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QUOTING
Direct Quotations
When you use a direct quote, you copy and reference the exact word/s of the author into your writing. A
direct quote may be:
• One word
• A phrase or part of a sentence
• A sentence
• A group of sentences
Rules for direct quotations
• Use to support your argument
• Use sparingly
• Write word for word
• Distinguish from your own words
• Reference the source
• Give an explanation for its relevance
For ALL quotes:
• Use the exact words of the author
• Make sure your quotation blends with the sentence
• Use strong or weak author to acknowledge the source
• Use reporting words or phrases to integrate the quote into your writing
• Reference your source of information
Direct Quotations
It takes practice and experience for students to learn how to use direct quotes effectively in
their writing. According to Princeton Writing Centre (2009), direct quotes should only be used
to provide support for academic argument for a “compelling” reason and that the choice to
quote may be because “you want your readers to be able to see, in full, what someone else
has said” (PWC, 2009, p.7). Students often misunderstand the role of quotes in writing and
overdo the strategy.
Students include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that
you don't have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common
strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes ... may be taken to
indicate that you don't understand the position well enough to explain it in your own
words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.27).
Moreover, there are a number of technical rules that students need to learn to use quotations
correctly in their writing, such as formatting, punctuation, verb tense and adding emphasis.
Students, then, require information and training to assist them to use quotations
appropriately and correctly in the academic writing. (188 words)
Short Quotations
Short quotes are from one word to about 40 words.
•Follow these conventions:
•use double quotation marks "..."
•include the quote in the text by using reporting
words
Example
According to Princeton Writing Centre (2009), direct quotes should only
be used to provide support for academic argument for “compelling”
(one word) reason and the choice to quote may be because “you want
your readers to be able to see, in full, what someone else has said”
(PWC, 2009, p.7) (16 words) before you go on to analyze the statement.
Long Quotations
Long quotes are more than 40 words OR three typed lines.
• Follow these conventions:
• leave no space above and below the long quote
• make the text size the same as the essay text size
• indent approximately one centimetre to the right
• do NOT use quotation marks
Example
Students often misunderstand the role of quotations in writing and overdo the strategy:
Students include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that
you don't have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common
strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes ... may be taken to indicate
that you don't understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words
(Dartmouth, 2008, p.27). (61 words)
Moreover, there are a number of technical rules that students need to learn to use quotations
correctly in their writing.
Modifying Quotations
Making a change Correct convention
Leaving out some words (because you
may not need all of the words in the
middle of the quote)
Use an ellipsis signal (three dots ... ).
Leave a space either side of the 3 dots
Changing the capitalisation of a letter Use square brackets [ ] around the letter
Adding words to the quote (without
changing the meaning)
Use square brackets [ ] around the
added words
The following table gives you a few of the most common rules for modifying the
words of authors in a direct quote:
Modifying Quotations
[S]tudents include four quotations where one would do. This
can give the impression that you don’t have enough to say
and are using quotations to take up space [a common
strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of
quotes... may be taken to indicate that you don’t
understand the position well enough to explain it in your own
words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.11).
[S]tudents include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression
that you don’t have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a
common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes... may be
taken to indicate that you don’t understand the position well enough to explain it in
your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.11).
Shows a capital letter has been
added to the original text.
Shows a comment has been
added to the original text.
Shows some words have been
left out of the original text.
Direct Quotations
Don't do this!
•Don't DUMP information into your paragraph. Blend the words of the author
with your own words.
•Don't use TOO MANY direct quotes in your writing (e.g. 2-3 long quotes and
4-5 short quotes is enough in a 2000 word essay). The lecturers prefer to see
paraphrasing - writing quotes in your own words).
•Don't change a couple of words from a direct quote and think that it is a
paraphrase - either use the exact words or change the words of the author
significantly so that it is a correct paraphrase.

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Week 5 APA Quoting

  • 2. Direct Quotations When you use a direct quote, you copy and reference the exact word/s of the author into your writing. A direct quote may be: • One word • A phrase or part of a sentence • A sentence • A group of sentences Rules for direct quotations • Use to support your argument • Use sparingly • Write word for word • Distinguish from your own words • Reference the source • Give an explanation for its relevance For ALL quotes: • Use the exact words of the author • Make sure your quotation blends with the sentence • Use strong or weak author to acknowledge the source • Use reporting words or phrases to integrate the quote into your writing • Reference your source of information
  • 3. Direct Quotations It takes practice and experience for students to learn how to use direct quotes effectively in their writing. According to Princeton Writing Centre (2009), direct quotes should only be used to provide support for academic argument for a “compelling” reason and that the choice to quote may be because “you want your readers to be able to see, in full, what someone else has said” (PWC, 2009, p.7). Students often misunderstand the role of quotes in writing and overdo the strategy. Students include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don't have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes ... may be taken to indicate that you don't understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.27). Moreover, there are a number of technical rules that students need to learn to use quotations correctly in their writing, such as formatting, punctuation, verb tense and adding emphasis. Students, then, require information and training to assist them to use quotations appropriately and correctly in the academic writing. (188 words)
  • 4. Short Quotations Short quotes are from one word to about 40 words. •Follow these conventions: •use double quotation marks "..." •include the quote in the text by using reporting words Example According to Princeton Writing Centre (2009), direct quotes should only be used to provide support for academic argument for “compelling” (one word) reason and the choice to quote may be because “you want your readers to be able to see, in full, what someone else has said” (PWC, 2009, p.7) (16 words) before you go on to analyze the statement.
  • 5. Long Quotations Long quotes are more than 40 words OR three typed lines. • Follow these conventions: • leave no space above and below the long quote • make the text size the same as the essay text size • indent approximately one centimetre to the right • do NOT use quotation marks Example Students often misunderstand the role of quotations in writing and overdo the strategy: Students include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don't have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes ... may be taken to indicate that you don't understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.27). (61 words) Moreover, there are a number of technical rules that students need to learn to use quotations correctly in their writing.
  • 6. Modifying Quotations Making a change Correct convention Leaving out some words (because you may not need all of the words in the middle of the quote) Use an ellipsis signal (three dots ... ). Leave a space either side of the 3 dots Changing the capitalisation of a letter Use square brackets [ ] around the letter Adding words to the quote (without changing the meaning) Use square brackets [ ] around the added words The following table gives you a few of the most common rules for modifying the words of authors in a direct quote:
  • 7. Modifying Quotations [S]tudents include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don’t have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes... may be taken to indicate that you don’t understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.11). [S]tudents include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don’t have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes... may be taken to indicate that you don’t understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.11). Shows a capital letter has been added to the original text. Shows a comment has been added to the original text. Shows some words have been left out of the original text.
  • 8. Direct Quotations Don't do this! •Don't DUMP information into your paragraph. Blend the words of the author with your own words. •Don't use TOO MANY direct quotes in your writing (e.g. 2-3 long quotes and 4-5 short quotes is enough in a 2000 word essay). The lecturers prefer to see paraphrasing - writing quotes in your own words). •Don't change a couple of words from a direct quote and think that it is a paraphrase - either use the exact words or change the words of the author significantly so that it is a correct paraphrase.