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- 1. Advanced Encryption Standard Reference: Stallings, Data and Computer Communications, 7th Edition,Pearson/P-H, 2004
- 2. AES Background • 1997 --National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) issues a call for proposals. • 2001--AES issues as a federal information processing standards (FIPS 197)
- 3. AES Requirements • Security Strength Equal to or Better than 3DES • Significantly More Efficient than 3DES • Symmetric Block Cipher • Block Length = 128 bits • Support for Key Lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits
- 4. Evaluation Criteria for AES Proposals • Security • Computational Efficiency • Memory Requirements • Hardware and Software Suitability • Flexibility
- 5. The State and Key Schedule • Fig. 21.2 shows the AES algorithm structure. • Input is a 128 bit block (16 bytes) that is placed in the state array (Fig. 21.3) • The key is entered in a block and divided into key schedule words of 4 bytes/word. • The key schedule is an expansion of the key— eg, a 128 bit key is expanded into 44 key schedule words. • A square matrix of bytes is used by the standard to describe the state.
- 6. Rounds and Transformation Stages • The encryption process executes a round function, Nr times, with the number of rounds (Nr) being dependent on key size. • The round function consists of four transformation stages. – SubBytes() – ShiftRows() – MixColumns() – AddRoundKey()
- 7. Rounds and Transformation Stages (p.2) • The cipher begins with an AddRoundKey(). • All rounds then execute each of the transformations except the last round. • The MixColumns( ) transformation is not executed in the final round. • For a 128 bit key, there are 10 rounds. • 12 and 14 rounds are used with keys of 192 and 256.
- 8. SubBytes ( ) Transformation • The substitute transformation is an S-Box process, that is independent of the key. • Each of the bytes of the State is replaced by a different byte, according to a table. • The table is fixed and derived from two transformations defined in the standard. • The table is an 8 x 8 array, indexed with the State byte.
- 9. ShiftRows( ) Transformation • The ShiftRows() transformation is a permutation that is performed row by row on the State array, independently of the key. • The first row is not shifted. • The 2nd row is circularly shifted left 1 byte. • The 3rd row is circularly shifted left 2 bytes. • The 4th row is circularly shifted left 3 bytes.
- 10. MixColumns() Transformation • The MixColumns( ) transformation manipulates each column of the state array. • The process can be described as a matrix multiplication of a polynomial and the state array. • This process does not depend on the key.
- 11. AddRoundKey( ) Transformation • The AddRoundKey( ) transformation uses the key schedule word. • The process is a bitwise XOR of the columns of the state array, with the key schedule word.
- 12. AES Decryption • AES decryption is accomplished using inverses of the transformations, in the appropriate order. • The AddRoundKey( ) is its own inverse when (since A ⊕ B ⊕ B = A).

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