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Antiperspants & deodorants- Actives & mechanism of action. Deodorant and Antiperspirant ppt

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DR. S. KUMARA SWAMY
A S S O C I AT E P R O F E S S O R
F A C U LT Y O F P H A R M A C E U T I C A L S C I E N C E
A S S A M D O W N T O W N U N I V E R S I T Y
Antiperspirants &
Deodorants
BIOLOGY OF SWEAT GLANDS IN THE HUMAN AXILLA
 The axilla region of humans contains apocrine, eccrine, and
sebaceous glands.
 Approximately 25,000 sweat glands per axilla can produce up to
12 g sweat per hour.
 Body Surface- 23,80, 000
 The structure and function of sweat glands is that
thermoregulation is the only aspect of the body
 It also participating in immunological, metabolic, and hormonal
aspects of human life .
ECCRINE GLANDS
 This is the gland responsible for the majority of sweat
production.
 It has both sensory and excretory functions and may be
stimulated by both emotional and thermal stimuli.
 It produces a transparent, colourless, odourless liquid
 Water 98 - 99%
 inorganic and organic 1-2%
 Inorganic components -NaCl & traces of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and
Cu ions.
 Organic components - lactic acid, citric acid, formic acid,
propionic acid, butyric acid, urea, and ammonia.
 Underarm wetness comes mostly from the secretion of
eccrine glands.
APOCRINE GLANDS
 Apocrine glands appear to be a sign of man's phylogenetic
development.
 Throughout puberty, these glands begin to produce a milky,
sticky fluid in certain areas of the body, particularly the underarm
pit.
 The gland openings are not on the skin's surface, but inside the
hair follicle.
 The characteristic malodor of human sweat is caused by the
decomposition of apocrine sweat by skin bacteria.
 Apocrine sweat consists of water, proteins, carbohydrates, and
ammonium salts
BIOLOGY OF THE UNDERARM MICROFLORA
 The resident microflora of the human underarm skin consists of
up to 106/cm2 organisms, for example, aerobic cocci, lipophilic
diphtheroids, and varying species of gram-negative bacteria.
 In the axillae, two types of bacterial flora exist—coryneform
bacteria and micrococcaceae such as Staphylococcus epidermidis.
 Moisture is required for bacterial proliferation and is secreted
especially from the eccrine sweat glands.
 The origin of strong odor compared with weak underarm odor is
associated with a numerical dominance of coryneform bacteria
 Components of apocrine secretion, for example, isovaleric acid
and androstenone, were proposed to contribute to axillary odor.
 Coryneform bacteria liberate the odor molecules from the protein
precursor/odorant complex
ODOR - SWEAT GLANDS & SEBACEOUS GLANDS
 Perspiration physiology:
 When the body temperature rises, the sympathetic nervous
system stimulates the sweat glands to secrete water to the skin
surface, where it cools the body by evaporation.
 Thus, sweat is an important mechanism for temperature control.
 Numerous odors substances are responsible:
 Decomposition of the proteins
 Lower fatty acids, steroids and lactones(have no smell, but they
fix the odor)
 Combined action of food physical and psychological conditions
 Individual property (dog detection)
Ad

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Antiperspirants & Deodorants.pdf

  • 1. DR. S. KUMARA SWAMY A S S O C I AT E P R O F E S S O R F A C U LT Y O F P H A R M A C E U T I C A L S C I E N C E A S S A M D O W N T O W N U N I V E R S I T Y Antiperspirants & Deodorants
  • 2. BIOLOGY OF SWEAT GLANDS IN THE HUMAN AXILLA  The axilla region of humans contains apocrine, eccrine, and sebaceous glands.  Approximately 25,000 sweat glands per axilla can produce up to 12 g sweat per hour.  Body Surface- 23,80, 000  The structure and function of sweat glands is that thermoregulation is the only aspect of the body  It also participating in immunological, metabolic, and hormonal aspects of human life .
  • 3. ECCRINE GLANDS  This is the gland responsible for the majority of sweat production.  It has both sensory and excretory functions and may be stimulated by both emotional and thermal stimuli.  It produces a transparent, colourless, odourless liquid  Water 98 - 99%  inorganic and organic 1-2%  Inorganic components -NaCl & traces of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Cu ions.  Organic components - lactic acid, citric acid, formic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, urea, and ammonia.  Underarm wetness comes mostly from the secretion of eccrine glands.
  • 4. APOCRINE GLANDS  Apocrine glands appear to be a sign of man's phylogenetic development.  Throughout puberty, these glands begin to produce a milky, sticky fluid in certain areas of the body, particularly the underarm pit.  The gland openings are not on the skin's surface, but inside the hair follicle.  The characteristic malodor of human sweat is caused by the decomposition of apocrine sweat by skin bacteria.  Apocrine sweat consists of water, proteins, carbohydrates, and ammonium salts
  • 5. BIOLOGY OF THE UNDERARM MICROFLORA  The resident microflora of the human underarm skin consists of up to 106/cm2 organisms, for example, aerobic cocci, lipophilic diphtheroids, and varying species of gram-negative bacteria.  In the axillae, two types of bacterial flora exist—coryneform bacteria and micrococcaceae such as Staphylococcus epidermidis.  Moisture is required for bacterial proliferation and is secreted especially from the eccrine sweat glands.  The origin of strong odor compared with weak underarm odor is associated with a numerical dominance of coryneform bacteria  Components of apocrine secretion, for example, isovaleric acid and androstenone, were proposed to contribute to axillary odor.  Coryneform bacteria liberate the odor molecules from the protein precursor/odorant complex
  • 6. ODOR - SWEAT GLANDS & SEBACEOUS GLANDS  Perspiration physiology:  When the body temperature rises, the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the sweat glands to secrete water to the skin surface, where it cools the body by evaporation.  Thus, sweat is an important mechanism for temperature control.  Numerous odors substances are responsible:  Decomposition of the proteins  Lower fatty acids, steroids and lactones(have no smell, but they fix the odor)  Combined action of food physical and psychological conditions  Individual property (dog detection)
  • 7. DEODORANT AND ANTIPERSPIRANT  A deodorant is a products applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet, and other areas of the body and do not reduce wetness.  A subgroup of deodorant, antiperspirant, affects odor as well as prevent sweating by affecting sweat glands.
  • 8. PROPERTIES OF DEODORANTS AND ANTIPERSPIRANT  It should not be irritant to the skin.  It should not deteriorate clothing.  It should be safe and nontoxic.  Easy to use and adhere well on skin.  Mask body odor with perfume.  Absorb perspiration or inhibit the activity of gram+ ve bacteria, which cause body malodour.
  • 9. DEODORANT ACTION  According to Gomes, Drucker & liley, infections caused by anaerotic bacteria often produce strong odor due to production of short chain fatty acids, sulfur compounds, ammonia & polyamines.  Chlorine through its lethal activity on micro organism & oxidative action on dead tissue & bacterial products, eliminate the fetid odor produced by necrosis.
  • 10. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE UNDERARM ODOR INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:  Antiperspirant active-containing deodorants  Odor-masking deodorants  Odor-neutralizing deodorants  Odor-quenching deodorants  Esterase inhibitors  Antimicrobial active-containing deodorants
  • 11. DEODORANTS/INGREDIENTS  Antibacterial agents:-  -benzethonium chloride  -chlorhexidine acetate  -trichloro-hydroxy diphenyl ether (Triclosan)  Formulation forms:  Aerosols  Sticks  Creams  Roll-On  Soaps
  • 12. FORMULATION  Deodorant  Stearic acid 14.0  Bees wax 2.0  Liquid paraffin 1.0  Tween 80 5.0  Al-chlorhydrate 12.0  Cetrimide 1.0  Water to 100  Deodorant stick  Stearic acid 3.4  Sodium hydroxide 0.6  Glycerol 7.5  Cetrimide 0.75  Ethanol 75  D.water 1.0
  • 13. EVALUATION OF DEODORANTS:  Both in vivo and in vitro methods are available.  But In vitro techniques do not provide a reliable indicator of clinical effectiveness.  The two principal methods for the in vivo evaluation of deodorant efficacy are-  1. Determination of the effect of treatment on the skin microflora;  2. Olfactory assessment of the effects on skin odours.  In the other method, olfactory assessment of the effect of deodorants on body odours may be performed by direct armpit sniffing or by indirect sniffing of pads.
  • 14. ACCORDING TO A REPORT FROM SIN CHEW DAILY. SO WHAT EXACTLY IS THE JOB IN QUESTION, YOU WONDER? A DEODORANT TESTER.  This Company Is Willing To Pay You RM8 MILLION A Year To Sniff Armpits & Feet  Well, as a reward for braving sweaty armpits and feet with your very sensitive nose, you can rake in an annual income of over $2 MILLION (RM 8.29 million). That’s over RM690,000 a month!
  • 15. ANTIPERSPIRANTS  Antiperspirants are topically administered products that work by inhibiting eccrine sweat production to reduce underarm wetness.  Antiperspirants reduce the amount of sweat only from eccrine glands.  The active ingredients in antiperspirants usually include aluminum-based compounds that temporarily block sweat pores.  In the United States, these products are regulated by the Food and Drug administration (FDA) as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs because they are intended to affect a ‘‘function of the body’’ (i.e., in this context, perspiration).
  • 16. ANTIPERSPIRANT ACTION  Active ingredient will diffuse into the sweat & apocrine glands & insoluble hydroxide gel will be produced in sweat pores & thus physically blocking the release of secretory products by constricting the opening of the sweat gland ducts.  Methods to reduce:  1-Reduce apocrine sweating  2-Remove the secretions  3-Impede bacterial growth  4-Absorb body odor
  • 17. SWEAT REDUCTION BY ANTIPERSPIRANTS:  The reader should be aware that theories concerning the action of sweat-reducing agents depend strongly on the type of actives (aluminum salts, nonionic agents, or ionic agents).  The efficacy of antiperspirants based on aluminum and/or aluminum zirconium salts can be understood by the formation of an occlusive plug of metal hydroxide in the eccrine duct.  Note: aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH)
  • 18. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DEODORANTS AND ANTIPERSPIRANT  Deodorants  Deodorants are topically applied products designed to reduce underarm odor.  They are considered in the United States as cosmetics,  Has a topical effect (Cosmetics)  Does not reduce sweat amount  Contain adsorbent, fragrance andgermicide  Deodorant is not Antiperspirants  Less irritating than antiperspirants.  In Europe, the consumers today prefer deodorants compared to antiperspirants.  Antiperspirants  Antiperspirants reduce the amount of sweat only from eccrine glands.  while antiperspirants are treated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as drugs.  Has a therapeutic effect (OTC)  Reduce amount of sweat secretion  Contain adsorbent, fragrance, germicide, and astringent  Antiperspirants is deodorant  More irritating  In the United States, the trend is approximately reversed.
  • 19. ACTIVE INGREDIENTS FOR CONTROLLING UNDERARM WETNESS  Buffered Aluminum Salts (ACH): The first antiperspirant, Ever Dry, based on AlCl3, was introduced to the market in 1903.  The first cream-containing aluminum sulfate was introduced during the 1930s.  The acidic pH value (2.5–3.0) was a drawback of these products, leading to skin irritation in the underarm pit.  History tells us that the development of antiperspirant actives with a higher pH value, so-called buffered aluminum chlorides (ACH, pH 1/4 4.0–4.2), was an appropriate step with the additional benefit of reduced destruction of fabric clothes.  Aluminum Zirconium Chlorohydrate–Glycine Complexes  Aluminium zirconium chlorohydrate-glycine (AZG) complex is obtained by reaction of ACH with zirconyl chloride.  Reaction of the former ingredient in the presence of glycine leads to zirconium aluminium glycine (ZAG) complexes. Glycine is used as a buffering agent.
  • 20. FORMULATION OF ANTIPERSPIRANTSTICKS  Antiperspirant sticks consist of  The active drug ingredients that control perspiration;  Gelling agents that form the stick matrix; and  Other ingredients, such as fragrance or colorants, that make the product aesthetically pleasing.
  • 21. ACTIVE INGREDIENTS  The FDA publishes an Over the Counter (OTC) Drug monograph that lists which ingredients are approved for use  The ingredients on this list are limited to: - natural antimicrobial agents: aluminum chlorhydrate,aluminumdichlorhydrate - aluminum chloride (must be non aerosol) and- aluminum zirconium complexes.  of these compounds, the most commonly used isaluminum zirconiumtetrachlorohydrex glycine.  Most of these materials are supplied as powders, and they are typically used at levels of 8-25% based on the weight of the finished product.
  • 22. ALCOHOL  Alcohol is an ingredient present in some roll-ons, aerosols and gels.  The active ingredients of antiperspirants and deodorants are often dissolved in alcohol because it dries quickly once applied to the skin and gives an immediate sense of coolness.
  • 23. GELLING AGENT  The bulk of the formulation consists of waxy or fatty materials that are gelled to form a solid stick.  Common examples include:  - stearyl alcohol  - cetyl alcohol  - hydrogenated castor oil, and glyceryl stearate.  These waxy materials are blended with lubricatingoils and emollients such as cyclomethicone,  In addition, talc, starches, or other powders may beadded to control stick consistency and to give the product a dry feel.
  • 24. OTHER INGREDIENTS:  Fragrance and colorants may be added to the formula to improve its odour or appearance.  Some additives as calcium pantothenate may be added, Calcium pantothenate in antiperspirants is claimed to soothe irritated skin and to promote wound healing, which often occurs with underarm shaving.
  • 25. EVALUATION OF ANTIPERSPIRANT:  Antiperspirants aim to bring about a temporary decrease in sweatproduction in the axillae.  The most widely used procedure for efficacy testing of antiperspirants is a gravimetric method which involves the collection and weighing of axillary sweat under controlled conditions.  Quality control:  Evaluation of irritation  Evaluation of contact sensitization  Evaluation of photodermatitis  Safety testing  Evaluation of toxicity  Efficacy testing:  A product must reduce the amount of perspiration by at least 20% to allow a product to be labeled as an antiperspirant
  • 26. WHY CHOOSE A DEODORANT OVER AN ANTIPERSPIRANT?  Deodorants work by neutralizing the smell of the sweat and by antiseptic action against bacteria.  Deodorants are preferable because they don't interfere with sweating, a natural cooling process.  Antiperspirants, because of their ability to reduceperspiration and thus diminish the medium that is a factor in the development of axillary odour, can also claim to be a deodorant.  However, because a deodorant product only reducesthe body odour and does not reduce perspiration it canonly be labeled as a deodorant.
  • 27. HEALTHY EFFECTS  1. Aluminum toxicity  Aluminum itself adversely affects the blood-brain barrier, is capable of causing DNA damage, and has adverse epigenetic effects.  2. Breast cancer  2004 and 2005 studies led by researcher Philippa Darbre, hypothesizes that particular substances in deodorants, such as preservatives called parabens, or bolts such as aluminum chloride used in antiperspirants, get into the bloodstream or accumulate in breast tissue, where they enhance or emulate the effects of estrogen, which stimulates the growth of cancerous breast cells.
  • 28. HEALTHY EFFECTS….  3. The agency warns people with renal dysfunction to consult a doctor before using antiperspirants containing aluminum.  4. Deodorant crystals containing synthetically made potassium alum were found to be a weak irritant to the skin. Alcohol-free deodorant is available for those with sensitive skin.