.4% 20.2% 13.6% 44.5% 27.2% 60.5% 23.5% Six Pairs of “Academic Behaviors”: Conventional vs. Digital Cheating JS29 Cheating Behavior Variable Conventional Digital Copied homework By hand or in person: Copied all or part of another student’s homework and submitted it as your own Using digital means such as Instant Messaging or email: Copied all or part of another student’s homework and submitted it as your own Unpermitted collaboration In person : Worked on an assignment with others when the instructor asked for individual work Online via email or Instant Messaging : Worked on an assignment with others when the instructor asked for individual work Plagiarized a few sentences From a book, magazine, or journal (not on the Internet): Paraphrased or copied a few sentences or paragraphs without citing them in a paper you submitted From an Internet Website: Paraphrased or copied a few sentences or paragraphs without citing them in a paper you submitted Plagiarized a complete paper From a friend or another student: Obtained or purchased a complete paper and submitted it as your own work From an Internet Website: Obtained or purchased a complete paper and submitted it as your own work Used unpermitted notes during an exam Used unpermitted notes or textbooks during a test or exam Used unpermitted electronic notes (stored in a PDA, phone or calculator) during a test or exam Copied from someone else during an exam From a friend or another student: Copied from another’s paper during a test or exam with his or her knowledge Used digital technology such as text messaging to “copy” or get help from someone during a test or exam
    23. 23. Belief-Behavior Incongruity JS30 Cheated n = 1469 Did Not Cheat n = 61 (4.0%) Was “Cheating” n = 834 All Students N = 1530 Was Not “Cheating” n = 635 (41.5%) Not Morally Wrong n= 452 (29.5%) Morally Wrong n= 382 (25.0%) Self-Reported Behavior (Researcher defined cheating) Student Deontic Judgment of Cheating Student Definition of Behavior
    24. 24. Four Models of Moral Functioning JS31 Responsibility Judgment Moral Judgment Moral Behavior Socrates/Kohlberg Kohlberg & Candee (1983) Moral Judgment Moral Behavior Blasi (1983, 1984) Moral Self Moral Judgment Moral Behavior Moral Disengagement Bandura (1986, 1989) Moral Judgment Moral Behavior
    25. 25. Note. *** p ≤ .001. This means that 36% of the observed variance in cheating behavior is explained by moral judgments and disengagement Stepwise Regression with all Predictors of Cheating Behavior JS32
    26. 26. Summary of Current Research JS34 <ul><li>Key Findings </li></ul><ul><li>(Quantitative Data ) </li></ul><ul><li>Students are less likely to report cheating when they believe </li></ul><ul><li>it is morally wrong to cheat. </li></ul><ul><li>it is their personal responsibility to refrain from cheating. </li></ul><ul><li>their peers disapprove of cheating. </li></ul><ul><li>Students are more likely to report cheating when they </li></ul><ul><li>endorse rationalizations for cheating. </li></ul><ul><li>they believe their peers’ are engaging in cheating behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Over 40% school administrators report the need to plan and/or study strategies to support effective academic integrity policies </li></ul><ul><li>Top Student Theme </li></ul><ul><li>(Qualitative Data) </li></ul><ul><li>Schools should create and enforce stricter consequences for dishonesty (20% respondents) </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t think that academic integrity is really enforced. Students cheat. They don’t get caught. </li></ul><ul><li>I wish that the school had a program or something that would help prevent cheating. </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to see a clearer policy and I would like it to be enforced. Students should be aware of the policy. …The problem in the school is that kids know they can get away with cheating. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Reasons for Students’ Plagiarism KC1 <ul><li>Lack of understanding / ignorance / lack of ability in writing papers </li></ul><ul><li>Carelessness in taking notes from sources </li></ul><ul><li>Workload / stress / poor time management </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving too much help or “editing” (from peers, parents, tutors, etc.) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Reasons for Students’ Plagiarism KC 2 <ul><li>Not seeing value in assignment / lack of interest in academic work </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of deterrents / punishment (and perception that some teachers don’t care) </li></ul><ul><li>Perception that teachers won’t recognize plagiarized/copied work (since they have SO MANY papers/assignments to grade) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Reasons for Students’ Plagiarism KC 3 <ul><li>Students’ perception that “everyone else does it” and that they will be at a disadvantage if they do their own work </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers who don’t change assignments from one year to the next (students turn in old copies of papers/assignments from siblings, classmates, and others who have already taken the course </li></ul>
    30. 30. My School: Why Students Plagiarize BG1
    31. 31. My School: How Students Plagiarize BG2
    32. 32. Question 3 <ul><li>What can be done to change the culture of schools in support of academic integrity? </li></ul>
    33. 33. Achieving with Integrity Commitments and Committees Integrity Pledges and Councils Community Shared Responsibility of Students, Teachers, Administrators and Parents Curriculum and Instruction Mastery Oriented Teaching and Learning; Pedagogical Caring and Fairness Core Values Respect Trust Honesty Responsibility Effort Advancing Academic Integrity as a School Community JS12 A Conceptual Model (Stephens & Wangaard Unpublished)
    34. 34. Three Levels of Intervention JS14 Based on Larson’s (1994) Model of Public Health and Disease Control Universal Interventions: Proactive and Preventative Targeted Group Interventions: Rapid and Effective Response Systems Individual Interventions: Intense, one-on-one contracting & assessment 100% of Students 20-40% of Students 5-10% of Students
    35. 35. Three Levels of Intervention JS15 School-wide Education First Year Orientation Program, Student Assemblies, Student Handbook, Honor Code Reading and Signing Ceremony; School Culture that Promotes Academic Engagement and Honesty. Classroom Prevention Classroom-based, subject area-specific discussions about the import of integrity and what constitutes dishonesty; Fair and caring instruction and assessment; Real-time, in situ reminders of AI. Individual Remediation Immediate and consistent responses to academic dishonesty; Ethical and effective procedures for adjudicating contested cases of misconduct; “Developmental” sanctioning aimed at strengthening understanding of and commitment to AI. Students, Teachers, Administrators, and Parents Students and Teachers Students
    36. 36. Academic Integrity Committee (AIC) JS16 <ul><li>Catalyzing agent to advance culture of academic integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Critical to engage students & teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Connect core values and moral motivation to integrity issues </li></ul><ul><li>Seek to improve teaching strategies </li></ul><ul><li>This committee includes representatives from faculty, administration, students and parents who address the issues surrounding academic integrity and the challenges in establishing a school-wide culture of integrity. </li></ul>
    37. 37. AIC Awareness-Building Strategies JS17 <ul><li>New student or 9 th -grade orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Honor Policies/Code/Pledge published in school handbook/website </li></ul><ul><li>Honor Code/Pledge posted in classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity wrist bracelet received when Honor Pledge signed </li></ul><ul><li>AIC T-shirts </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics Café – lunch time discussion activity </li></ul><ul><li>Skits to dramatize ethical dilemmas and choices </li></ul>Example Integrity Awareness Poster Joel Barlow High School, Achieving with Integrity Committee
    38. 38. AIC Awareness-Building Strategies (cont.) JS18 <ul><li>AIC students present suggestions to faculty at faculty meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Articles/essays in school and/or community newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Positive recognition of integrity exemplars (youth and adult) </li></ul><ul><li>AIC Logo contest </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity Essay contest </li></ul><ul><li>PSAs shown on school TV network </li></ul><ul><li>Quote of the Week read over school PA with announcements </li></ul><ul><li>Advisor/Advisee lessons that include discussion of integrity dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>AIC students provide reports to PTA, faculty, school board </li></ul><ul><li>AIC develops website with link to school website </li></ul>
    39. 39. Changing Culture JS3 <ul><li>Form a Committee of School Community Members </li></ul><ul><li>Form a representative committee (by grade level, content area, and demography) of students, teachers, administrators and parents to form a shared vision of values and goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a School Climate Survey to Assess </li></ul><ul><li>Use a valid and reliable survey, such as the AMIS or AIS, to assess students’ perceptions, beliefs and behaviors related to AI. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop New Policies and Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Using the empirical data from the survey, discuss policies and procedures that support the attitudinal and behavioral changes you seek to bring about. </li></ul><ul><li>Build Consensus and Support for Change </li></ul><ul><li>Reach out beyond the committee to build consensus and a sense of and shared responsibility for the new (or revised or freshly articulated values, goals, policies and procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement-Assess-Adjust </li></ul><ul><li>Take the long view – effective policies and cultural change take time and effort: Plan on assessing the new policies and procedures you implement and making adjustments (Tinker towards Utopia!) </li></ul>
    40. 40. East Chapel Hill High School BD1 <ul><li>Important Academic Integrity components for our school. </li></ul><ul><li>S.A.I.L </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Integrity Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Honor Scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Pledge </li></ul><ul><li>Cheating Chat Day </li></ul><ul><li>Honor Infraction Form </li></ul><ul><li>It takes a village </li></ul>
    41. 41. Student Academic Integrity & Leadership (S.A.I.L.) BD2 <ul><li>S.A.I.L. at East Chapel Hill High School </li></ul><ul><li>The S tudent A cademic I ntegrity and L eadership program ( S.A.I.L .) is a student-run organization centered on making ethics a higher priority at ECHHS. </li></ul><ul><li>By being a member of Honor Councils and Ethos discussion groups at school, being a S.A.I.L . mentor, or by simply anchoring themselves to a tenet of character and integrity, S.A.I.L . students contribute to this mission of ethical reprioritization. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Academic Integrity Committee BD3 <ul><li>This committee includes representatives from </li></ul><ul><li>faculty, administration, students and parents </li></ul><ul><li>who address the issues surrounding academic integrity and the challenges in establishing a school-wide culture of integrity. </li></ul>
    43. 43. HONOR SCHOLAR BD4 <ul><li>Students for Academic Integrity and Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>initiated a recognition program for students who would be designated as ECHHS Honor Scholars . </li></ul><ul><li>The award means that in the eyes of a teacher, the student best exemplifies the qualities of honesty, integrity and responsibility that East seeks to engender in its students. </li></ul><ul><li>No minimum GPA required. </li></ul><ul><li>Seniors are recognized as Honor Scholars In the graduation program. </li></ul>
    44. 44. WILDCAT HONOR BD5 <ul><li>As a student of East Chapel Hill High School, </li></ul><ul><li>I am committed to working towards a community </li></ul><ul><li>of respect & honesty, integrity & responsibility for </li></ul><ul><li>myself and others. </li></ul><ul><li>On my honor, I pledge that I will not give nor receive unauthorized assistance in all of the work required of me in this class. </li></ul>
    45. 45. CHEATING CHAT DAY BD6 <ul><li>S.A.I.L AND ECHHS National Honor Society teamed up to create Cheating Chat Day. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of this event is to establish an understanding between students and teachers as to what constitutes cheating. Each teacher is encouraged to take five or more minutes of each class period to discuss the importance of addressing the issue of cheating in the classroom. Guidelines are provided. Setting aside one day for discussion in every class period helps to clarify what constitutes cheating and it makes an impact on students’ impression of cheating, and the value of integrity. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Honor Code Infraction Form BD7 <ul><li>East Chapel Hill High School Honor Code Form </li></ul><ul><li>Student Name Grade/Class </li></ul><ul><li>Class and room in which incident occurred: </li></ul><ul><li>Referring teacher: Date: Time: </li></ul><ul><li>Reason for Referral </li></ul><ul><li>Giving or receiving unauthorized aid </li></ul><ul><li>Copying another student’s work </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Getting advance information about quizzes, tests, or examinations </li></ul><ul><li>Using unauthorized materials or devices </li></ul><ul><li>Misrepresenting need for extra time </li></ul><ul><li>Unexcused absences from a test, project or other assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><li>Description of incident: </li></ul><ul><li>Has a parent been contacted?  Yes  No </li></ul><ul><li>Student Statement: </li></ul><ul><li>Course of Action: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Signature Date: </li></ul><ul><li>Cc: Teacher, Student, Parent, EAIC Assistant Principal </li></ul>
    47. 47. It Takes a Village.. BD8 <ul><li>Expectations in working towards a community of honesty, integrity, and responsibility: </li></ul><ul><li>  For Students: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize acts of cheating or plagiarism. Refrain from these acts and discourage them in others. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>For Parents: </li></ul><ul><li>Uphold the importance and understanding of the ECHHS Honor Code for your son or daughter and the entire school community. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>For Faculty: </li></ul><ul><li>Foster honesty and integrity in the classroom and throughout the school community. </li></ul><ul><li> Address violations of the ECHHS Honor Code as they arise. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>For Administrators… </li></ul><ul><li>Support and help maintain the vision of a community of honesty, integrity, and responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>  Establish clear expectations regarding honesty and integrity and make this a priority of school mission and goals. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Changing School Culture BG3 <ul><li>Embedded honor codes </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Discussion (teacher-teacher, teacher-student) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics Gap Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards </li></ul>Source: National Council of Teachers of English . 2005. The Council Chronicle . www .ncte.org/ pubs/chron/highlights/122871.htm (accessed Feb. 18, 2008). Teachers Did Not Discuss Plagiarism Teachers Discussed Plagiarism Grades 3-5 (understood) 49% 61% Grades 6-12 (felt it was acceptable) 37% 22%
    49. 49. Question 4 <ul><li>Can you identify resources that would support the development of a school strategic plan supporting academic integrity? </li></ul>
    50. 50. Resources <ul><li>Plagiarism dot org: </li></ul><ul><li> http://www.plagiarism.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Character Education Partnership (CEP) - Academic Integrity Network: http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/ain.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Academic Integrity (CAI) : </li></ul><ul><li> http://www.academicintegrity.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>The School for Ethical Education (SEE’s) Integrity Works! website: http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/ </li></ul>
    51. 51. Flowchart for Honor System DW2 Suggested schematic to implement a secondary school honor system. On line, each box is linked to supporting text and examples from a survey of public and private schools. See link at-- http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/example-aipolicy.htm
    52. 52. Student Academic Integrity Survey JS26 <ul><li>The School for Ethical Education’s (SEE) Academic Motivation & Integrity Survey (AMIS) is designed to provide school leaders information and analysis of student perceptions, beliefs and behaviors related to academic integrity in their school. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of a completed AMIS creates a baseline of data for future comparison and meaningful information to guide the school community in strategies to advance academic integrity and resist cheating. </li></ul><ul><li>AMIS is an assessment instrument for The School for Ethical Education’s Integrity Works! program, which is a school intervention designed to promote academic integrity in middle and high schools. (http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/index.htm) </li></ul>
    53. 53. Why AMIS? JS27 <ul><li>There are a number of reasons why the AMIS is a good choice for your school. Here are two reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Cheating is endemic in US secondary schools. Current research indicates that 90% or more students report some cheating behavior during each school year. The AMIS can provide a detailed picture of the extent and nature of problem at your school. </li></ul><ul><li>Students in our research overwhelming voice support for their school leaders to implement strategies to reduce cheating and promote academic integrity. The AMIS can inform this process and its effects in a research-driven, evidence-based manner. </li></ul>
    54. 54. Sample AMIS pages JS28
    55. 55. Question 5 <ul><li>Are there school polices that help promote academic integrity and prevent cheating/plagiarism? </li></ul>
    56. 56. Students’ Perceptions of School Academic Integrity Policies JS5         How would you rate... Low Med High Your understanding of your school’s policies on cheating 13% 16% 71% The average student’s support of these policies 53% 40% 8% The effectiveness of these policies 48% 34% 18%
    57. 57. School Policies BG4 <ul><li>A study by Sandra Nagelson in a 2007 edition of the journal Plagiarism found that teachers of undergraduates “dealt with” cases of plagiarism only about 38 percent of the time; of those, nearly half (48 percent) used “informal counseling” methods to counsel students. </li></ul><ul><li>Nagelson, Sandra. 2007. “Academic Misconduct by University Students: Faculty Perceptions and Responses.” Plagiary: Cross-Disciplinary Studies in Plagiarism, Fabrication, and Falsification 1: 1–10. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage learning, not just response </li></ul><ul><li>Two-strike systems </li></ul><ul><li>Shared reporting systems </li></ul>
    58. 58. Question 6 <ul><li>Do honor codes or pledges help support academic integrity? </li></ul>
    59. 59. Core Values for Codes & Pledges JS19 <ul><li>Academic integrity is increased when the school culture explicitly promotes core academic values, such as truth, respect, fairness, honesty and responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>The clear commitment to such values provides both an important cognitive link to ethical arguments AND a supportive cultural ethos for achieving with integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>Students are more likely to affirm the practices of academic integrity when they understand the goal of achieving fairness and equity. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical/moral attributions to decisions about academic integrity help students resist cheating behaviors. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Do Honor Codes Work? BG5 <ul><li>College Administration Publications. n.d. “ New Research on Academic Integrity: The Success of ‘ Modified ’ Honor codes. ” www.collegepubs.com/ref/ SFX000515.shtml (accessed Mar. 23, 2008). </li></ul>Percent Students Reporting Cheating WHEN Private Campuses with Honor Code Large Public Univ. with Mod. Honor Code Campuses with no Honor Code On Tests 23% 33% 45% On Written Work 45% 50% 56%
    61. 61. Impact of codes in high school JS25 Self-reported cheating - 2001 Test Writ. Code 50% 43% No code 57% 51% Self-selection or impact of code? Data provided by Don McCabe, Rutgers University
    62. 62. Honor Codes & Pledges JS20 <ul><li>Example Honor Code </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this Honor Code is to communicate the meaning and importance of academic integrity to all members of the school community and to articulate and support the interest of the community in maintaining the highest standards of conduct in student learning. [Your school name here] embodies a spirit of mutual trust and intellectual honesty that is central to the very nature of learning, and represents the highest possible expression of shared values among the members of the school community. The core values underlying and reflected in the Honor Code are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic honesty is demonstrated by students when the ideas and the writing of others are properly cited; students submit their own work for tests and assignments without unauthorized assistance; students do not provide unauthorized assistance to others; and students report their research or accomplishments accurately, </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. Honor Codes & Pledges JS21 <ul><li>Honor Code, cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect for others and the learning process to demonstrate academic honesty, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust in others to act with academic honesty as a positive community-building force in the school, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility is recognized by all to demonstrate their best effort to prepare and complete academic tasks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairness and equity are demonstrated so that every student can experience an academic environment that is free from the injustices caused by any form of intellectual dishonesty, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity of all members of the school community as demonstrated by a commitment to academic honesty and support of our quest for authentic learning. </li></ul></ul>
    64. 64. Honor Codes & Pledges JS22 Honor Code, cont. This Honor Code summarizes the Honor Policy, which defines the expected standards of conduct in academic affairs. The Honor Policy is published on our school website [link]. The Honor Council is the school body charged with enforcement of the Honor Code. The student body and faculty at [your school name here] will not tolerate any violation of the Honor Code. See examples of Codes: http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/pdf/HonorCodeExamples.pdf
    65. 65. Honor Codes & Pledges JS23 Honor Pledge An honor pledge can be hand written out by each student and affirmed by a dated signature of the student and a parent or guardian at the start of each school year and turned in as a first exercise to the student’s English teacher. General Pledge I pledge to maintain a high level of respect and integrity as a student representing [your school name]. I understand and will uphold the Honor Code in letter and spirit to help our school advance authentic learning. I will not lie, cheat, plagiarize or be complicit with those who do. I will encourage fellow students who commit honor offenses to acknowledge such offenses to their teacher or the Honor Council. I make this pledge in the spirit of honor and trust.
    66. 66. Honor Codes & Pledges JS24 Project Pledge On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this assignment. See examples of Pledges: http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/pdf/HonorPledgeExamples.pdf
    67. 67. Question 7 <ul><li>What procedures should be identified school-wide to prevent plagiarism? </li></ul>
    68. 68. School Procedures to Promote Academic Engagement and Integrity JS6 <ul><li>Communication and Care </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate to students that you are aware that academic dishonesty is a problem, that you take the issue seriously, and that you care about their integrity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play Fair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish fair and clear learning objectives and assessment practices; when possible, include students in decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be clear about what behaviors constitute academic dishonesty in your course. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reiterate the foregoing messages and policies throughout the year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the integrity principles and policies you communicate with consistent adherence and enforcement. </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. School Procedures to Promote Academic Engagement and Integrity JS7 <ul><li>Emphasize Mastery Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Help students to focus on developing competence , not just demonstrating it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage-- Create learning experiences that tap into students’ goals, interests, and value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborate-- Make connections b/w learning activities and the world outside the classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize -- Focus students on self-referenced effort, learning and improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower -- Give students a sense of control ( choice and voice ) over the learning process and the products they create </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate-- Where possible, provide personalized and private assessment of student learning </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Question 8 <ul><li>What consequences are recommended if a student is found responsible for plagiarism? </li></ul>
    71. 71. Detecting and Confronting Plagiarism JS8 <ul><li>Strategies for Detecting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See the Signs (Different voice/style, off topic, mixed citation styles or formatting, lack of refs, anomalies in diction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the Online Sources (e.g., Cheathouse.com , School Sucks , Screw School , The Paper Store ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search Suspicious Sections of Papers (using free search engines such as Google or Yahoo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Plagiarism Detector (e.g., www.turnitin.com ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategies for Confronting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Confrontational (don’t be anger or accusatory; provide evidence and ask questions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect to Direct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Adapted from Harris, R. (2001). Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers . Online at: http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. Consequences DW3 Finding of Negligence The Honor Council will assign a reflective activity to be completed in writing where the student will show Understanding of how greater attention and adherence to the Honor Code could have avoided the negligent act. For the full table and citations of examples go to – http://www.ethicsed.org/programs/integrity-works/pdf/HonorCouncil.pdf Minor Offense Meaningful Offense (not pre-meditated) Meaningful Offense (Pre-Meditated) First 50% off assignment, offer to redo for full credit, written reflection assignment for teacher 0% on assignment, offer to redo for 50% credit, 9-month probation for Honor Council or Honor Societies, written reflection assignment for teacher 0% on assignment, 9-month probation for Honor Council or Honor Societies, written reflection assignment for teacher Second 0% on assignment, offer to redo for 50% credit, 9-month probation for Honor Council or Honor Societies, written reflection assignment for Honor Council 0% on assignment, disqualification for Honor Council or Honor Societies, 30-day suspension from all extra-curricular activities, written reflection assignment for teacher 0% on assignment, disqualification for Honor Council or Honor Societies, 30-day suspension from all extra-curricular activities, 10 hours of community service, written reflection assignment for Honor Council
    73. 73. Question 9 <ul><li>As an electronic detection system, is TurnItIn more effective as an editorial tool for student writing drafts or as a summative evaluation of finished papers? </li></ul>
    74. 74. Question 10 <ul><li>Are there effective teacher strategies to motivate students to resist plagiarism? </li></ul>
    75. 75. What Should Assignments Look Like? BG 6 <ul><li>Less Valuable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write an essay about Hamlet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write an essay about a specific aspect of Hamlet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a personal statement about your experience and Hamlet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More Valuable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read Hamlet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In groups of in class, brainstorm topics or questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose an individual topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find evidence from the text related to the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share thesis and discuss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft a first paragraph and outline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write an essay </li></ul></ul>
    76. 76. Strategies for Preventing Plagiarism KC4 <ul><li>Teach, teach, teach about expectations, proper paraphrasing, summarizing, and citation EVERY time a paper is assigned (NOT just English teachers!) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide LOTS of explicit examples of both appropriate and inappropriate citation </li></ul><ul><li>Have students practice paraphrasing and summarizing (great strategy for all learners!) </li></ul>
    77. 77. Preventing Plagiarism in Your Classroom JS9 <ul><ul><li>Ounces of Prevention for Plagiarism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Assignments Clear and Manageable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide List of Specific Topics or Required Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require Process Steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic, outline, annotated bibliography, first draft, peer review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet with Students to Discuss Their Research Papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require Oral Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have students present their written work orally; ask process questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require Recent References </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask students to include at least three current references (this mitigates the use of “paper mills” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require Meta-learning Essay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have students write a one-page essay on their writing process on the day papers are due/submitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Adapted from Harris, R. (2001). Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers . Online at: http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm </li></ul></ul>
    78. 78. Question 11 <ul><li>Are there specific steps a teacher can take in assigning research papers and other assignments to help avoid student plagiarism? </li></ul>
    79. 79. What should research projects look like? BG7 <ul><li>In my survey of 80 Tennessee high school students: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65% wrote a research paper for English class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>38% wrote a research paper for social studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>67% of English papers were on social studies topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of students used all internet sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are students invested in the research? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should research be discipline-specific? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are students using the internet wisely? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the point of the research paper? </li></ul></ul>
    80. 80. Teacher Steps to Prevent Plagiarism KC5 <ul><li>Break down assignments in stages or pieces (topic, research questions, bibliography, outline, ROUGH DRAFT, and final draft) – gives teacher chance to catch plagiarism early AND is an opportunity to give points for each step. </li></ul><ul><li>Require printouts or copies of Internet and other sources </li></ul><ul><li>Make parameters of EACH assignment explicitly clear – don’t assume that students will understand, especially if expectations change significantly from one assignment to the next. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students explain their topic orally to the teacher one-on-one OR to the class. </li></ul>
    81. 81. Teacher Steps to Prevent Plagiarism KC6 <ul><li>Have students write a “post paper” essay when they have turned in their papers about what they learned from the assignment (both process and subject) </li></ul><ul><li>Make assignments/paper topics SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>Change assignments/paper topics from semester to semester and year to year. </li></ul><ul><li>Be explicit about consequences for plagiarism (Tell students your “horror stories” about what happened to other students who have been caught plagiarizing in your class in the past.) </li></ul><ul><li>Set up grading so that it is far better to turn in an assignment a couple of days late rather than cheating on it and receiving no credit and other punishments. </li></ul>
    82. 82. Question 12 <ul><li>How can paraphrasing be used while avoiding plagiarism? </li></ul>
    83. 83. Question 13 <ul><li>Should teachers be concerned about homework copying? </li></ul>
    84. 84. A Person-in-Context Model Context Person The Problem of Academic Dishonesty JS33 Cheating Behavior Perception Judgment Motivation Character Peers Parents Teachers Others School Climate Cultural Norms Sociohistoric Context