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APA QUOTING
Learning Outcome
1. Identify and apply appropriate APA
Quotation formats
Direct Quotations
When you use a direct quote, you copy and reference the exact word/s of the author into your writing. A direct
quote may be:
• One word
• A phrase or part of a sentence
• A sentence
• A group of sentencesRules for direct quotations
• Use to support your argument
• Use sparingly
• Write word for word
• Distinguish from your own words
• Reference the source
• Give an explanation for its relevance
For ALL quotes:
• Use the exact words of the author
• Make sure your quotation blends with the sentence
• Use strong or weak author to acknowledge the source
Direct Quotations
It takes practice and experience for students to learn how to use direct quotes effectively in
their writing. According to Princeton Writing Centre (2009), direct quotes should only be used
to provide support for academic argument for a “compelling” reason and that the choice to
quote may be because “you want your readers to be able to see, in full, what someone else
has said” (PWC, 2009, p.7). Students often misunderstand the role of quotes in writing and
overdo the strategy.
Students include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that
you don't have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common
strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes ... may be taken to
indicate that you don't understand the position well enough to explain it in your own
words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.27).
Moreover, there are a number of technical rules that students need to learn to use quotations
correctly in their writing, such as formatting, punctuation, verb tense and adding emphasis.
Students, then, require information and training to assist them to use quotations
appropriately and correctly in the academic writing. (188 words)
Short Quotations
Short quotes are from one word to about 40 words.
• Follow these conventions:
• use double quotation marks "..."
• include the quote in the text by using reporting
words
Example
According to Princeton Writing Centre (2009), direct quotes should only be
used to provide support for academic argument for “compelling” (one word)
reason and the choice to quote may be because “you want your readers to
be able to see, in full, what someone else has said” (PWC, 2009, p.7) (16
words) before you go on to analyze the statement.
Long Quotations
Long quotes are more than 40 words OR three typed lines.
• Follow these conventions:
• leave no space above and below the long quote
• make the text size the same as the essay text size
• indent approximately one centimetre to the right
• do NOT use quotation marks
Example
Students often misunderstand the role of quotations in writing and overdo the strategy:
Students include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you
don't have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for
some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes ... may be taken to indicate that you don't
understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.27). (61
words)
Moreover, there are a number of technical rules that students need to learn to use quotations
correctly in their writing.
Modifying Quotations
Making a change Correct convention
Leaving out some words (because you
may not need all of the words in the
middle of the quote)
Use an ellipsis signal (three dots ... ). Leave
a space either side of the 3 dots
Changing the capitalisation of a letter Use square brackets [ ] around the letter
Adding words to the quote (without
changing the meaning)
Use square brackets [ ] around the added
words
The following table gives you a few of the most common rules for modifying the
words of authors in a direct quote:
Modifying Quotations
[S]tudents include four quotations where one would do. This can
give the impression that you don’t have enough to say and are
using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some
students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes... may be taken to
indicate that you don’t understand the position well enough to
explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.11).
[S]tudents include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression
that you don’t have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a
common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes... may be
taken to indicate that you don’t understand the position well enough to explain it in
your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.11).
Shows a capital letter has been
added to the original text.
Shows a comment has been
added to the original text.
Shows some words have been
left out of the original text.
Direct Quotations
Don't do this!
• Don't DUMP information into your paragraph. Blend the words of the author with
your own words.
• Don't use TOO MANY direct quotes in your writing (e.g. 2-3 long quotes and 4-5
short quotes is enough in a 2000 word essay). The lecturers prefer to see
paraphrasing - writing quotes in your own words).
• Don't change a couple of words from a direct quote and think that it is a
paraphrase - either use the exact words or change the words of the author
significantly so that it is a correct paraphrase.

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ENG103 Week 4 APA quoting

  • 2. Learning Outcome 1. Identify and apply appropriate APA Quotation formats
  • 3. Direct Quotations When you use a direct quote, you copy and reference the exact word/s of the author into your writing. A direct quote may be: • One word • A phrase or part of a sentence • A sentence • A group of sentencesRules for direct quotations • Use to support your argument • Use sparingly • Write word for word • Distinguish from your own words • Reference the source • Give an explanation for its relevance For ALL quotes: • Use the exact words of the author • Make sure your quotation blends with the sentence • Use strong or weak author to acknowledge the source
  • 4. Direct Quotations It takes practice and experience for students to learn how to use direct quotes effectively in their writing. According to Princeton Writing Centre (2009), direct quotes should only be used to provide support for academic argument for a “compelling” reason and that the choice to quote may be because “you want your readers to be able to see, in full, what someone else has said” (PWC, 2009, p.7). Students often misunderstand the role of quotes in writing and overdo the strategy. Students include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don't have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes ... may be taken to indicate that you don't understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.27). Moreover, there are a number of technical rules that students need to learn to use quotations correctly in their writing, such as formatting, punctuation, verb tense and adding emphasis. Students, then, require information and training to assist them to use quotations appropriately and correctly in the academic writing. (188 words)
  • 5. Short Quotations Short quotes are from one word to about 40 words. • Follow these conventions: • use double quotation marks "..." • include the quote in the text by using reporting words Example According to Princeton Writing Centre (2009), direct quotes should only be used to provide support for academic argument for “compelling” (one word) reason and the choice to quote may be because “you want your readers to be able to see, in full, what someone else has said” (PWC, 2009, p.7) (16 words) before you go on to analyze the statement.
  • 6. Long Quotations Long quotes are more than 40 words OR three typed lines. • Follow these conventions: • leave no space above and below the long quote • make the text size the same as the essay text size • indent approximately one centimetre to the right • do NOT use quotation marks Example Students often misunderstand the role of quotations in writing and overdo the strategy: Students include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don't have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes ... may be taken to indicate that you don't understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.27). (61 words) Moreover, there are a number of technical rules that students need to learn to use quotations correctly in their writing.
  • 7. Modifying Quotations Making a change Correct convention Leaving out some words (because you may not need all of the words in the middle of the quote) Use an ellipsis signal (three dots ... ). Leave a space either side of the 3 dots Changing the capitalisation of a letter Use square brackets [ ] around the letter Adding words to the quote (without changing the meaning) Use square brackets [ ] around the added words The following table gives you a few of the most common rules for modifying the words of authors in a direct quote:
  • 8. Modifying Quotations [S]tudents include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don’t have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes... may be taken to indicate that you don’t understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.11). [S]tudents include four quotations where one would do. This can give the impression that you don’t have enough to say and are using quotations to take up space [a common strategy for some students]. Also, the excessive use of quotes... may be taken to indicate that you don’t understand the position well enough to explain it in your own words (Dartmouth, 2008, p.11). Shows a capital letter has been added to the original text. Shows a comment has been added to the original text. Shows some words have been left out of the original text.
  • 9. Direct Quotations Don't do this! • Don't DUMP information into your paragraph. Blend the words of the author with your own words. • Don't use TOO MANY direct quotes in your writing (e.g. 2-3 long quotes and 4-5 short quotes is enough in a 2000 word essay). The lecturers prefer to see paraphrasing - writing quotes in your own words). • Don't change a couple of words from a direct quote and think that it is a paraphrase - either use the exact words or change the words of the author significantly so that it is a correct paraphrase.

Editor's Notes

  1. The Hunter College (quoting, paraphrasing and plagiarism) Quotation is an important way of supporting the point you are making by directly quoting what an author/researcher has said in their book or article. Using these correctly can add value to your work and show that you respect your source and know how to distinguish their words from your own. Only use these sparingly – only if the exact wording is relevant or crucial or the point is made particularly forcefully or in an original way that would be lost by paraphrasing. Must have the exact wording and state author, year, and page number. Good to follow a quotation with an explanation of why it is relevant in your paragraph or interpret its meaning. UNSW Quotes match the original source word for word, are a brief section of the text, appear in quotation marks and reference given to the source These should only be used to provide strong evidence, provide an authoritative voice or support the particular statement being made i.e. they provide evidence of the point you are trying to make.