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Experience with weld overlay and solid alloy materials in Waste to Energy Plant

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12th North American Waste to Energy Conference
May 17-19, 2004, Savannah, Georgia USA
NAWTEC12-2216
Experience with Weld Overlay and Solid Alloy Tubing Materials in
Waste to Energy Plants
Larry Paul
ThyssenKrupp VDM USA Inc.
116 W. Madison st.
Tipton, IN 46072
(765) 675-9964
Gregg Clark
ThyssenKrupp VDM USA, Inc.
20 Towne Drive #198
Bluffton, SC 29910 USA
(843) 757-8368
1.0 Introduction
Corrosive conditions in waste to energy
boilers produce rapid wastage rates of
traditional boiler tube materials. It is not
unusual to see corrosion rates in the range
of 1 to 3 mm/y (40-120 mpy) on carbon steel
boiler tubes and occasionally corrosion
occurs at even higher rates. In the
mid1980's there were several boilers that
experienced corrosion failures of carbon
steel waterwall tubes in less than 6 months
of service (1,2). Because of this experience,
it has become accepted that some type of
corrosion protection is required for boiler
tubes in refuse-to-energy boilers. Over the
years, many different alloys have been
evaluated to improve tube life in waste-to­
energy boilers. The most successful
materials used for corrosion protection are
nickel alloys.
Waterwall tubes are generally attacked by
molten chloride salts (3) and superheat
tubes appear to be attacked by a
combination of molten chloride/sulfate salts
as well as gaseous chloride constituents
(primarily HCI) (4-7). Figure 1 shows the
corrosion rates of carbon steel as a function
of temperature for various corrosion
mechanisms. The corrosion due to gaseous
chloride atmospheres increases steadily
with temperature. Corrosion produced by
chloride rich deposits or salts increases
rapidly once the melting point of the salts is
reached; corrosion rates continue to
increase with temperature until the chloride
salt becomes hot enough to vaporize, after
111
Michael Eckhardt
Andreas Ossenberg-Engels
ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH
Barenstein 5
D-58791 Werdohl, Germany
Bern Hoberg
ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH
Kleffstrasse 23
D-58762 Altena, Germany
which corrosion decreases. Likewise for
sulfate rich deposits or salts: the onset of
melting sharply increases corrosion rates
and vaporization of the sulfates at even
higher temperatures results in a decrease of
corrosion. These various corrosion
mechanisms give rise to somewhat different
alloy requirements, depending on the
temperature of the metal in the refuse-fired
boiler
The main corrosion mechanism which
occurs on water wall tubes, which typically
operate in the 200-315°C (400-600°F)
range, is corrosion by molten chloride salts.
The most successful alloys used for
waterwall tubes are generally high in nickel
and molybdenum with moderate amounts of
chromium, such as Alloy 625 and Alloy 50 (a
recently introduced alloy from ThyssenKrupp
VDM). These alloys are applied to waterwall
tubes as a weld overlay.
Because of the mixed corrosion modes in
the superheater region, the selection of
alloys is more complicated. Figure 2 shows
a photomicrograph of a Fe-Ni-Co-Cr alloy
that was exposed in a refuse boiler at
approximately 900°C (1650°F) (8). Figure 2
shows that multiple corrosion mechanisms
are active at this temperature; both
sulfidation (evidenced by the chromium rich
sulfides) and chloride attack (evidenced by
the internal voids caused by volatile metal
chlorides) are observed. In this case, a
material not only requires a high nickel
content to resist chloride attack (both
gaseous and molten salts), but also requires
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
a high chromium content to resist sulfidation.
Solid Alloy 825 and weld overlay Alloy 625
are perhaps the most common materials
now used in superheater tubes in waste-to­
energy boilers. Another high chromium
material was recently introduced in Europe
for this application with good success: Alloy
45TM.
While Alloy 825 solid tubes and Alloy 625
weld overlay have a proven track record in
many boilers, there are also many boilers
where corrosion continues to be a problem.
Alloy 825 also has been unsatisfactory in
many superheater applications. Alloy 625
weld overlay also does not always give the
desired superheater tube life. It is fair to say
that most of the chronic corrosion problems
are in superheater applications.
The corrosion problems in waste-to-energy
boilers vary with unit design, geographical
region, time of year, and other factors. One
clear trend that has been observed is that
the increased use of plastics has led to an
increase in the chloride content of the
household waste. This increase in chloride
content of the fuel corresponds to an
increase in the corrosivity of the boiler
environment.
Because of the variability among waste-to­
energy boilers, site specific testing is always
recommended. ThyssenKrupp VDM
continues to work with operators and
applicators to test new overlay materials in
the field.
2.0 Material Options
There are many materials that have been
evaluated in refuse-to-energy boilers. The
most successful of these materials include
Alloys 625, 50, 59, 825, and 45TM. The
chemistry of these alloys is given in Table 1.
Alloys 625, 50, and 59 are applied as a weld
overlay onto carbon steel boiler tubes and
Alloy 825 and 45TM are used as solid tubing
only for superheater applications.
Alternate methods of applying corrosion
resistant alloys have been tried. Spray
coatings have not historically worked well in
waste-to-energy boilers (9, 10). Flame
112
spray coatings all have some degree of
porosity. This allows corrosive gases to
permeate beneath the protective coating
and corrode the carbon steel substrate. The
extremely corrosive nature of the waste-to
energy boiler is severe enough to cause
disbonding of spray coatings from the
carbon steel base metal. Diffusion coatings
and other coating systems have also been
tried in refuse-to-energy boilers with mixed
success. Generally all of these coating
systems have some degree of porosity or
have inherent defects in the coating system,
which leads to unacceptable localized
corrosion. Therefore, weld overlays and
solid tubing are the most reliable options for
deploying corrosion resistant alloys.
For waterwall tubing, weld overlays are
exclusively used. Since these tubes are
water wetted on the inside surface, the use
of solid austenitic materials is generally not
allowed by the ASME boiler code.
Therefore, application of nickel alloys to
waterwall tubes will be as a clad or coating;
weld overlays have proven to be the most
reliable process for economically applying
this corrosion barrier.
For superheater applications, both solid and
weld overlay tubing are both used. The
decision on whether to use a solid or weld
overlay tube for a superheater application
will depend on economics and delivery
schedules. The relative costs of various
superheater tube options are given in Table
2. Solid Alloy 825 tubes are the least
expensive option and are used in the first
few rows in the superheater tube banks,
where gas temperatures are highest. Alloy
625 weld overlay tubes are the closest
option, relative to cost, to solid Alloy 825
tubes. Alloy 625 overlay tubes have given
good tube life in numerous applications and
also have the advantage in that they usually
can be provided more quickly than solid
tubing.
A solid tube material that has been used in
Europe is Alloy 45TM (. The relative costs
of solid Alloy 45TM tubing is also shown in
Table 2. While the relative cost is
somewhat higher than other options, the
increased corrosion performance of Alloy
45TM has justified its use in several
applications.
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
When comparing the prices of solid tubes to
weld overlay tubes, it is noted that the price
differential increases with tube size. This
trend is a result of the increasing differential
between the amounts of nickel alloy used in
weld overlay versus solid tubing as the tube
diameter increases. Another factor when
considering solid versus weld overlay tubes
is the life of the tube. The corrosion rates of
weld overlay tubes will increase rapidly after
the cladding has been corroded away.
Cladding thickness of weld overlay tubes are
generally in the range of 1.5-2mm (0.060-
0.080"). Corrosion rates on solid tubes will
not change as the result of tube wall
thinning. Therefore, solid tubes may last
longer than weld overlay tubes at the same
corrosion rate. Solid tubes have a greater
thickness of corrosion resistant material.
The relative life of solid tubes versus weld
overlay tubes increases as the minimum
wall requirement of the superheater tube
decreases (i.e. solid tubes are more
economical as more wall loss can be
tolerated)
3.0 Corrosion Testing
3.1 Waterwall tubes
Alloy 50 is a Nb-free welding product that is
being considered as a replacement for Alloy
625 in numerous applications. Figure 3
shows the mass loss of single pass GMAW
weld overlay specimens when exposed to a
simulated refuse boiler combustion
atmosphere. The mass loss of the
specimens corresponds to the amount of
corrosion. While this laboratory test does
not exactly duplicate the temperatures and
environment that the waterwall tubes might
see, it does give a direct comparison of
Alloys 50 and 625 in a corrosive high
chloride environment. These laboratory
data show that Alloy 50 has excellent
corrosion resistance as a weld overlay
material and is capable of providing
corrosion resistance better than Alloy 625
weld overlays in environments applicable to
refuse-to-energy plants.
Figure 4 shows an example of corrosion
attack of an Alloy 625 weld overlay removed
from a coal fired boiler after an extended
exposure time (11). The corrosion attack
113
occurs more rapidly on the dendrite cores of
the weld, which are depleted in Mo and Nb
due to segregation. Alloy 50 is a Nb free
material and so does not exhibit segregation
of Nb; however, some segregation of Mo is
unavoidable. Alloy 50 does have a fairly fine
uniform microstructure with less segregation
than observed for Alloy 625 in the welded
condition. These features help avoid
preferential attack of the Alloy 50 weld
overlay, which in turn reduces the overall
corrosion rate.
3.1 Superheater tubes
Corrosion of superheater tube materials was
measured in the laboratory using a high
temperature simulated refuse-boiler
combustion gas consisting of 2.5 g/m
3
HCI +
1.3 g/m
3
S02 + 9% O2 + balance N2.
Results of tests in this environment are
shown in Figure 5. In this laboratory test,
the Alloy 45TM corrodes at lower rates than
Alloy 625 and the other alloys at all
temperatures tested. Alloy 625 was the
second best material and was much better
than Alloys 800H and AC66. Alloy 45TM
can be used only as solid tubing and Alloy
625 can only be used as a weld overlay (due
to current ASME code regulations).
4.0 Field Testing
4.1 Waterwall tubes
Several field tests of Alloy 50 are still
ongoing in Europe. These tests have been
in progress for nearly 2 years. Most of the
information so far is based on visual
inspection; so far the Alloy 50 is performing
very well. One customer removed the weld
overlay samples and showed that Alloy 50
indeed performed better than Alloy 625.
Based on these tests, approximately 50,000
pounds of Alloy 50 will be installed onto
waterwall tubes in the spring of 2004 in this
European waste-to-energy boiler. Testing of
Alloy 50 weld overlays is also on-going in
North America, after 1Yz years in a refuse­
fired boiler, a weld overlay of Alloy 50
visually shows little sign of attack.
Figure 6 compares several alloys in the so­
called Varistrant test. This test measures
the tendency of a material to exhibit hot
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
cracking and form micro-fissures during
welding. Figure 6 shows that Alloy 50 will
be less likely to form fissures and cracks
during welding than Alloy 625.
4.2 Superheater tubes
Testing in the late 1970's at the refuse-to­
energy plant in Saugus, MA lead to use of
Alloy 825 solid tubes (5), this material was
subsequently adopted by several boiler
designers ( as a standard material and is still
used today in some boilers. Another
common superheater material being used is
Alloy 625 weld overlay onto standard carbon
steel boiler tube materials. However, as
steam temperatures increase and the
corrosiveness of the environment increases
(such as by the increasing amount of plastic
in the municipal waste being burned), these
standard tube materials are not always
adequate.
One alloy recently introduced by
ThyssenKrupp VDM is Alloy 45TM. This
alloy was specifically designed to have a
high corrosion resistance in highly
contaminated high temperature
environments, such as are found in refuse­
fired boilers. Figure 7 shows test data that
compares the corrosion behavior of Alloy
45TM with traditional carbon steel
superheater tubes (13). This figure shows
tube wall thickness measurements of the
superheater tubes from an operating refuse­
fired boiler in Bielefeld, Germany; the tube
wall thickness was measured periodically
using ultrasonic thickness (UT) sensors.
The corrosion rates of each material are
calculated from the average wall loss versus
time. Figure 7 shows that the Alloy 45TM
was able to improve the service life by a
factor of over 6 times, when compared to
standard boiler tube materials.
Since the mid 1990's, there have been
several installations of Alloy 45TM into
refuse-fired boilers. The performance of the
Alloy 45TM as a superheater material has
been quite good. As with any new material,
field trials are suggested to demonstrate the
performance under actual operating
conditions. This is especially true for refuse­
fired boilers, where the conditions are know
to vary widely between units.
114
Discussion
The use of Alloy 625 in the refuse-to-energy
market has a long and mostly successful
history. Waterwall tubes that have been
covered with Alloy 625 weld overlay have
generally shown few problems; most of the
observed problems were attributed to
application issues (such as pin-holes in the
weld). Recently, ThyssenKrupp VDM
introduced Alloy 50 as an alternative to Alloy
625 for weld overlay applications in refuse­
to-energy plants. Alloy 50 exhibits better
corrosion resistance in the laboratory and
has also show excellent results in field tests.
Alloy 50 is also less likely to form micro­
cracks and fissures than Alloy 625,making it
a more forgiving alloy for weld applications.
Lastly, the Alloy 50 has a more uniform
microstructure and exhibits less segregation
than Alloy 625; this helps improve corrosion
resistance by reducing the degree of
selective corrosion attack.
Alloy 45TM has been successfully used in
several superheater applications in refuse­
to-energy boilers. Alloy 45TM is only
available as solid tubing. V'vtlile Alloy 45TM
can be readily joint welded with selected
filler metals (typically FM28 or Alloy 625), it
cannot be directly used as a weld overlay,
due to the higher Si content in this material.
Alloy 45TM can give excellent corrosion
resistance and has improved the tube life in
several boilers with chronic superheater
tube wastage issues.
Conclusions
Based on the information from laboratory
and field tests, the following conclusions on
materials for refuse-fired boilers can be
made:
1) Alloy 625, applied as a weld overlay,
has demonstrated that it is quite
resistant to corrosion under most
boiler operating conditions.
2) Alloy 50, a new Ni-Cr-Mo-Fe Alloy,
exhibits lower corrosion rates in
laboratory tests and also has given
excellent corrosion resistance in
field tests.
3) Alloy 50 exhibits less tendency to
form micro-cracks and fissures than
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Alloy 625 during weld trials in the
Varistrant test.
4) Alloy 50 has a more uniform
microstructure and shows less
segregation in the welded condition
than Alloy 625.
5) Solid alloy superheater tubing can
be a viable alternative to weld
overlay tubing; smaller tube sizes
and a thinner allowable minimum
tube wall thickness make solid
tubing more attractive.
6) Solid Alloy 45TM shows excellent
corrosion resistance in most refuse­
to-energy superheater applications.
References
1. A. L. Plumley, W.R. Rocznia, E.C.
Lewis, "Materials Performance of Heat
Transfer Surfaces in a MSW-fired
Incinerator", Materials Performance in
Waste Incineration Systems, NACE,
Houston TX,1992.
2. Private communication with
personnel involved with tube failures at
the Lawrence, MA waste-to-Energy
facility.
3. P.L. Daniel, L.D. Paul, J. Barna,
"Fireside Corrosion in Refuse-Fired
Boilers", Materials Performance in
Waste Incineration Systems, NACE,
Houston TX, 1992.
4. G.Y. Lai, "A New Alloy for Solving
Fireside Corrosion Problems in Waste
Incinerators", Materials Performance in
Waste Incineration Systems, NACE,
Houston TX, 1992.
5. J.A. Harris, w.G. Lipscomb, D.o.
Smith, "Field Experience of Hig Nickel
Containing Alloys in Waste
Incinerators", Materials Performance in
Waste Incineration Systems, NACE,
Houston TX, 1992.
115
6. G.D. Smith, W.G. Lipscomb, "Field
and Laboratory Performance of Alloys
825 and 625 in Waste Incineration
Environments", Materials Performance
in Waste Incineration Systems, NACE,
Houston TX, 1992.
7. M. Fukusumi, Y. Okanda, "High
Temperature Corrosion in Municipal
Waste Incineration - Influence of
Combustion Ashes", Materials
Performance in Waste Incineration
Systems, NACE, Houston TX, 1992.
8. High Temperature Corrosion of
Engineering Alloys, G.Y. Lai, p. 161
ASM, Metals Park OH, 1990.
9. G.A. Whitlow, P.J. Gallagher, S.Y.
Lee, "Combustor and Superheater
Materials Performance in a Municipal
Solid Waste Incinerator", Materials
Performance in Waste Incineration
Systems, NACE, Houston TX, 1992.
10. Private communication with
personnel involved with testing at the
refuse-fired boiler operating in
Columbus, OH.
11. K. Luer, J. Dupont, A. Marder, C.
Skelonis, Corrosion Fatigue of Alloy 625
Weld Claddings in Combustion
Environments, Materials at High
Temperatures, 17 (4).
12. J.S. Gittinger, W.J. Arvan,
"Considerations for the Design of RDF­
Fired Refuse Bolers", Power-Gen
Europe, Milan, Italy, 1998.
13. D.C. Agarwal, J. Kloewer, G.K.
Grossmann, Alloy 45TM in Waste
Incineration Applications", Paper 155,
CORROSION/97, NACE, Houston, TX,
1997.
14. D.C. Agarwal, G.K. Grossmann,
"Case Histories on the Use of Nickel
Alloys in Municipal & Hazardous Waste
Fueled Activities", Paper 01177,
CORROSION/2001, NACE, Houston,
TX,2003.
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
T bl 1 Cha e . enustnes 0 common a oys use III waste-to-energyf 11 d · b ·101 ers
ThyssenKrupp VDM Alloy UNSNo. Ni Cr Mo Fe% Other
Designation 0/0 0/0 % 0/0
Nicrofer® S6020 FM625 N06625 63 22 9 <1 3.4Nb
Nicrofer® S5923 FM59 N06059 59 23 16 1
Nicrofer® S5020 FM50 N06650 53 19.5 11 14 0.25Al 0.25Nb 1.5W
Nicrofer® 4221 825 N08825 42 2 1.5 3 2.2Cu 0.9Ti
Nicrofer® 45TM 45TM N06045 46 27 - 23 2.75Si O. IRE
Table 2. Relative pricing of Alloy 625 weld overlay compared to solid tubing.
625 Weld 825 Solid 45TM Solid
Tube Size Overlay Tube Tube
Relative Relative Relative
Price'" Price'" Price'"
1.5" x 0.150" MW 1 0.75 1. 18
2.0" x 0. 150" MW 1 0.78 1.44
3.0" x 0. 150" MW 1 0.80 1.64
* Relative Price Compared to Alloy 625 Overlay (i.e. Alloy 625 Overlay = 1)
250
Chloride and sulfate
salts decompose and
200
vaporize at higher
- temperatures
>- Molten
a..
.§. 150
Chloride
Attack
CD
-
�
c 1000
"en
g 500 Gaseous
U Chloride Attack
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Temperature (OF)
Figure l. Schematic of the influence of temperature upon various corrosion mechanisms.
116 Copyright © 2004 by ASME

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180831 nawtec__inconel overlay

  • 1. 12th North American Waste to Energy Conference May 17-19, 2004, Savannah, Georgia USA NAWTEC12-2216 Experience with Weld Overlay and Solid Alloy Tubing Materials in Waste to Energy Plants Larry Paul ThyssenKrupp VDM USA Inc. 116 W. Madison st. Tipton, IN 46072 (765) 675-9964 Gregg Clark ThyssenKrupp VDM USA, Inc. 20 Towne Drive #198 Bluffton, SC 29910 USA (843) 757-8368 1.0 Introduction Corrosive conditions in waste to energy boilers produce rapid wastage rates of traditional boiler tube materials. It is not unusual to see corrosion rates in the range of 1 to 3 mm/y (40-120 mpy) on carbon steel boiler tubes and occasionally corrosion occurs at even higher rates. In the mid1980's there were several boilers that experienced corrosion failures of carbon steel waterwall tubes in less than 6 months of service (1,2). Because of this experience, it has become accepted that some type of corrosion protection is required for boiler tubes in refuse-to-energy boilers. Over the years, many different alloys have been evaluated to improve tube life in waste-to­ energy boilers. The most successful materials used for corrosion protection are nickel alloys. Waterwall tubes are generally attacked by molten chloride salts (3) and superheat tubes appear to be attacked by a combination of molten chloride/sulfate salts as well as gaseous chloride constituents (primarily HCI) (4-7). Figure 1 shows the corrosion rates of carbon steel as a function of temperature for various corrosion mechanisms. The corrosion due to gaseous chloride atmospheres increases steadily with temperature. Corrosion produced by chloride rich deposits or salts increases rapidly once the melting point of the salts is reached; corrosion rates continue to increase with temperature until the chloride salt becomes hot enough to vaporize, after 111 Michael Eckhardt Andreas Ossenberg-Engels ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH Barenstein 5 D-58791 Werdohl, Germany Bern Hoberg ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH Kleffstrasse 23 D-58762 Altena, Germany which corrosion decreases. Likewise for sulfate rich deposits or salts: the onset of melting sharply increases corrosion rates and vaporization of the sulfates at even higher temperatures results in a decrease of corrosion. These various corrosion mechanisms give rise to somewhat different alloy requirements, depending on the temperature of the metal in the refuse-fired boiler The main corrosion mechanism which occurs on water wall tubes, which typically operate in the 200-315°C (400-600°F) range, is corrosion by molten chloride salts. The most successful alloys used for waterwall tubes are generally high in nickel and molybdenum with moderate amounts of chromium, such as Alloy 625 and Alloy 50 (a recently introduced alloy from ThyssenKrupp VDM). These alloys are applied to waterwall tubes as a weld overlay. Because of the mixed corrosion modes in the superheater region, the selection of alloys is more complicated. Figure 2 shows a photomicrograph of a Fe-Ni-Co-Cr alloy that was exposed in a refuse boiler at approximately 900°C (1650°F) (8). Figure 2 shows that multiple corrosion mechanisms are active at this temperature; both sulfidation (evidenced by the chromium rich sulfides) and chloride attack (evidenced by the internal voids caused by volatile metal chlorides) are observed. In this case, a material not only requires a high nickel content to resist chloride attack (both gaseous and molten salts), but also requires Copyright © 2004 by ASME
  • 2. a high chromium content to resist sulfidation. Solid Alloy 825 and weld overlay Alloy 625 are perhaps the most common materials now used in superheater tubes in waste-to­ energy boilers. Another high chromium material was recently introduced in Europe for this application with good success: Alloy 45TM. While Alloy 825 solid tubes and Alloy 625 weld overlay have a proven track record in many boilers, there are also many boilers where corrosion continues to be a problem. Alloy 825 also has been unsatisfactory in many superheater applications. Alloy 625 weld overlay also does not always give the desired superheater tube life. It is fair to say that most of the chronic corrosion problems are in superheater applications. The corrosion problems in waste-to-energy boilers vary with unit design, geographical region, time of year, and other factors. One clear trend that has been observed is that the increased use of plastics has led to an increase in the chloride content of the household waste. This increase in chloride content of the fuel corresponds to an increase in the corrosivity of the boiler environment. Because of the variability among waste-to­ energy boilers, site specific testing is always recommended. ThyssenKrupp VDM continues to work with operators and applicators to test new overlay materials in the field. 2.0 Material Options There are many materials that have been evaluated in refuse-to-energy boilers. The most successful of these materials include Alloys 625, 50, 59, 825, and 45TM. The chemistry of these alloys is given in Table 1. Alloys 625, 50, and 59 are applied as a weld overlay onto carbon steel boiler tubes and Alloy 825 and 45TM are used as solid tubing only for superheater applications. Alternate methods of applying corrosion resistant alloys have been tried. Spray coatings have not historically worked well in waste-to-energy boilers (9, 10). Flame 112 spray coatings all have some degree of porosity. This allows corrosive gases to permeate beneath the protective coating and corrode the carbon steel substrate. The extremely corrosive nature of the waste-to energy boiler is severe enough to cause disbonding of spray coatings from the carbon steel base metal. Diffusion coatings and other coating systems have also been tried in refuse-to-energy boilers with mixed success. Generally all of these coating systems have some degree of porosity or have inherent defects in the coating system, which leads to unacceptable localized corrosion. Therefore, weld overlays and solid tubing are the most reliable options for deploying corrosion resistant alloys. For waterwall tubing, weld overlays are exclusively used. Since these tubes are water wetted on the inside surface, the use of solid austenitic materials is generally not allowed by the ASME boiler code. Therefore, application of nickel alloys to waterwall tubes will be as a clad or coating; weld overlays have proven to be the most reliable process for economically applying this corrosion barrier. For superheater applications, both solid and weld overlay tubing are both used. The decision on whether to use a solid or weld overlay tube for a superheater application will depend on economics and delivery schedules. The relative costs of various superheater tube options are given in Table 2. Solid Alloy 825 tubes are the least expensive option and are used in the first few rows in the superheater tube banks, where gas temperatures are highest. Alloy 625 weld overlay tubes are the closest option, relative to cost, to solid Alloy 825 tubes. Alloy 625 overlay tubes have given good tube life in numerous applications and also have the advantage in that they usually can be provided more quickly than solid tubing. A solid tube material that has been used in Europe is Alloy 45TM (. The relative costs of solid Alloy 45TM tubing is also shown in Table 2. While the relative cost is somewhat higher than other options, the increased corrosion performance of Alloy 45TM has justified its use in several applications. Copyright © 2004 by ASME
  • 3. When comparing the prices of solid tubes to weld overlay tubes, it is noted that the price differential increases with tube size. This trend is a result of the increasing differential between the amounts of nickel alloy used in weld overlay versus solid tubing as the tube diameter increases. Another factor when considering solid versus weld overlay tubes is the life of the tube. The corrosion rates of weld overlay tubes will increase rapidly after the cladding has been corroded away. Cladding thickness of weld overlay tubes are generally in the range of 1.5-2mm (0.060- 0.080"). Corrosion rates on solid tubes will not change as the result of tube wall thinning. Therefore, solid tubes may last longer than weld overlay tubes at the same corrosion rate. Solid tubes have a greater thickness of corrosion resistant material. The relative life of solid tubes versus weld overlay tubes increases as the minimum wall requirement of the superheater tube decreases (i.e. solid tubes are more economical as more wall loss can be tolerated) 3.0 Corrosion Testing 3.1 Waterwall tubes Alloy 50 is a Nb-free welding product that is being considered as a replacement for Alloy 625 in numerous applications. Figure 3 shows the mass loss of single pass GMAW weld overlay specimens when exposed to a simulated refuse boiler combustion atmosphere. The mass loss of the specimens corresponds to the amount of corrosion. While this laboratory test does not exactly duplicate the temperatures and environment that the waterwall tubes might see, it does give a direct comparison of Alloys 50 and 625 in a corrosive high chloride environment. These laboratory data show that Alloy 50 has excellent corrosion resistance as a weld overlay material and is capable of providing corrosion resistance better than Alloy 625 weld overlays in environments applicable to refuse-to-energy plants. Figure 4 shows an example of corrosion attack of an Alloy 625 weld overlay removed from a coal fired boiler after an extended exposure time (11). The corrosion attack 113 occurs more rapidly on the dendrite cores of the weld, which are depleted in Mo and Nb due to segregation. Alloy 50 is a Nb free material and so does not exhibit segregation of Nb; however, some segregation of Mo is unavoidable. Alloy 50 does have a fairly fine uniform microstructure with less segregation than observed for Alloy 625 in the welded condition. These features help avoid preferential attack of the Alloy 50 weld overlay, which in turn reduces the overall corrosion rate. 3.1 Superheater tubes Corrosion of superheater tube materials was measured in the laboratory using a high temperature simulated refuse-boiler combustion gas consisting of 2.5 g/m 3 HCI + 1.3 g/m 3 S02 + 9% O2 + balance N2. Results of tests in this environment are shown in Figure 5. In this laboratory test, the Alloy 45TM corrodes at lower rates than Alloy 625 and the other alloys at all temperatures tested. Alloy 625 was the second best material and was much better than Alloys 800H and AC66. Alloy 45TM can be used only as solid tubing and Alloy 625 can only be used as a weld overlay (due to current ASME code regulations). 4.0 Field Testing 4.1 Waterwall tubes Several field tests of Alloy 50 are still ongoing in Europe. These tests have been in progress for nearly 2 years. Most of the information so far is based on visual inspection; so far the Alloy 50 is performing very well. One customer removed the weld overlay samples and showed that Alloy 50 indeed performed better than Alloy 625. Based on these tests, approximately 50,000 pounds of Alloy 50 will be installed onto waterwall tubes in the spring of 2004 in this European waste-to-energy boiler. Testing of Alloy 50 weld overlays is also on-going in North America, after 1Yz years in a refuse­ fired boiler, a weld overlay of Alloy 50 visually shows little sign of attack. Figure 6 compares several alloys in the so­ called Varistrant test. This test measures the tendency of a material to exhibit hot Copyright © 2004 by ASME
  • 4. cracking and form micro-fissures during welding. Figure 6 shows that Alloy 50 will be less likely to form fissures and cracks during welding than Alloy 625. 4.2 Superheater tubes Testing in the late 1970's at the refuse-to­ energy plant in Saugus, MA lead to use of Alloy 825 solid tubes (5), this material was subsequently adopted by several boiler designers ( as a standard material and is still used today in some boilers. Another common superheater material being used is Alloy 625 weld overlay onto standard carbon steel boiler tube materials. However, as steam temperatures increase and the corrosiveness of the environment increases (such as by the increasing amount of plastic in the municipal waste being burned), these standard tube materials are not always adequate. One alloy recently introduced by ThyssenKrupp VDM is Alloy 45TM. This alloy was specifically designed to have a high corrosion resistance in highly contaminated high temperature environments, such as are found in refuse­ fired boilers. Figure 7 shows test data that compares the corrosion behavior of Alloy 45TM with traditional carbon steel superheater tubes (13). This figure shows tube wall thickness measurements of the superheater tubes from an operating refuse­ fired boiler in Bielefeld, Germany; the tube wall thickness was measured periodically using ultrasonic thickness (UT) sensors. The corrosion rates of each material are calculated from the average wall loss versus time. Figure 7 shows that the Alloy 45TM was able to improve the service life by a factor of over 6 times, when compared to standard boiler tube materials. Since the mid 1990's, there have been several installations of Alloy 45TM into refuse-fired boilers. The performance of the Alloy 45TM as a superheater material has been quite good. As with any new material, field trials are suggested to demonstrate the performance under actual operating conditions. This is especially true for refuse­ fired boilers, where the conditions are know to vary widely between units. 114 Discussion The use of Alloy 625 in the refuse-to-energy market has a long and mostly successful history. Waterwall tubes that have been covered with Alloy 625 weld overlay have generally shown few problems; most of the observed problems were attributed to application issues (such as pin-holes in the weld). Recently, ThyssenKrupp VDM introduced Alloy 50 as an alternative to Alloy 625 for weld overlay applications in refuse­ to-energy plants. Alloy 50 exhibits better corrosion resistance in the laboratory and has also show excellent results in field tests. Alloy 50 is also less likely to form micro­ cracks and fissures than Alloy 625,making it a more forgiving alloy for weld applications. Lastly, the Alloy 50 has a more uniform microstructure and exhibits less segregation than Alloy 625; this helps improve corrosion resistance by reducing the degree of selective corrosion attack. Alloy 45TM has been successfully used in several superheater applications in refuse­ to-energy boilers. Alloy 45TM is only available as solid tubing. V'vtlile Alloy 45TM can be readily joint welded with selected filler metals (typically FM28 or Alloy 625), it cannot be directly used as a weld overlay, due to the higher Si content in this material. Alloy 45TM can give excellent corrosion resistance and has improved the tube life in several boilers with chronic superheater tube wastage issues. Conclusions Based on the information from laboratory and field tests, the following conclusions on materials for refuse-fired boilers can be made: 1) Alloy 625, applied as a weld overlay, has demonstrated that it is quite resistant to corrosion under most boiler operating conditions. 2) Alloy 50, a new Ni-Cr-Mo-Fe Alloy, exhibits lower corrosion rates in laboratory tests and also has given excellent corrosion resistance in field tests. 3) Alloy 50 exhibits less tendency to form micro-cracks and fissures than Copyright © 2004 by ASME
  • 5. Alloy 625 during weld trials in the Varistrant test. 4) Alloy 50 has a more uniform microstructure and shows less segregation in the welded condition than Alloy 625. 5) Solid alloy superheater tubing can be a viable alternative to weld overlay tubing; smaller tube sizes and a thinner allowable minimum tube wall thickness make solid tubing more attractive. 6) Solid Alloy 45TM shows excellent corrosion resistance in most refuse­ to-energy superheater applications. References 1. A. L. Plumley, W.R. Rocznia, E.C. Lewis, "Materials Performance of Heat Transfer Surfaces in a MSW-fired Incinerator", Materials Performance in Waste Incineration Systems, NACE, Houston TX,1992. 2. Private communication with personnel involved with tube failures at the Lawrence, MA waste-to-Energy facility. 3. P.L. Daniel, L.D. Paul, J. Barna, "Fireside Corrosion in Refuse-Fired Boilers", Materials Performance in Waste Incineration Systems, NACE, Houston TX, 1992. 4. G.Y. Lai, "A New Alloy for Solving Fireside Corrosion Problems in Waste Incinerators", Materials Performance in Waste Incineration Systems, NACE, Houston TX, 1992. 5. J.A. Harris, w.G. Lipscomb, D.o. Smith, "Field Experience of Hig Nickel Containing Alloys in Waste Incinerators", Materials Performance in Waste Incineration Systems, NACE, Houston TX, 1992. 115 6. G.D. Smith, W.G. Lipscomb, "Field and Laboratory Performance of Alloys 825 and 625 in Waste Incineration Environments", Materials Performance in Waste Incineration Systems, NACE, Houston TX, 1992. 7. M. Fukusumi, Y. Okanda, "High Temperature Corrosion in Municipal Waste Incineration - Influence of Combustion Ashes", Materials Performance in Waste Incineration Systems, NACE, Houston TX, 1992. 8. High Temperature Corrosion of Engineering Alloys, G.Y. Lai, p. 161 ASM, Metals Park OH, 1990. 9. G.A. Whitlow, P.J. Gallagher, S.Y. Lee, "Combustor and Superheater Materials Performance in a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator", Materials Performance in Waste Incineration Systems, NACE, Houston TX, 1992. 10. Private communication with personnel involved with testing at the refuse-fired boiler operating in Columbus, OH. 11. K. Luer, J. Dupont, A. Marder, C. Skelonis, Corrosion Fatigue of Alloy 625 Weld Claddings in Combustion Environments, Materials at High Temperatures, 17 (4). 12. J.S. Gittinger, W.J. Arvan, "Considerations for the Design of RDF­ Fired Refuse Bolers", Power-Gen Europe, Milan, Italy, 1998. 13. D.C. Agarwal, J. Kloewer, G.K. Grossmann, Alloy 45TM in Waste Incineration Applications", Paper 155, CORROSION/97, NACE, Houston, TX, 1997. 14. D.C. Agarwal, G.K. Grossmann, "Case Histories on the Use of Nickel Alloys in Municipal & Hazardous Waste Fueled Activities", Paper 01177, CORROSION/2001, NACE, Houston, TX,2003. Copyright © 2004 by ASME
  • 6. T bl 1 Cha e . enustnes 0 common a oys use III waste-to-energyf 11 d · b ·101 ers ThyssenKrupp VDM Alloy UNSNo. Ni Cr Mo Fe% Other Designation 0/0 0/0 % 0/0 Nicrofer® S6020 FM625 N06625 63 22 9 <1 3.4Nb Nicrofer® S5923 FM59 N06059 59 23 16 1 Nicrofer® S5020 FM50 N06650 53 19.5 11 14 0.25Al 0.25Nb 1.5W Nicrofer® 4221 825 N08825 42 2 1.5 3 2.2Cu 0.9Ti Nicrofer® 45TM 45TM N06045 46 27 - 23 2.75Si O. IRE Table 2. Relative pricing of Alloy 625 weld overlay compared to solid tubing. 625 Weld 825 Solid 45TM Solid Tube Size Overlay Tube Tube Relative Relative Relative Price'" Price'" Price'" 1.5" x 0.150" MW 1 0.75 1. 18 2.0" x 0. 150" MW 1 0.78 1.44 3.0" x 0. 150" MW 1 0.80 1.64 * Relative Price Compared to Alloy 625 Overlay (i.e. Alloy 625 Overlay = 1) 250 Chloride and sulfate salts decompose and 200 vaporize at higher - temperatures >- Molten a.. .§. 150 Chloride Attack CD - � c 1000 "en g 500 Gaseous U Chloride Attack 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Temperature (OF) Figure l. Schematic of the influence of temperature upon various corrosion mechanisms. 116 Copyright © 2004 by ASME
  • 7. .' ..... i1." . '.. .;.;.C'.. : . . " .. . Figure 2. Photomicrograph of a Fe-Ni-Co-Cr alloy from a refuse-fired boiler. Operating temperature was about 900°C (l650°F). Note the presence of chromium sulfides and internal voids that indicate that both sulfidation and chloride attack are occurring simultaneously. - Ne 1400 - C) 1200- rn ... ::l 10000 s:. 0 I() 800 0 � 600 c:: rn 400rn 0 ...J 200 rn rn «J 0 :!: -D-Alloy 625 -trAlloy 50 .-. / / / / / r:i /..I'('" 750°C Temperature (OC) .-. ,/ /" Figure 3. Comparison of the corrosion resistance of Alloy 50 compared to Alloy 625 in a simulated refuse boiler combustion environment at various temperatures after 1050 hours of exposure. Atmosphere is 2.5 g/m 3 HCI + 1.3 g/m 3 S02 + 9% O2 + balance N2. 117 Copyright © 2004 by ASME
  • 8. Inlenlt'ndli1lc n-glon ,delldlile lOuin �= - � ... = 0 •• - .. rIl 0 Q., e 0 U 12.0 Interdendritic Region 10.0 nondrit, CO"!8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Distance, urn Figure 4. Examples of corrosion attack associated with segregation of Nb and Mo in Alloy 50 - N E E- en - CP en c:: cu .s::. 0 '" '" cu :E 200 0 -200 -400 -600 -800 -1000 - -1200 t-- -1400 t-- -1600 550 -45TM 625 -AC66 -800H 600 " � "" ' '" �. " ' "'. ' '" ' " 650 700 750 800 850 900 Temperature (OC) Figure 5. Mass change after 1050 hours for selected alloys in a high temperature simulated refuse-boiler combustion gas consisting of 2.5 glm 3 Hel + 1.3 glm 3 S02 + 9% 02 + balance N2. 30 118 Copyright © 2004 by ASME
  • 9. 8 -Alloy 625 -Alloy 22 /'Alloy 59 /-Alloy 50 .,/" / � / � /�� ��. c__�� ___�__ .......-... �.... o o 1 2 3 4 5 Strain (%) Figure 6. Varistrant testing of various weld overlay materials. Alloy 50 is much less prone to fissuring and hot cracking than Alloy 625. Alloy 59 is the most resistant material to cracking in this Varistrant test. 7 _ • 45TM • 15Mo3 1 r-- -15Mo3 (linear) - 45TM (linear) o o 1000 -- I 45TM Corrosion Rate t0.8776 mm/y (22.3 mpy) � • • - '"" 2000 � � I 15Mo3 Corrosion Rate I 16.1362 mm/y (155.8 mpy)1 3000 Time (hours) 4000 5000 - 6000 Figure 7. Corrosion rates of Ally 45TM in a superheater application in a European waste to energy facility. The 45TM showed much lower overall corrosion rates than the traditional boiler tube material 15M03. 119 Copyright © 2004 by ASME