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Academic Integrity and
                          Alec Couros, PhD
 the Culture of Sharing   University of Regina
Outline

• Traditional views of and
  approaches toward
  academic integrity (AI).

• Rise of the culture of
  openness, sharing,
  collaboration and remix.

• How the shift informs our
  contemporary views of
  academic integrity,
  intellectual property, and
  (free) culture.
Academic Integrity != Plagiarism
Keywords: Text from top 10 Academic
Google results, visualized using Wordle.
Definitions from Universities

• “... the pursuit of scholarly activity in an open, honest and responsible
  manner. Academic integrity includes a commitment not to engage in or
  tolerate acts of falsification, misrepresentation or deception.” (Penn State)


• “... is a commitment, even in the face of adversity, to five fundamental values:
  honesty, trust, fairness, respect, and responsibility.” (CAI)


• “... means honesty and responsibility in scholarship. Professors have to obey
  rules of honest scholarship, and so do students.” (Oklahoma U.)


• “... is the cornerstone of University life and scholarly communities.
  Professional academics, depend on each other to work with integrity to
  continually advance our understanding of the world through the development
  and dissemination of knowledge.” (York U.)
Definitions from Educators via Twitter
“Twenty-nine engineering students
got 0, after professors caught them
cheating on essays about
professional ethics.”
“Cheating is not only commonplace
but is also becoming increasingly
sophisticated.”


   “Developing a system of codes and
   hand signals, pre-recording answers
   and storing them in audio recorders”


       creates a system where “students
       feel that education is less important
       than their grades”
“... the high rates don’t necessarily
mean students in those programs
are more likely to cheat. Rather,
their professors may simply be
taking cheating more seriously.”
“Students go to university for a
higher education. They don’t go to
be involved in a culture mistrust, a
culture of guilt.”
“One hundred and forty-six
students used the group to help
each other with homework
assignments.”
“Shouldn’t the teacher be
                        reprimanded for hindering the
                        ability of fertile and free-thinking
                        academic minds to collaborate
                        and learn and progress (in) the
                        way in which they best see fit?”

“The online culture is outpacing
the curriculum and education
system. These students are
smart and using the Internet the
way it should be used. This is the
future of education.”

                                                       Source
Statistical Overview
                                     15%
                                                 • Students identified whether or
                                                   not they regularly attempted to
                                                   cheat. The majority reported
                                           15%     that while they did not regularly
                                                   cheat, their decision was
                                                   swayed by the circumstances.
       70%
                                                 • Recent studies revealed that the
                                                   Internet “provided more
                  Do Not Cheat
                                                   convenience to cheat and
                                                   plagiarize. Web sites, e-mails,
                  Will Always Try                  chat rooms, digital devices, and
                                                   search engines all become tools
                  May Be Swayed                    for plagiarism and
                                                   cheating.” (Hongyan et. al, 2008)
Survey Results (rounded), Couros, 2000
Why Do Students Plagiarize?

•Poor time management and research skills.
•Lack of interest in the subject or low self-confidence.
•Lack of knowledge or ability to write/research a paper.
•Mistakes made in note-taking/research.
•Others plagiarize and are not caught.
•Laziness or blatant disregard for copyright regulations.
•Over-emphasis of grades vs. learning.
•Lack of knowledge of what constitutes plagiarism or AI.
•Educators show lack of integrity themselves.
•Pressure from family, competition for scholarships/jobs.
•Culturally based attitudes toward ownership of knowledge.
                                           Source: Penn State Libraries.
Paper Mills: Over 250 listed at Kimbel Library.
Traditional Approaches to Academic Integrity

•Virtues Approach
  •Develop and nurture students who do not want to cheat.
  •Model ethical academic conduct through faculty.
•Prevention Approach
  •Eliminate or reduce the opportunities to cheat.
  •Reduce the pressure to cheat.
•Police approach
  •Catch and discipline those who are caught cheating.
  •Develop strong deterrents.
  •Use strategies and tools to check for cheating.
Timeline of Traditional Approaches to AI



       Formation of the
                                          Act of Cheating
      Intention to Cheat




    Academic Integrity
                           Preventative           Police or Detection
      and Character
                            Approaches                Approaches
       Approaches
Source: Centre for Academic Integrity
Source: Centre for Academic Integrity
Source: Centre for Academic Integrity
Proactive Prevention Techniques

•Educators better understand why students cheat, and
 learn various, emerging forms of academic dishonesty.

•Students helped to better understand plagiarism and
 importance of citing sources.

•Assignment design: assignments made clear, topics
 changed often, citation/source innovation, focus on
 research/writing process, require oral reports, annotated
 bibliographies.
Rise of Openness, Sharing,
   Collaboration & Remix
how we view collaboration




cathedral vs. the bazaar
how we view knowledge
                         and creative works

copyright vs. copyleft
The Hacker Ethic

• Distinguish between the original
  hackers and those portrayed in the
  media.
• Principles: sharing, community &
  collaboration, access, freedom of
  information, comp. for better
  society.
• “... essential lessons can be learned
  about the world from taking things
  apart, seeing how they work, and
  using this knowledge to create new
  and more interesting things.” (Levy,
  1984)
Tensions


   Opposing Forces                 Virtual Counterparts
       closed vs. open               television vs. internet
 broadcast vs. conversation        newspapers vs. blogging
   institution vs. individual        telephones vs. skype
    hierarchy vs. network              snail mail vs. email
centralized vs. decentralized   roller rinks vs. social networks
      product vs. remix               courier vs. 3D copier
     planned vs. chaotic
      static vs. dynamic
         push vs. pull



                                               Adapted from Downes (2004)
Wesch on Numa Numa
• “Numa Numa” is one of the
  most viewed videos in history.

• Wesch’s explains the history
  of this Internet meme and
  brings light to how youth are
  connecting, remixing,
  synthesizing, and creating
  new knowledge.
Attribution via
retweets
Attribution via
trackback/ping
Attribution via
CC/Flickr
Attribution via
wiki history
Attribution via
video response
“It’s amazing to see how a loose
federation of worldwide
volunteers can get from here ...
to here, in a couple of years.”




                            Udell (2004)
Openness and Academic Integrity
Understanding the Shift

• Students are now connected in
  ways that we struggle to
  understand, and in some cases,
  choose to restrict.
• Lessig, one of the founders of the
  Creative Commons, is an
  advocate of (re)creating, (re)use
  of content, to “say things
  differently.”
• Sharing and collaboration are
  necessary forces within a creative
  and free culture.
370 student registered 443 digital devices.


 14 students brought desktop computers,
 93 brought iphones/Touch devices.


        Only 5 students reported landline service.


432 of 438 new students on Facebook, College
group had 3225 posts before start of school.


                                  Source: Academic Commons
Similar Values/Processes, Different Spaces/Tools

• Attribution is relevant and necessary, even in a “free” culture.
• How do we connect to learning preferences of students (e.g.,
  mobile, personal portals, multimedia)

• What are acceptable
  forms of collaboration
  and sharing?
• Citation styles have
  evolved, but do we
  need a revolution to
  accommodate new
  forms of research?
“Any institutionally-created, operated, or
    controlled environment in which participants are
    lured in either by mimicking pre-existing open or
    naturally formed environment, or by force,
    through a system of punishments or rewards.”
    ~ Jared Stein




Beware the “Creepy
Treehouse”
The Importance of Knowledge Filters

• The Internet has created a
  knowledge ecology where we
  have moved from a few
  gatekeepers, to many human
  filters.
• The tools of social media
  simplify the process or reading,
  filtering, synthesizing, curating
  attributing, and sharing
  information.
• Still, difficulty lies in forming
  knowledge networks based on
  trust, while avoiding the echo
  chamber effect.
“Education ... has produced a vast
population able to read but unable
   to distinguish what is worth
     reading, an easy prey to
 sensations and cheap appeals.”
         ~Trevelyan (1942)
Understanding Copyright, Copyleft & Openness

• Creative Commons and other
  copyleft licenses help give us
  access to quality tools, content,
  and other resources.
• Openness has the potential to
  transform our educational
  institutions in terms of access
  and quality of resources.
• Perhaps most important to AI,
  copyleft/openness gives us
  power to choose how we share,
  makes us interrogate when to do
  so, and provides an explicit
  mechanism for attribution.
The current era of intellectual property is
   waning. It has been based on two faulty
  assumptions made nearly three decades
  ago: that since some intellectual property
(IP) is good, more must be better; and that
   IP is about controlling knowledge rather
 than sharing it. These assumptions are as
 inaccurate in biotechnology ... as they are
    in other fields from music to software.



                                     Source:Innovation Partnership
Why Do We Cite/Write? Core to Academic Integrity

• “... creativity is often distributed over multiple processes, times,
  places, and people...social creativity does not ‘reside’ in any single
  cognitive or personality process.” (Harrington, 1990)
• “... in the process of
  discovering, creating,
  or adding to an original
  act’s potential value, a
  social system enters
  into and becomes an
  integral part of the
  creative process.”
  (Harrington, 1990)
alec.couros@uregina.ca
    http://couros.ca
Photo and Video Credits (in order of appearance)

• http://tinyurl.com/425oge   Videos:
• http://tinyurl.com/3j92hf   - Wesch on Youtube
• http://tinyurl.com/452x9    - Lessig TED Talk
• http://tinyurl.com/65q3e    - Udell Heavy Metal Umlaut
• http://tinyurl.com/6nsgx8   - Friedman on the Pencil
• http://tinyurl.com/6yfu3q
• http://tinyurl.com/6xvbt4
• http://tinyurl.com/5mf56s
• http://tinyurl.com/579zqg
• http://tinyurl.com/4onaf5
• http://tinyurl.com/4tg4mu

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Academic Integrity Keynote

  • 1. Academic Integrity and Alec Couros, PhD the Culture of Sharing University of Regina
  • 2. Outline • Traditional views of and approaches toward academic integrity (AI). • Rise of the culture of openness, sharing, collaboration and remix. • How the shift informs our contemporary views of academic integrity, intellectual property, and (free) culture.
  • 4. Keywords: Text from top 10 Academic Google results, visualized using Wordle.
  • 5. Definitions from Universities • “... the pursuit of scholarly activity in an open, honest and responsible manner. Academic integrity includes a commitment not to engage in or tolerate acts of falsification, misrepresentation or deception.” (Penn State) • “... is a commitment, even in the face of adversity, to five fundamental values: honesty, trust, fairness, respect, and responsibility.” (CAI) • “... means honesty and responsibility in scholarship. Professors have to obey rules of honest scholarship, and so do students.” (Oklahoma U.) • “... is the cornerstone of University life and scholarly communities. Professional academics, depend on each other to work with integrity to continually advance our understanding of the world through the development and dissemination of knowledge.” (York U.)
  • 7. “Twenty-nine engineering students got 0, after professors caught them cheating on essays about professional ethics.”
  • 8. “Cheating is not only commonplace but is also becoming increasingly sophisticated.” “Developing a system of codes and hand signals, pre-recording answers and storing them in audio recorders” creates a system where “students feel that education is less important than their grades”
  • 9. “... the high rates don’t necessarily mean students in those programs are more likely to cheat. Rather, their professors may simply be taking cheating more seriously.”
  • 10. “Students go to university for a higher education. They don’t go to be involved in a culture mistrust, a culture of guilt.”
  • 11. “One hundred and forty-six students used the group to help each other with homework assignments.”
  • 12. “Shouldn’t the teacher be reprimanded for hindering the ability of fertile and free-thinking academic minds to collaborate and learn and progress (in) the way in which they best see fit?” “The online culture is outpacing the curriculum and education system. These students are smart and using the Internet the way it should be used. This is the future of education.” Source
  • 13. Statistical Overview 15% • Students identified whether or not they regularly attempted to cheat. The majority reported 15% that while they did not regularly cheat, their decision was swayed by the circumstances. 70% • Recent studies revealed that the Internet “provided more Do Not Cheat convenience to cheat and plagiarize. Web sites, e-mails, Will Always Try chat rooms, digital devices, and search engines all become tools May Be Swayed for plagiarism and cheating.” (Hongyan et. al, 2008) Survey Results (rounded), Couros, 2000
  • 14. Why Do Students Plagiarize? •Poor time management and research skills. •Lack of interest in the subject or low self-confidence. •Lack of knowledge or ability to write/research a paper. •Mistakes made in note-taking/research. •Others plagiarize and are not caught. •Laziness or blatant disregard for copyright regulations. •Over-emphasis of grades vs. learning. •Lack of knowledge of what constitutes plagiarism or AI. •Educators show lack of integrity themselves. •Pressure from family, competition for scholarships/jobs. •Culturally based attitudes toward ownership of knowledge. Source: Penn State Libraries.
  • 15. Paper Mills: Over 250 listed at Kimbel Library.
  • 16. Traditional Approaches to Academic Integrity •Virtues Approach •Develop and nurture students who do not want to cheat. •Model ethical academic conduct through faculty. •Prevention Approach •Eliminate or reduce the opportunities to cheat. •Reduce the pressure to cheat. •Police approach •Catch and discipline those who are caught cheating. •Develop strong deterrents. •Use strategies and tools to check for cheating.
  • 17. Timeline of Traditional Approaches to AI Formation of the Act of Cheating Intention to Cheat Academic Integrity Preventative Police or Detection and Character Approaches Approaches Approaches
  • 18. Source: Centre for Academic Integrity
  • 19. Source: Centre for Academic Integrity
  • 20. Source: Centre for Academic Integrity
  • 21. Proactive Prevention Techniques •Educators better understand why students cheat, and learn various, emerging forms of academic dishonesty. •Students helped to better understand plagiarism and importance of citing sources. •Assignment design: assignments made clear, topics changed often, citation/source innovation, focus on research/writing process, require oral reports, annotated bibliographies.
  • 22.
  • 23. Rise of Openness, Sharing, Collaboration & Remix
  • 24.
  • 25. how we view collaboration cathedral vs. the bazaar
  • 26. how we view knowledge and creative works copyright vs. copyleft
  • 27. The Hacker Ethic • Distinguish between the original hackers and those portrayed in the media. • Principles: sharing, community & collaboration, access, freedom of information, comp. for better society. • “... essential lessons can be learned about the world from taking things apart, seeing how they work, and using this knowledge to create new and more interesting things.” (Levy, 1984)
  • 28. Tensions Opposing Forces Virtual Counterparts closed vs. open television vs. internet broadcast vs. conversation newspapers vs. blogging institution vs. individual telephones vs. skype hierarchy vs. network snail mail vs. email centralized vs. decentralized roller rinks vs. social networks product vs. remix courier vs. 3D copier planned vs. chaotic static vs. dynamic push vs. pull Adapted from Downes (2004)
  • 29. Wesch on Numa Numa • “Numa Numa” is one of the most viewed videos in history. • Wesch’s explains the history of this Internet meme and brings light to how youth are connecting, remixing, synthesizing, and creating new knowledge.
  • 30.
  • 36. “It’s amazing to see how a loose federation of worldwide volunteers can get from here ... to here, in a couple of years.” Udell (2004)
  • 38. Understanding the Shift • Students are now connected in ways that we struggle to understand, and in some cases, choose to restrict. • Lessig, one of the founders of the Creative Commons, is an advocate of (re)creating, (re)use of content, to “say things differently.” • Sharing and collaboration are necessary forces within a creative and free culture.
  • 39. 370 student registered 443 digital devices. 14 students brought desktop computers, 93 brought iphones/Touch devices. Only 5 students reported landline service. 432 of 438 new students on Facebook, College group had 3225 posts before start of school. Source: Academic Commons
  • 40. Similar Values/Processes, Different Spaces/Tools • Attribution is relevant and necessary, even in a “free” culture. • How do we connect to learning preferences of students (e.g., mobile, personal portals, multimedia) • What are acceptable forms of collaboration and sharing? • Citation styles have evolved, but do we need a revolution to accommodate new forms of research?
  • 41. “Any institutionally-created, operated, or controlled environment in which participants are lured in either by mimicking pre-existing open or naturally formed environment, or by force, through a system of punishments or rewards.” ~ Jared Stein Beware the “Creepy Treehouse”
  • 42. The Importance of Knowledge Filters • The Internet has created a knowledge ecology where we have moved from a few gatekeepers, to many human filters. • The tools of social media simplify the process or reading, filtering, synthesizing, curating attributing, and sharing information. • Still, difficulty lies in forming knowledge networks based on trust, while avoiding the echo chamber effect.
  • 43. “Education ... has produced a vast population able to read but unable to distinguish what is worth reading, an easy prey to sensations and cheap appeals.” ~Trevelyan (1942)
  • 44. Understanding Copyright, Copyleft & Openness • Creative Commons and other copyleft licenses help give us access to quality tools, content, and other resources. • Openness has the potential to transform our educational institutions in terms of access and quality of resources. • Perhaps most important to AI, copyleft/openness gives us power to choose how we share, makes us interrogate when to do so, and provides an explicit mechanism for attribution.
  • 45. The current era of intellectual property is waning. It has been based on two faulty assumptions made nearly three decades ago: that since some intellectual property (IP) is good, more must be better; and that IP is about controlling knowledge rather than sharing it. These assumptions are as inaccurate in biotechnology ... as they are in other fields from music to software. Source:Innovation Partnership
  • 46. Why Do We Cite/Write? Core to Academic Integrity • “... creativity is often distributed over multiple processes, times, places, and people...social creativity does not ‘reside’ in any single cognitive or personality process.” (Harrington, 1990) • “... in the process of discovering, creating, or adding to an original act’s potential value, a social system enters into and becomes an integral part of the creative process.” (Harrington, 1990)
  • 47. alec.couros@uregina.ca http://couros.ca
  • 48. Photo and Video Credits (in order of appearance) • http://tinyurl.com/425oge Videos: • http://tinyurl.com/3j92hf - Wesch on Youtube • http://tinyurl.com/452x9 - Lessig TED Talk • http://tinyurl.com/65q3e - Udell Heavy Metal Umlaut • http://tinyurl.com/6nsgx8 - Friedman on the Pencil • http://tinyurl.com/6yfu3q • http://tinyurl.com/6xvbt4 • http://tinyurl.com/5mf56s • http://tinyurl.com/579zqg • http://tinyurl.com/4onaf5 • http://tinyurl.com/4tg4mu