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Repair and Recovery for your
MySQL, MariaDB and MongoDB/
TokuMX clusters
January 2013

Johan Andersson
Severalnines AB
johan@severalnines.com
Mobile +46 73 073 60 99
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Agenda
!  Redundancy models for Galera, NDB and MongoDB/
TokuMX
!  Failover & Recovery (Automatic vs Manual)
!  Zooming into Galera recovery procedures
!  Split brains in multi-datacenter setups

2
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Redundancy models for Galera, NDB
and MongoDB/TokuMX
!  Database Clustering can be divided in two areas
!  Asynchronously replicated data
!  MySQL Replication
!  TokuMX/MongoDB
!  Synchronously replicated data
!  Galera for MySQL
!  NDB Cluster (aka MySQL Cluster)

3
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Asynchronous

1

2
3
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Asynchronous
Pros

Cons

!  Read scaling is easy

!  Master handles all writes
!  Read write splitting

!  Lower write latency

!  Automated failover is hard:
!  Elect a new master
!  Slave lag & Data loss
!  Has everything been sent
to the slave when the
master crashes?
!  Has the slave applied all
data?

5
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Synchronous

1

4
2
3
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Synchronous
Pros

Cons

!  All servers are masters

!  Higher write latency

!  Application can read and
write on any server

!  Sensitive to link latency

!  No data loss

!  Network partitioning

!  Simple failover for apps

7
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Redundancy Models
TokuMX/MongoDB ReplicaSet (1/2)
!  Up to 12 members
!  Max 7 voting numbers
!  Primary, Secondary, Arbiter
!  Slave Delay
!  Chaining Allowed
!  Heartbeats every 2 seconds
!  5 missed heartbeats: node dead

Primary

Secondary

Arbiter
8
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Redundancy Models
TokuMX/MongoDB ReplicaSet (2/2)
!  Automatic failover
!  Priority (between 0 and 100.0)
!  Primary has highest priority
!  Influences election of new primary

Data Center 1

Primary

Secondary

Data Center 2

Secondary

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Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Redundancy Models
TokuMX/MongoDB Sharded Cluster

!  Built-in support for sharding
!  Min 2 Query Routers

!  3 Config Servers

Primary Secondary

Arbiter

Primary Secondary

Arbiter
10
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Redundancy Models
MySQL Replication
!  No hard limits on no. of slaves
!  Replication chaining
!  Delayed slave
!  Manual failover
Slave
Master

Slave

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Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Redundancy Models
MySQL Cluster
!  In-built sharding
!  Separate SQL and Data layers
!  Up to 4 replicas/node group
!  Max 48 data nodes
!  Auto-failover

Node Group 1

Node Group 2
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Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Redundancy Models
Galera Cluster
!  Synchronous replication plugin

!  All masters have same dataset
!  Slowest node determines
speed of cluster
!  No hard limits on no. of nodes
!  Auto-failover
!  Galera arbitrator (garbd)

Master

Master

Master
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Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Synchronous Replication
Linear Two-phase commit
!  Used by NDB data nodes
!  Pessimistic locking
!  Works well for cases
with update
contention

1

4
6

3
2
5
1. Prepare transaction
4. commit
14
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Synchronous Replication
Certificate-based
!  Used by Galera/WSREP
!  Optimistic locking
!  Not optimal for cases
with conflicting
updates

1
2
3
4
1. begin transaction
2. commit
15
Copyright 204Severalnines AB

Zooming into Galera recovery
procedures
By Seppo Jaakola @ Codership

16
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Split-brain
!  Network partitioning (aka) split brain. N nodes divided
into M equal parts

Galera Servers - SYNCED
DC1

WAN

Galera Servers - SYNCED
DC2
17
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Split-brain
!  WAN breaks - 2 equal splits (Network partitioning)
!  Non-Primary – cannot handle transactions

Galera – Non-Primary
DC1

WAN

Galera – Non-Primary
DC2
18
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Split-brain prevention
!  Solution: The side with the majority of nodes will win:
!  Add garbd or a galera node to DC1 or DC2
!  Add weight to existing node in DC1:
wsrep_provider_options=“pc.weight=N;” (default = 1 )

Galera – Synced
DC1

WAN

Galera – Synced
DC2
19
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Split-brain prevention
!  Add weight to existing node in DC1:
wsrep_provider_options=“pc.weight=2;”

Galera – Synced
DC1
pc.weight=2

WAN
1

3

Galera – Synced
DC2
1

1
2

20
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Split-brain prevention
!  Final Two Data center setup with an additional node.

Galera – Synced
DC1

WAN

Galera – Synced
DC2
21
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Split-brain prevention
!  Three data centers, split brain unlikely.
!  Galera 3.0 supports segments (gmcast.segment)
!  Only one node in each segment will relay to only one other
node in another segment
!  Segments also applies to Two Data centers, and between
racks in one DC.
WAN

Galera – Segment 3
DC2

Galera – Segment 1
DC1
Galera – Segment 2
DC3
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Q&A

23
Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB

Thank you.
For further questions please contact John-Jerome Schmidt:
jj@severalnines.com

24

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Repair & Recovery for your MySQL, MariaDB & MongoDB / TokuMX Clusters - Webinar Slides

  • 1. Repair and Recovery for your MySQL, MariaDB and MongoDB/ TokuMX clusters January 2013 Johan Andersson Severalnines AB johan@severalnines.com Mobile +46 73 073 60 99
  • 2. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Agenda !  Redundancy models for Galera, NDB and MongoDB/ TokuMX !  Failover & Recovery (Automatic vs Manual) !  Zooming into Galera recovery procedures !  Split brains in multi-datacenter setups 2
  • 3. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Redundancy models for Galera, NDB and MongoDB/TokuMX !  Database Clustering can be divided in two areas !  Asynchronously replicated data !  MySQL Replication !  TokuMX/MongoDB !  Synchronously replicated data !  Galera for MySQL !  NDB Cluster (aka MySQL Cluster) 3
  • 4. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Asynchronous 1 2 3
  • 5. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Asynchronous Pros Cons !  Read scaling is easy !  Master handles all writes !  Read write splitting !  Lower write latency !  Automated failover is hard: !  Elect a new master !  Slave lag & Data loss !  Has everything been sent to the slave when the master crashes? !  Has the slave applied all data? 5
  • 6. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Synchronous 1 4 2 3
  • 7. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Synchronous Pros Cons !  All servers are masters !  Higher write latency !  Application can read and write on any server !  Sensitive to link latency !  No data loss !  Network partitioning !  Simple failover for apps 7
  • 8. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Redundancy Models TokuMX/MongoDB ReplicaSet (1/2) !  Up to 12 members !  Max 7 voting numbers !  Primary, Secondary, Arbiter !  Slave Delay !  Chaining Allowed !  Heartbeats every 2 seconds !  5 missed heartbeats: node dead Primary Secondary Arbiter 8
  • 9. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Redundancy Models TokuMX/MongoDB ReplicaSet (2/2) !  Automatic failover !  Priority (between 0 and 100.0) !  Primary has highest priority !  Influences election of new primary Data Center 1 Primary Secondary Data Center 2 Secondary 9
  • 10. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Redundancy Models TokuMX/MongoDB Sharded Cluster !  Built-in support for sharding !  Min 2 Query Routers !  3 Config Servers Primary Secondary Arbiter Primary Secondary Arbiter 10
  • 11. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Redundancy Models MySQL Replication !  No hard limits on no. of slaves !  Replication chaining !  Delayed slave !  Manual failover Slave Master Slave 11
  • 12. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Redundancy Models MySQL Cluster !  In-built sharding !  Separate SQL and Data layers !  Up to 4 replicas/node group !  Max 48 data nodes !  Auto-failover Node Group 1 Node Group 2 12
  • 13. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Redundancy Models Galera Cluster !  Synchronous replication plugin !  All masters have same dataset !  Slowest node determines speed of cluster !  No hard limits on no. of nodes !  Auto-failover !  Galera arbitrator (garbd) Master Master Master 13
  • 14. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Synchronous Replication Linear Two-phase commit !  Used by NDB data nodes !  Pessimistic locking !  Works well for cases with update contention 1 4 6 3 2 5 1. Prepare transaction 4. commit 14
  • 15. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Synchronous Replication Certificate-based !  Used by Galera/WSREP !  Optimistic locking !  Not optimal for cases with conflicting updates 1 2 3 4 1. begin transaction 2. commit 15
  • 16. Copyright 204Severalnines AB Zooming into Galera recovery procedures By Seppo Jaakola @ Codership 16
  • 17. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Split-brain !  Network partitioning (aka) split brain. N nodes divided into M equal parts Galera Servers - SYNCED DC1 WAN Galera Servers - SYNCED DC2 17
  • 18. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Split-brain !  WAN breaks - 2 equal splits (Network partitioning) !  Non-Primary – cannot handle transactions Galera – Non-Primary DC1 WAN Galera – Non-Primary DC2 18
  • 19. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Split-brain prevention !  Solution: The side with the majority of nodes will win: !  Add garbd or a galera node to DC1 or DC2 !  Add weight to existing node in DC1: wsrep_provider_options=“pc.weight=N;” (default = 1 ) Galera – Synced DC1 WAN Galera – Synced DC2 19
  • 20. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Split-brain prevention !  Add weight to existing node in DC1: wsrep_provider_options=“pc.weight=2;” Galera – Synced DC1 pc.weight=2 WAN 1 3 Galera – Synced DC2 1 1 2 20
  • 21. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Split-brain prevention !  Final Two Data center setup with an additional node. Galera – Synced DC1 WAN Galera – Synced DC2 21
  • 22. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Split-brain prevention !  Three data centers, split brain unlikely. !  Galera 3.0 supports segments (gmcast.segment) !  Only one node in each segment will relay to only one other node in another segment !  Segments also applies to Two Data centers, and between racks in one DC. WAN Galera – Segment 3 DC2 Galera – Segment 1 DC1 Galera – Segment 2 DC3
  • 24. Copyright 2014 Severalnines AB Thank you. For further questions please contact John-Jerome Schmidt: jj@severalnines.com 24