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Galera

Cluster

Release 3.0 New Features
Seppo Jaakola
Codership
Agenda

●

Galera Cluster Release History

●

Release 3.0 New Features
●
●
●

●

WAN Replication
5.6 GTID Support
MySQL Replication Support

Galera Project

www.codership.com
2
20 Galera Replication Plugin Releases since 2009

www.codership.com
3
35 Galera Cluster for MySQL Releases since 2009

www.codership.com
4
Galera Cluster 2.0

read & write

read & write

read & write

Read & write access to any node
Client can connect to any node
There can be several nodes

MySQL

MySQL

MySQL

Galera Replication

Replication is synchronous

www.codership.com
5
Galera Cluster 2.0

read & write

read & write

read & write

Multi-master cluster looks
like one big database with
multiple entry points

a

MySQL

www.codership.com
6
Galera Cluster 2.0

➢

Synchronous multi-master cluster
➢ no data loss
➢ no slave lag
➢ no slave failover

➢

For MySQL/InnoDB

➢

3 or more nodes needed for HA

➢

No single point of failure

www.codership.com
7
Galera Cluster 2.0

➢

Good Performance
Optimistic concurrency control
➢ Parallel Replication
➢ Optimized Group Communication
➢

➢

99.99% transparent
➢ InnoDB look & feel

➢

Automatic node joining

➢

Works in LAN / WAN / Cloud
www.codership.com
8
Galera Cluster 3.0
Galera 3.0
Galera Cluster 3.0 in beta test cycle atm
Having focus in:
WAN replication
– Asynchronous replication topologies
–

www.codership.com
10
Galera 3.0
Featuring:
●

MySQL 5.6 Support

●

Optimization for WAN replication
●

●

Asynchronous replication topologies
●
●

●

Async replication can be interleaved with Galera replication
Support for MySQL 5.6 GTID

New write set key format
●
●

●

Cluster can be divided in segments based on location

Makes certification faster
A step towards huge transaction support

A number of bug fixes and minor improvements
www.codership.com
11
MySQL 5.6 Support
MySQL 5.6 Support
Galera Cluster 3.0 has support both for
MySQL 5.5 and 5.6 versions
From Galera perspective, it does not matter
much what the DBMS is like, as long as it
supports transactions.
In MySQL 5.6, interesting new features are:
–

MySQL GTID

–

InnoDB full text search

–

Overall performance improvements
www.codership.com
13
MySQL 5.6 Support

We will also support MariaDB 10, work is
ongoing
Percona XtraDB Cluster will also have 5.6
based version coming soon

www.codership.com
14
MySQL 5.6 Support
Support for MySQL 5.1 is dropped
Future releases are for MySQL 5.5 and 5.6
only
Release builds now also for FreeBSD

www.codership.com
15
WAN Replication
WAN Replication 2.0
Galera 3.0 has new replication mode, which
is optimized for WAN networks (or any
network with high latencies in general)
But, let's first take a look how Galera 2.0
replication looks between data centers

www.codership.com
17
WAN Replication 2.0

A-1

A-2

B-1

A-3

B-2

Data center A
●

B-3

Data center B

All point-to-point connections will be needed for replication

www.codership.com
18
WAN Replication 2.0

A-1

A-2

B-1

A-3

B-2

Data center A
●

B-3

Data center B

All point-to-point connections will be needed for replication

www.codership.com
19
WAN Replication 2.0

A-1

A-2

B-1

A-3

B-2

Data center A
●
●

B-3

Data center B

All point-to-point connections will be needed for replication
I said ALL

www.codership.com
20
WAN Replication 2.0
Due to using all point-to-point connections,
the transaction latency is dictated by the
longest latency in the cluster replication
mesh
Despite of this anomaly, Galera Cluster 2.0
and earlier have been widely used in WAN
environments

www.codership.com
21
WAN Replication 3.0

A-1

A-2

B-1

A-3

B-2

Data center A
●
●

B-3

Data center B

Replication between cluster segments go over one link only
Replication events will be distributed within each segment p2p

www.codership.com
22
WAN Replication 3.0

A-1

A-2

B-1

A-3

B-2

Data center A
●
●
●

B-3

Data center B

Replication between segments go over one link only
Replication events will be distributed within each segment p2p
Segment gateways can change per transaction
www.codership.com
23
WAN Replication 3.0

commit

A-1

B-1

WS

A-2

A-3

B-2

Data center A

B-3

Data center B

www.codership.com
24
WAN Replication 3.0

A-1
WS

B-1

WS
WS

A-2

A-3

B-2

Data center A

B-3

Data center B

www.codership.com
25
WAN Replication 3.0

A-1
WS

B-1
WS

A-2

WS

A-3

WS

B-2

Data center A

B-3

Data center B

www.codership.com
26
WAN Replication 3.0
Define cluster segments up front, by node
location
gmcast.segment = 1..255

www.codership.com
27
WAN replication
●

Works fine

●

Use higher timeouts

●

No impact on reads

●

No impact within a transaction

●

adds 100-300 ms to commit
latency

●

No major impact on tps

●

Quorum between data centers
–

3 data centers

–

Weighted quorum calculation

–

Garbd arbitrator
28
MySQL Replication Topologies
Galera + MySQL Replication
Galera Cluster can operate both as MySQL
master and MySQL slave
●

●

MySQL master fail over in Galera Cluster has
been challenging until now
MySQL Slave operation has performance
bottleneck

Galera 3.0 solves both these problems

www.codership.com
31
Galera as MySQL Slave
Galera Cluster can operate as MySQL slave
in two ways:
1.MySQL master is like client connection to Galera
node (version 2 and 3)
2.MySQL replication events will be delivered as
pre-ordered events interleaved in Galera
replication (new version 3 feature)

www.codership.com
33
Galera as MySQL Slave

MySQL
master

MySQL replication

Node 1
slave

Node 3

Node 2

a
www.codership.com
34
MySQL Slave through Galera Replication
MySQL replication
Slave
processing
Query
processing
Commit processing
Write set population
WS

WS

replication

WS

Certification
Commit
www.codership.com
35
MySQL Slave through Galera Replication
MySQL replication
Slave
processing
Query
processing
Commit processing
Write set population
WS

WS

replication

WS

Certification
Commit
www.codership.com
36
Async Replication Bottleneck
●

As MySQL replication events are treated as
regular client transactions, they must go
through Galera replication pipeline at commit
time

●

… and this adds some delay before commit

●

MySQL replication is single threaded
Galera node will not apply replication events as fast as native MySQL Slave

●

MySQL 5.6 “parallel replication” can help
–

But only, f you have several schemas

–

MySQL 5.7 and MariaDB 10 will have proper parallel
replication
www.codership.com
37
MySQL Replication Bundling
●

●
●

Replication events can be bundled to commit as
a single group
Less waiting for replication synchronization

wsrep_mysql_replication_bundle=n
–

●

Groups n mysql replication transactions in one large
transaction

Helps with the latency, you can go up to 5K
trx/sec

www.codership.com
38
3.0 Pre-ordered Replication
Pre-ordered replication
MySQL replication

Preordered
replication

Slave
processing

Query
processing

Commit

M

replication

G

G
www.codership.com
40
Pre-ordered Replication
●

●

●

●

MySQL replication stream constitutes partial
order, which can be interleaved with cluster
replication
SQL slave thread broadcasts MySQL replication
events before applying them
Galera replication does not slow down SQL slave
thread
Note, we expect MySQL replication stream to be
conflict free

www.codership.com
41
Pre-ordered Replication

MySQL
master1

MySQL
replication

G-1

Node 2

M-5
Node1
MySQL slave

Galera
Replication

G-2

G-4
M-3
Node 3

www.codership.com
42
Pre-ordered Replication
●

●

Galera nodes will receive and apply MySQL
replication events in same order and interleaved
with local Galera replication events
If MySQL replication has conflicts with Galera
events, node will do emergency shutdown
●
●

A better approach for dealing with conflicts is under works
The usual multi-master conflict scenarios apply here
●
●
●

Delete conflict
Update conflict
Uniqueness conflict

www.codership.com
43
MySQL Replication – Multi Source
MySQL
master1

MySQL
replication

MySQL
master2

Node1
MySQL slave

Galera
Replication

Node2
MySQL slave

MySQL
replication

Node3
MySQL master
MySQL
replication

MySQL
www.codership.com
slave

44
MySQL Replication – Multi Source
Works with both MySQL replication
strategies
●

“Slave through Galera Replication”, provides
certification for MySQL masters
–

●

Consistency is guaranteed

“pre-ordered Replication”, is high speed but
requires consistency guarantee from application

www.codership.com
45
MySQL 5.6 GTID Support
GTID Support
MySQL 5.6 introduces global transaction
identifier (GTID), which can greatly ease up
the MySQL replication master fail over
In Galera Cluster, all nodes will generate
different binlog files
●

●

Binlog events are same and in same order, but binlog file
offsets may vary
Galera community has developed miracles to cope with this, it
is amazing what a single line of perl code can do

www.codership.com
47
Galera Binlogging

Node 1

Node 2

Insert into t0...

Insert into t0...

Mysqld-bin.00007

Mysqld-bin.00008
www.codership.com
48
GTID Support
Galera will preserve the MySQL GTID events
both in “galera replicated mysql slave” and
“pre-ordered replication” methods.
Galera nodes will generate Galera Cluster
GTID for Mysql replication. MySQL slaves
will see the Galera Cluster as one MySQL
master
Master fail over in Galera Cluster can
happen by using the GTID
www.codership.com
49
Galera Binlogging

Node 1

mysql-GTID-1
Insert into t0...

Mysqld-bin.00007

Node 2

mysql-GTID-1
Insert into t0...

Mysqld-bin.00008
www.codership.com
50
Galera Binlogging

Node 1

mysql-GTID-1
Insert into t0...

Node 2

mysql-GTID-1
Insert into t0...

mysql-GTID-1

mysql-GTID-1

Mysqld-bin.00007

Mysqld-bin.00008

GTID for
Cluster
events

www.codership.com
51
Certification Key Optimization
Certification Keys
Write set contains references for all affected
primary, unique and foreign keys
These affected keys are also stored in
certification index maintained in each node
to find out possible multi-master conflicts

www.codership.com
53
Certification Key

Keys
Write
set

Write
set
Binlog
events

Certification index

Galera 2.0

Keys
Binlog
events

Certification index

Galera 3.0
www.codership.com
54
Certification Keys
Galera 3.0 has refactored these key
representations so that same compact
format can be used in write set and
certification index
Memory footprint is minimal for each key
and fixed length
Certification check runs faster on the new
format
More and larger transactions can run
simultaneously without memory issues
www.codership.com
55
Huge Transaction Support
Key format refactoring is one step forward
in huge transaction support
However, more work remains for achieving
that:
●

We still populate the full write set in main
memory, so each single transaction must fit in
the available RAM

LOAD DATA transaction can be split in a
series of 10K row transactions
wsrep_load_data_splitting = ON | OFF
www.codership.com
56
Galera Project
Galera Project
●

Galera Cluster for MySQL
●
●
●
●

●

6 years development
based on MySQL server community edition
Fully open source
Active community

~3 releases per year
●
●
●

Latest GA release 2.7
Major release 3.0 beta
3.* and 4.0 series in the works
www.codership.com
58
Galera Clusters

MySQL
Community edition

www.codership.com
59
Galera Clusters

MySQL
Community edition

WSREP API

Galera Replication plugin

www.codership.com
60
Galera Clusters

Galera Cluster for MySQL

MySQL
Community edition

WSREP API

Galera Replication plugin

www.codership.com
61
Galera Clusters

Galera Cluster for MySQL

Percona
Server

fork

MySQL
Community edition

fork

MariaDB

WSREP API

Galera Replication plugin

www.codership.com
62
Galera Clusters

Galera Cluster for MySQL

Percona
Server
WSREP API

MySQL

MariaDB

Community edition

merge

WSREP API

merge

WSREP API

Galera Replication plugin

www.codership.com
63
Galera Clusters

Percona XtraDB Cluster

Galera Cluster for MySQL

Percona
Server
WSREP API

MySQL

MariaDB

Community edition

merge

WSREP API

MariaDB Galera Cluster

merge

WSREP API

Galera Replication plugin

www.codership.com
64
End of Part One
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Webinar slides: Introducing Galera 3.0 - Now supporting MySQL 5.6

  • 1. Galera Cluster Release 3.0 New Features Seppo Jaakola Codership
  • 2. Agenda ● Galera Cluster Release History ● Release 3.0 New Features ● ● ● ● WAN Replication 5.6 GTID Support MySQL Replication Support Galera Project www.codership.com 2
  • 3. 20 Galera Replication Plugin Releases since 2009 www.codership.com 3
  • 4. 35 Galera Cluster for MySQL Releases since 2009 www.codership.com 4
  • 5. Galera Cluster 2.0 read & write read & write read & write Read & write access to any node Client can connect to any node There can be several nodes MySQL MySQL MySQL Galera Replication Replication is synchronous www.codership.com 5
  • 6. Galera Cluster 2.0 read & write read & write read & write Multi-master cluster looks like one big database with multiple entry points a MySQL www.codership.com 6
  • 7. Galera Cluster 2.0 ➢ Synchronous multi-master cluster ➢ no data loss ➢ no slave lag ➢ no slave failover ➢ For MySQL/InnoDB ➢ 3 or more nodes needed for HA ➢ No single point of failure www.codership.com 7
  • 8. Galera Cluster 2.0 ➢ Good Performance Optimistic concurrency control ➢ Parallel Replication ➢ Optimized Group Communication ➢ ➢ 99.99% transparent ➢ InnoDB look & feel ➢ Automatic node joining ➢ Works in LAN / WAN / Cloud www.codership.com 8
  • 10. Galera 3.0 Galera Cluster 3.0 in beta test cycle atm Having focus in: WAN replication – Asynchronous replication topologies – www.codership.com 10
  • 11. Galera 3.0 Featuring: ● MySQL 5.6 Support ● Optimization for WAN replication ● ● Asynchronous replication topologies ● ● ● Async replication can be interleaved with Galera replication Support for MySQL 5.6 GTID New write set key format ● ● ● Cluster can be divided in segments based on location Makes certification faster A step towards huge transaction support A number of bug fixes and minor improvements www.codership.com 11
  • 13. MySQL 5.6 Support Galera Cluster 3.0 has support both for MySQL 5.5 and 5.6 versions From Galera perspective, it does not matter much what the DBMS is like, as long as it supports transactions. In MySQL 5.6, interesting new features are: – MySQL GTID – InnoDB full text search – Overall performance improvements www.codership.com 13
  • 14. MySQL 5.6 Support We will also support MariaDB 10, work is ongoing Percona XtraDB Cluster will also have 5.6 based version coming soon www.codership.com 14
  • 15. MySQL 5.6 Support Support for MySQL 5.1 is dropped Future releases are for MySQL 5.5 and 5.6 only Release builds now also for FreeBSD www.codership.com 15
  • 17. WAN Replication 2.0 Galera 3.0 has new replication mode, which is optimized for WAN networks (or any network with high latencies in general) But, let's first take a look how Galera 2.0 replication looks between data centers www.codership.com 17
  • 18. WAN Replication 2.0 A-1 A-2 B-1 A-3 B-2 Data center A ● B-3 Data center B All point-to-point connections will be needed for replication www.codership.com 18
  • 19. WAN Replication 2.0 A-1 A-2 B-1 A-3 B-2 Data center A ● B-3 Data center B All point-to-point connections will be needed for replication www.codership.com 19
  • 20. WAN Replication 2.0 A-1 A-2 B-1 A-3 B-2 Data center A ● ● B-3 Data center B All point-to-point connections will be needed for replication I said ALL www.codership.com 20
  • 21. WAN Replication 2.0 Due to using all point-to-point connections, the transaction latency is dictated by the longest latency in the cluster replication mesh Despite of this anomaly, Galera Cluster 2.0 and earlier have been widely used in WAN environments www.codership.com 21
  • 22. WAN Replication 3.0 A-1 A-2 B-1 A-3 B-2 Data center A ● ● B-3 Data center B Replication between cluster segments go over one link only Replication events will be distributed within each segment p2p www.codership.com 22
  • 23. WAN Replication 3.0 A-1 A-2 B-1 A-3 B-2 Data center A ● ● ● B-3 Data center B Replication between segments go over one link only Replication events will be distributed within each segment p2p Segment gateways can change per transaction www.codership.com 23
  • 24. WAN Replication 3.0 commit A-1 B-1 WS A-2 A-3 B-2 Data center A B-3 Data center B www.codership.com 24
  • 25. WAN Replication 3.0 A-1 WS B-1 WS WS A-2 A-3 B-2 Data center A B-3 Data center B www.codership.com 25
  • 26. WAN Replication 3.0 A-1 WS B-1 WS A-2 WS A-3 WS B-2 Data center A B-3 Data center B www.codership.com 26
  • 27. WAN Replication 3.0 Define cluster segments up front, by node location gmcast.segment = 1..255 www.codership.com 27
  • 28. WAN replication ● Works fine ● Use higher timeouts ● No impact on reads ● No impact within a transaction ● adds 100-300 ms to commit latency ● No major impact on tps ● Quorum between data centers – 3 data centers – Weighted quorum calculation – Garbd arbitrator 28
  • 30. Galera + MySQL Replication Galera Cluster can operate both as MySQL master and MySQL slave ● ● MySQL master fail over in Galera Cluster has been challenging until now MySQL Slave operation has performance bottleneck Galera 3.0 solves both these problems www.codership.com 31
  • 31. Galera as MySQL Slave Galera Cluster can operate as MySQL slave in two ways: 1.MySQL master is like client connection to Galera node (version 2 and 3) 2.MySQL replication events will be delivered as pre-ordered events interleaved in Galera replication (new version 3 feature) www.codership.com 33
  • 32. Galera as MySQL Slave MySQL master MySQL replication Node 1 slave Node 3 Node 2 a www.codership.com 34
  • 33. MySQL Slave through Galera Replication MySQL replication Slave processing Query processing Commit processing Write set population WS WS replication WS Certification Commit www.codership.com 35
  • 34. MySQL Slave through Galera Replication MySQL replication Slave processing Query processing Commit processing Write set population WS WS replication WS Certification Commit www.codership.com 36
  • 35. Async Replication Bottleneck ● As MySQL replication events are treated as regular client transactions, they must go through Galera replication pipeline at commit time ● … and this adds some delay before commit ● MySQL replication is single threaded Galera node will not apply replication events as fast as native MySQL Slave ● MySQL 5.6 “parallel replication” can help – But only, f you have several schemas – MySQL 5.7 and MariaDB 10 will have proper parallel replication www.codership.com 37
  • 36. MySQL Replication Bundling ● ● ● Replication events can be bundled to commit as a single group Less waiting for replication synchronization wsrep_mysql_replication_bundle=n – ● Groups n mysql replication transactions in one large transaction Helps with the latency, you can go up to 5K trx/sec www.codership.com 38
  • 39. Pre-ordered Replication ● ● ● ● MySQL replication stream constitutes partial order, which can be interleaved with cluster replication SQL slave thread broadcasts MySQL replication events before applying them Galera replication does not slow down SQL slave thread Note, we expect MySQL replication stream to be conflict free www.codership.com 41
  • 40. Pre-ordered Replication MySQL master1 MySQL replication G-1 Node 2 M-5 Node1 MySQL slave Galera Replication G-2 G-4 M-3 Node 3 www.codership.com 42
  • 41. Pre-ordered Replication ● ● Galera nodes will receive and apply MySQL replication events in same order and interleaved with local Galera replication events If MySQL replication has conflicts with Galera events, node will do emergency shutdown ● ● A better approach for dealing with conflicts is under works The usual multi-master conflict scenarios apply here ● ● ● Delete conflict Update conflict Uniqueness conflict www.codership.com 43
  • 42. MySQL Replication – Multi Source MySQL master1 MySQL replication MySQL master2 Node1 MySQL slave Galera Replication Node2 MySQL slave MySQL replication Node3 MySQL master MySQL replication MySQL www.codership.com slave 44
  • 43. MySQL Replication – Multi Source Works with both MySQL replication strategies ● “Slave through Galera Replication”, provides certification for MySQL masters – ● Consistency is guaranteed “pre-ordered Replication”, is high speed but requires consistency guarantee from application www.codership.com 45
  • 44. MySQL 5.6 GTID Support
  • 45. GTID Support MySQL 5.6 introduces global transaction identifier (GTID), which can greatly ease up the MySQL replication master fail over In Galera Cluster, all nodes will generate different binlog files ● ● Binlog events are same and in same order, but binlog file offsets may vary Galera community has developed miracles to cope with this, it is amazing what a single line of perl code can do www.codership.com 47
  • 46. Galera Binlogging Node 1 Node 2 Insert into t0... Insert into t0... Mysqld-bin.00007 Mysqld-bin.00008 www.codership.com 48
  • 47. GTID Support Galera will preserve the MySQL GTID events both in “galera replicated mysql slave” and “pre-ordered replication” methods. Galera nodes will generate Galera Cluster GTID for Mysql replication. MySQL slaves will see the Galera Cluster as one MySQL master Master fail over in Galera Cluster can happen by using the GTID www.codership.com 49
  • 48. Galera Binlogging Node 1 mysql-GTID-1 Insert into t0... Mysqld-bin.00007 Node 2 mysql-GTID-1 Insert into t0... Mysqld-bin.00008 www.codership.com 50
  • 49. Galera Binlogging Node 1 mysql-GTID-1 Insert into t0... Node 2 mysql-GTID-1 Insert into t0... mysql-GTID-1 mysql-GTID-1 Mysqld-bin.00007 Mysqld-bin.00008 GTID for Cluster events www.codership.com 51
  • 51. Certification Keys Write set contains references for all affected primary, unique and foreign keys These affected keys are also stored in certification index maintained in each node to find out possible multi-master conflicts www.codership.com 53
  • 52. Certification Key Keys Write set Write set Binlog events Certification index Galera 2.0 Keys Binlog events Certification index Galera 3.0 www.codership.com 54
  • 53. Certification Keys Galera 3.0 has refactored these key representations so that same compact format can be used in write set and certification index Memory footprint is minimal for each key and fixed length Certification check runs faster on the new format More and larger transactions can run simultaneously without memory issues www.codership.com 55
  • 54. Huge Transaction Support Key format refactoring is one step forward in huge transaction support However, more work remains for achieving that: ● We still populate the full write set in main memory, so each single transaction must fit in the available RAM LOAD DATA transaction can be split in a series of 10K row transactions wsrep_load_data_splitting = ON | OFF www.codership.com 56
  • 56. Galera Project ● Galera Cluster for MySQL ● ● ● ● ● 6 years development based on MySQL server community edition Fully open source Active community ~3 releases per year ● ● ● Latest GA release 2.7 Major release 3.0 beta 3.* and 4.0 series in the works www.codership.com 58
  • 58. Galera Clusters MySQL Community edition WSREP API Galera Replication plugin www.codership.com 60
  • 59. Galera Clusters Galera Cluster for MySQL MySQL Community edition WSREP API Galera Replication plugin www.codership.com 61
  • 60. Galera Clusters Galera Cluster for MySQL Percona Server fork MySQL Community edition fork MariaDB WSREP API Galera Replication plugin www.codership.com 62
  • 61. Galera Clusters Galera Cluster for MySQL Percona Server WSREP API MySQL MariaDB Community edition merge WSREP API merge WSREP API Galera Replication plugin www.codership.com 63
  • 62. Galera Clusters Percona XtraDB Cluster Galera Cluster for MySQL Percona Server WSREP API MySQL MariaDB Community edition merge WSREP API MariaDB Galera Cluster merge WSREP API Galera Replication plugin www.codership.com 64
  • 63. End of Part One Please post questions in chat window