SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 9
Download to read offline
ANCHORING OF MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION MANUAL
Thermal Ceramics
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. Preface
Introduction 3
B. Anchoring of Monolithic Refractories
1. General 4
2. Anchor Types 4
2.1 Wire Anchors 4
2.1.1 Wire Anchor Styles 4
2.1.2 Anchor Length 5
2.1.3 Anchor Welding 5
2.2 Ceramic Anchors 6
3. Anchor Length and Spacing 7
3.1 Wire and Metal Anchors 7
3.2 Ceramic Anchors 7
4. Special Anchoring Systems 7
4.1 Hexmesh Anchoring 7
4.2 S-Bar Anchoring 7
5. Conclusion 8
List of Figures
Figure 1 Assorted Wire Anchors 4
Figure 2 Various Anchor Styles 5
Figure 3 Rotary Kiln Anchor 5
Figure 4 Multicomponent Anchor 5
Figure 5 Anchors with Plastic Caps 5
Figure 6 Lining Thickness Guide 5
Figure 7 Stick Welding Anchors 6
Figure 8 Ceramic Anchors 6
Figure 9 Diagram of Brick and C-Clip 6
Figure 10 Castable Bullnose 6
Figure 11 Diagram of Brick and Ice Tongs 6
Figure 12 Square Pattern 7
Figure 13 Diamond Pattern 7
Figure 14 Hexmesh Anchoring System 7
Figure 15 S-Bar Anchoring System 8
List of Tables
Table 1 Maximum Use Temperature of Various Grades of Stainless Steel 4
Table 2 Anchor Density 7
Table 3 Suggested Anchor Spacing 8
December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 2
INTRODUCTION
Over the past 75 years, Thermal Ceramics has proven
to be a world leader in solving heat intensive problems.
In addition to manufacturing ceramic fiber, brick and
fired shape products, a wide range of refractory mono-
lithic products are available. From lightweight, highly
insulating materials to dense, high strength products,
Thermal Ceramics has a refractory castable to meet
the needs of the customer. All industries are serviced
with these products, including ferrous, non-ferrous,
chemical, utility and ceramic related markets.
The Thermal Ceramic operation in Augusta, Georgia
has been certified to ISO 9002 standards for refracto-
ry monolithic production. At this facility, both raw mate-
rials and finished products are routinely tested to make
sure they meet a demanding quality level.
An experienced staff of refractory specialists is on
hand at Thermal Ceramics to assist you in product
selection, system design, and installation techniques.
This Design and Installation Manual is intended to give
the designers, installers and users of Thermal
Ceramics monolithic products a broad range of infor-
mation guidelines on the particular topic. Any ques-
tions or comments regarding this manual should be
addressed to your local Thermal Ceramics represen-
tative.
DESIGN & INSTALLATION MANUAL
ANCHROING OF MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES
December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 3
December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 4
1. GENERAL
With the design of high performance furnaces and ves-
sels containing complete linings of monolithics, anchor-
ing the refractory to the vessel structure is an integral part
of any successful installation. The anchors that can now
be specified for a project are an immense improvement
over early designs and provide an installer with a wide
variety of choices depending on the prevailing service
conditions. The following information gives a broad
overview of this subject, but since all projects are differ-
ent, the information presented is only a guide. For spe-
cific information, contact your Thermal Ceramics repre-
sentative.
2. ANCHOR TYPES
2.1 Wire Anchors
Wire anchors can be fabricated in a multitude of different
sizes and shapes as shown below. They can be specified
in various grades of stainless steel depending on the
atmosphere and temperature they are expected to face.
Wire anchors are the most common anchoring devices
used due to their low cost and easy installation. They are
used in most applications where service (lining) tempera-
tures do not exceed 2000°F. Various grades of stainless
steels are used for wire anchors because carbon steel is
not suitable for high temperatures. The choice of metal
depends on the actual temperature the anchor will face
as shown in Table 1.
The maximum temperature can be used only as a guide.
As the lining temperature approaches the anchor’s max-
imum temperature, the anchor will begin to suffer plastic
deformation. This may cause problems especially where
there are high loads to support. In this case, an anchor of
higher service temperature should be specified or the
anchors should be solution annealed.
In all cases, the anchor or holder should be designed to
operate as cool as possible and should be installed in
ways which allow heat dissipation by conduction and/or
circulation. The temperature that the wire anchor is sub-
jected to controls the rate of oxidation and is a main
determinant in its life expectancy. Operating at excessive
temperatures can create a carbide precipitation in the
metal that will change the original properties of the parent
metal, causing rapid oxidation and leading to premature
failure.
The furnace atmosphere will also affect the maximum
temperature that an anchor can handle. Reducing sul-
phurous or nitriding environments can severely affect the
metallic anchor and care should be taken in the choice of
metal alloy for such environments. For instance, the
chemistry of 316 SS provides better resistance to sulphur
attack than other stainless steel grades.
2.1.1 Wire Anchor Styles
The following are examples of the various styles of
anchors that can be supplied for different purposes.
The most common wire anchors are “V” type or steerhorn
anchors. They generally have legs with unequal lengths
to reduce the chance of shear planes in the lining.
Another variation is to twist the legs to give more holding
surface area, especially for overhead use.
The anchor in Figure 3 is specially designed for units
which will be subjected to mechanical movement during
operation, e.g. rotary kilns. The nut is welded to the shell
and the anchor only tack welded to the nut. As the lining
and anchor are subjected to the stresses of movement,
the tack weld will break, allowing the anchor to “float” in
the nut, yet remain fixed to the shell.
Figure 1 - Assorted Wire Anchors
Maximum Temperature
of Metallic Components
(°F)
Type of Steel
Required
500 Carbon Steel
1500 304 SS
1500 316 SS
1600 309 SS
1700 310 SS
2000 Inconel 601
Table 1 - Maximum Use Temperature of Various Grades of
Stainless Steel
The anchor shown in Figure 4 is sometimes used in mul-
ticomponent linings either gunned or cast. The lengths of
the different sections can be altered to suit the different
thicknesses of the linings.
2.1.2 Anchor Length
The length of wire anchors should allow the tips of the
anchor to be positioned a minimum of one inch behind
the hot face. Generally, this should approximate to three
quarters of the lining thickness. Allowance must also be
made for the expansion of the wire anchor in the refrac-
tory mass. This can be achieved by placing plastic caps
over the tips of the anchor or coating the complete anchor
with a tar solution (Figure 5). They melt at elevated tem-
peratures allowing the anchor to grow slightly without
inducing a stress on the refractory.
2.1.3 Anchor Welding
Wire anchors need at least a 1
/2 inch of weld fillet on both
sides; tack welding of anchors to the shell is not suffi-
cient. Some heavy rod anchors may require additional
welding. Welding is critical to the performance of the lin -
ing. If the welds fail, the anchors will not hold the lining in
place and a complete lining collapse could quite easily
occur.
The installer should check approximately one in every
100 anchors by striking with a hammer. If a dull sound is
heard or the anchor falls off, then check all anchors for
potential failures and replace those that fail. If a ringing
sound is heard, a good weld is indicated.
DESIGN & INSTALLATION MANUAL
ANCHROING OF MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES
December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 5
Figure 2 - Various Anchor Styles
Figure 3 - Rotary kiln Anchor
Figure 4 - Multicomponent Anchor
Figure 5 - Anchors with Plastic Caps
Figure 6 - Lining Thickness Guide
December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 6
2.2 Ceramic Anchors
For dense monolithic linings with thick cross-sections
(greater than 9-10 inches), pre-fired refractory anchors is
the preferred method of anchoring the structure. Ceramic
anchors have several advantages over other types of
anchoring systems. They have more holding power than
metal anchors due to their design and greater surface
area. They also extend through to the hot face providing
extra retention of the lining. Also, being ceramic, they can
withstand much greater temperatures and tougher
atmospheric conditions than standard wire or metal
anchors.
Thermal Ceramics makes various lengths of anchor tile
including T-9 (9 inch long) and T-131
/2 (131
/2 inch long)
from the Firebrick 80®
composition. The brick shape, with
its grooves and rises, provides excellent retention power
over the monolithic lining. The head of this anchor is
designed to accept slip-over castings (commonly known
as C-Clips). The brick is excellent in roof applications and
can also be used in wall construction with the C-Clip. A
certain amount of movement can occur between the
refractory anchor and the C-Clip to accommodate expan-
sion and contraction of the lining. This can be done by
using a threaded stud standoff and PVC spacers. The C-
Clip can be hung from steelwork in the roof, or can-
tilevered out from the vessel wall. They are available in
various lengths and steel grades (generally 310SS) to
suit different applications.
Besides C-Clips, ice tong type support anchors can be
used for holding the brick in roof construction.
Figure 7 - Stick Welding Anchors
Figure 8 - Ceramic Anchors
Figure 9 - Diagram of Brick and C-Clip
Figure 10 - Castable Bullnose
Figure 11 - Diagram of Brick and Ice Tongs
3. ANCHOR LENGTH AND SPACING
3.1 Wire and Metal Anchors
The distance between anchors needs careful considera-
tion. Edges, roofs, bullnoses, and areas where vibration,
mechanical movement or gravity impose loads on the lin -
ing need more anchoring than a straight wall or floor.
Standard spacing for various areas is suggested in Table
3. Anchors are usually welded in a square pattern (as
near as possible in some cases), but alternative patterns
such as diamond are also suitable in many installations.
The tines are rotated 90° from neighboring anchors.
Where X = anchor spacing
3.2 Ceramic Anchors
The total length of the refractory anchoring including brick
and anchor support equals the lining thickness.
4. SPECIAL ANCHORING SYSTEMS
4.1 Hexmesh Anchoring
Hexmesh systems are used when maximum abrasion
resistance is required with moderate temperature linings.
Generally, the mesh stands away from the shell on studs
or bars allowing a layer of insulation behind the hot face.
Where heat loss is not a problem, the mesh can be direct-
ly welded to the shell. Sometimes mesh is supplied with
extended legs, allowing refractory to flow underneath and
between the cells, causing bonding between cells which
increases the strength of the complete surface. Final lin -
ing thickness should be flush with the surface of the
hexmesh.
Hexmesh needs to be installed correctly for optimum per-
formance. A continuous full penetration fillet weld should
be used to attach the mesh to the shell. If the mesh is not
tight against the steel shell, it can “chatter” from vibration
or movement under operating conditions. This can cause
the refractory to crack or dislodge from the cells.
4.2 S-Bar Anchoring
S-bars (or Stop bars) were originally developed as an
alternative to hexmesh systems (Figure 15). The funda-
mental design requirements for S-bars are to supply an
anchorage system of a design to hold ultra-thin refracto-
ry linings in place, and to reduce wear of refractory by
abrasion of particles.
S-bars are directly welded to the vessel shell. Under
operating conditions, refractory wears in the direction of
the abrasive medium. This is usually the direction of gas
flow. The S-bars are arranged so the head of the bar acts
as a barrier to these particles, shielding the refractory
downstream. The S-bars are always placed at right
angles to the direction of air flow, and since they overlap
DESIGN & INSTALLATION MANUAL
ANCHROING OF MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES
December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 7
Anchor Spacing Anchors/ft2
6 inch 4
8 2.25
10 1.44
12 1
14 0.75
18 0.45
Table 2 - Anchor Density
Figure 12 - Square Pattern
Figure 13 - Diamond Pattern
Figure 14 - Hexmesh Anchoring System
each other, there is no easy path for the abrasive parti-
cles to take. They have proved successful in many appli-
cations where extreme abrasion resistance needs to be
coupled with very thin linings.
Similar to hexmesh systems, S-bars can be designed on
extended legs to allow an insulating layer beneath the
dense hot face (which should be flush with the anchor
surface).
5. CONCLUSION
Due to the almost infinite number of different needs for
refractory and refractory anchors, the preceding pages
are presented only as a general guide to the selection
and installation of refractory anchors. For specific appli-
cations and information, contact your Thermal Ceramics
representative.
Notice:
Some of the products described in this literature contain
Refractory Ceramic Fiber (RCF) and/or crystalline silica
(cristobalite or quartz). Based on experimental animal
data, the International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC) has classified RCF, along with fibrous glasswool
and mineral wool, as a possible human carcinogen
(Group2B) and respirable crystalline silica as a probable
human carcinogen (Group 2A).
To reduce the potential risk of health effects, Thermal
Ceramics recommends engineering controls and safe
work practices be followed by product users. Contact the
Thermal Ceramics Product Stewardship Group (1-800-
722-5681) to request detailed information contained in its
MSDSs and product literature and videos.
December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 8
Figure 15 - S-Bar Anchoring System
ANCHOR TYPES
Wire & Rod Ceramic
Location Lining
Thickness
(in)
Suggested
Anchor
Centers (in)
Suggested
Anchor
Centers (in)
Wall and
Slopes
2-4 6 -
4-8 9 -
8-12 12 18
12-16 - 18
>16 - 24
Roofs and
Bullnose
4-8 7 12
>8 10 12
Floors 2-4 12 -
4-9 18 -
>9 20 -
Table 3 - Suggested Anchor Spacing
12.02/M150/1.5M COPYRIGHT © 2002 THERMAL CERAMICS INC.
Global Headquarters
Thermal Ceramics Global
L'Européen - Bât. C
2, rue Joseph Monier
92859 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France
T: +33 (0)1 47 16 22 23
F: +33 (0)1 47 16 22 40
E-mail: info@tc-global.com
Global Marketing Offices
Thermal Ceramics Americas
2102 Old Savannah Road
Augusta • Georgia • 30906
T: +1 (706) 796 4200
F: +1 (706) 796 4398
E-Mail: tceramics@thermalceramics.com
Thermal Ceramics Asia Pacific
28 Jalan Kilang Barat
Kewalram House
Singapore • 159362
T: +65 6273 1351
F: +65 6273 0165
E-mail: thermalceramics@tcasia.com.sg
Thermal Ceramics Europe
Tebay Road • Bromborough • Wirral
CH62 3PH • England
T: +44 (0) 151 334 4030
F: +44 (0) 151 334 1684
E-mail: marketing@thermalceramics.co.uk
Sales and Marketing Office Locations
For further information, contact your nearest Thermal Ceramics technical sales office. You may also fax us
toll-free at 1-800-KAOWOOL, or write to Thermal Ceramics, P. O. Box 923, Dept. 140, Augusta, GA30903.
www.thermalceramics.com
North America
Canada
T: +1 (905) 335 3414
F: +1 (905) 335 5145
Mexico
T: +52 (555) 576 6622
F: +52 (555) 576 3060
United States of America
Southeastern Region
T: +1 (800) 338 9284
F: +1 (706) 796 4324
Midwest Region
T: +1 (866) 785 2738
F: +1 (866) 785 2760
Eastern Region
T: +1 (866) 785 2763
F: +1 (866) 785 2764
Western Region
T: +1 (866) 785 2765
F: +1 (866) 785 2782
South America
Argentina
T: +54 (11) 4373 4439
F: +54 (11) 4372 3331
Brazil
T: +55 (11) 4178 1999
F: +55 (11) 4178 1675
Chile
T: +56 (2) 854 1064
F: +56 (2) 854 1952
Colombia
T: +57 (222) 82935/82803
F: +57 (222) 82935/82803
Guatemala
T: +50 (2) 4733 295/6
F: +50 (2) 4730 601
Venezuela
T: +58 (241) 878 3164
F: +58 (241) 878 6712

More Related Content

What's hot

Snow ball formation pradeep kumar
Snow ball formation  pradeep kumarSnow ball formation  pradeep kumar
Snow ball formation pradeep kumarpradeepdeepi
 
Combustion in-rotary-kilns-precalciners-new-targets-and-solutions (1)
Combustion in-rotary-kilns-precalciners-new-targets-and-solutions (1)Combustion in-rotary-kilns-precalciners-new-targets-and-solutions (1)
Combustion in-rotary-kilns-precalciners-new-targets-and-solutions (1)mkpq pasha
 
Burning and cooling
Burning and coolingBurning and cooling
Burning and coolingirrraju1976
 
Nickel based super alloys use for high temperature application (in gas turbin...
Nickel based super alloys use for high temperature application (in gas turbin...Nickel based super alloys use for high temperature application (in gas turbin...
Nickel based super alloys use for high temperature application (in gas turbin...Harmfree Muchada
 
Types of refractories
Types of refractoriesTypes of refractories
Types of refractoriesPatel Romq
 
Cementformulae handbook v2
Cementformulae handbook v2Cementformulae handbook v2
Cementformulae handbook v2cesar hernandez
 
(DRI) Direct Reduction Iron Plant Flowsheet Options
(DRI) Direct Reduction Iron Plant Flowsheet Options(DRI) Direct Reduction Iron Plant Flowsheet Options
(DRI) Direct Reduction Iron Plant Flowsheet OptionsGerard B. Hawkins
 
Kiln Shell Corrosion
Kiln Shell CorrosionKiln Shell Corrosion
Kiln Shell CorrosionRicardoMosci
 
Petcoke for jsw. pradeep
Petcoke for jsw. pradeepPetcoke for jsw. pradeep
Petcoke for jsw. pradeeppradeepdeepi
 
The technological properties of refractory
The technological properties of refractory The technological properties of refractory
The technological properties of refractory Ahmed Abd Elmegeed
 
9 Lining Thickness
9 Lining Thickness9 Lining Thickness
9 Lining ThicknessRicardoMosci
 
Refractories and its types www.chemicallibrary.blogspot.com
Refractories and its types www.chemicallibrary.blogspot.comRefractories and its types www.chemicallibrary.blogspot.com
Refractories and its types www.chemicallibrary.blogspot.comFARRUKH SHEHZAD
 
Burning zone ref failue f
Burning zone ref failue fBurning zone ref failue f
Burning zone ref failue fpradeepdeepi
 
A presentation on furnaces and refractories by stead fast engineers
A presentation on furnaces and refractories by stead fast engineersA presentation on furnaces and refractories by stead fast engineers
A presentation on furnaces and refractories by stead fast engineerssteadfast123
 
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC (PART 3) - The Charging Phase (steel, steelmaking, ir...
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC (PART 3) - The Charging Phase (steel, steelmaking, ir...ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC (PART 3) - The Charging Phase (steel, steelmaking, ir...
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC (PART 3) - The Charging Phase (steel, steelmaking, ir...Matteo Sporchia
 

What's hot (20)

Snow ball formation pradeep kumar
Snow ball formation  pradeep kumarSnow ball formation  pradeep kumar
Snow ball formation pradeep kumar
 
Combustion in-rotary-kilns-precalciners-new-targets-and-solutions (1)
Combustion in-rotary-kilns-precalciners-new-targets-and-solutions (1)Combustion in-rotary-kilns-precalciners-new-targets-and-solutions (1)
Combustion in-rotary-kilns-precalciners-new-targets-and-solutions (1)
 
Burning and cooling
Burning and coolingBurning and cooling
Burning and cooling
 
Nickel based super alloys use for high temperature application (in gas turbin...
Nickel based super alloys use for high temperature application (in gas turbin...Nickel based super alloys use for high temperature application (in gas turbin...
Nickel based super alloys use for high temperature application (in gas turbin...
 
Refractory MgO-C
Refractory MgO-CRefractory MgO-C
Refractory MgO-C
 
Types of refractories
Types of refractoriesTypes of refractories
Types of refractories
 
Cementformulae handbook v2
Cementformulae handbook v2Cementformulae handbook v2
Cementformulae handbook v2
 
(DRI) Direct Reduction Iron Plant Flowsheet Options
(DRI) Direct Reduction Iron Plant Flowsheet Options(DRI) Direct Reduction Iron Plant Flowsheet Options
(DRI) Direct Reduction Iron Plant Flowsheet Options
 
Kiln Shell Corrosion
Kiln Shell CorrosionKiln Shell Corrosion
Kiln Shell Corrosion
 
Advances in SPecail Steels : Super alloy ni and ti alloys
Advances in SPecail Steels : Super alloy ni and ti alloysAdvances in SPecail Steels : Super alloy ni and ti alloys
Advances in SPecail Steels : Super alloy ni and ti alloys
 
Rotary Kiln Construction
Rotary Kiln ConstructionRotary Kiln Construction
Rotary Kiln Construction
 
Petcoke for jsw. pradeep
Petcoke for jsw. pradeepPetcoke for jsw. pradeep
Petcoke for jsw. pradeep
 
The technological properties of refractory
The technological properties of refractory The technological properties of refractory
The technological properties of refractory
 
9 Lining Thickness
9 Lining Thickness9 Lining Thickness
9 Lining Thickness
 
Rotary Kiln Sizing & Design
Rotary Kiln Sizing & DesignRotary Kiln Sizing & Design
Rotary Kiln Sizing & Design
 
Refractories and its types www.chemicallibrary.blogspot.com
Refractories and its types www.chemicallibrary.blogspot.comRefractories and its types www.chemicallibrary.blogspot.com
Refractories and its types www.chemicallibrary.blogspot.com
 
Burning zone ref failue f
Burning zone ref failue fBurning zone ref failue f
Burning zone ref failue f
 
A presentation on furnaces and refractories by stead fast engineers
A presentation on furnaces and refractories by stead fast engineersA presentation on furnaces and refractories by stead fast engineers
A presentation on furnaces and refractories by stead fast engineers
 
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC (PART 3) - The Charging Phase (steel, steelmaking, ir...
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC (PART 3) - The Charging Phase (steel, steelmaking, ir...ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC (PART 3) - The Charging Phase (steel, steelmaking, ir...
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC (PART 3) - The Charging Phase (steel, steelmaking, ir...
 
Kiln shell
Kiln shellKiln shell
Kiln shell
 

Viewers also liked

Teide Group presentacion
Teide Group presentacionTeide Group presentacion
Teide Group presentacioncmazorra
 
Foundry Products (Ideal Foundry
Foundry Products (Ideal FoundryFoundry Products (Ideal Foundry
Foundry Products (Ideal FoundryAlper Dayıoğlu
 
TFL Precast Refractory Shapes
TFL Precast Refractory ShapesTFL Precast Refractory Shapes
TFL Precast Refractory ShapesPaul Fisher
 
Paper-2 Global steel scenario and future of refractory technology.docx
Paper-2 Global steel scenario and future of refractory technology.docxPaper-2 Global steel scenario and future of refractory technology.docx
Paper-2 Global steel scenario and future of refractory technology.docxAshish Chaudhary
 
3d printing demonstration - Alterfact
3d printing demonstration - Alterfact 3d printing demonstration - Alterfact
3d printing demonstration - Alterfact Ben Landau
 
Duplicating and refractory materials used in removable partial/endodontic co...
Duplicating and refractory materials  used in removable partial/endodontic co...Duplicating and refractory materials  used in removable partial/endodontic co...
Duplicating and refractory materials used in removable partial/endodontic co...Indian dental academy
 
Ladle & tundish dryers & preheaters
Ladle & tundish dryers & preheatersLadle & tundish dryers & preheaters
Ladle & tundish dryers & preheatersStelter & Brinck
 
Theory and Operation of Methanation Catalyst
Theory and Operation of Methanation CatalystTheory and Operation of Methanation Catalyst
Theory and Operation of Methanation CatalystGerard B. Hawkins
 
Refractories-A Short Description
Refractories-A Short Description  Refractories-A Short Description
Refractories-A Short Description Dhruv Dattani
 
Iron making refractories
Iron making refractoriesIron making refractories
Iron making refractoriesN.Prakasan
 
Technotech Airflow Systems, Nagpur, HVAC & Clean Room Solutions
Technotech Airflow Systems, Nagpur, HVAC & Clean Room SolutionsTechnotech Airflow Systems, Nagpur, HVAC & Clean Room Solutions
Technotech Airflow Systems, Nagpur, HVAC & Clean Room SolutionsIndiaMART InterMESH Limited
 
Carbon fibre final ppt
Carbon fibre final pptCarbon fibre final ppt
Carbon fibre final pptSantosh Sharma
 

Viewers also liked (16)

Teide Group presentacion
Teide Group presentacionTeide Group presentacion
Teide Group presentacion
 
Foundry Products (Ideal Foundry
Foundry Products (Ideal FoundryFoundry Products (Ideal Foundry
Foundry Products (Ideal Foundry
 
TFL Precast Refractory Shapes
TFL Precast Refractory ShapesTFL Precast Refractory Shapes
TFL Precast Refractory Shapes
 
Paper-2 Global steel scenario and future of refractory technology.docx
Paper-2 Global steel scenario and future of refractory technology.docxPaper-2 Global steel scenario and future of refractory technology.docx
Paper-2 Global steel scenario and future of refractory technology.docx
 
Foundry Products
Foundry Products Foundry Products
Foundry Products
 
3d printing demonstration - Alterfact
3d printing demonstration - Alterfact 3d printing demonstration - Alterfact
3d printing demonstration - Alterfact
 
R & D Booklet Final
R & D Booklet FinalR & D Booklet Final
R & D Booklet Final
 
Duplicating and refractory materials used in removable partial/endodontic co...
Duplicating and refractory materials  used in removable partial/endodontic co...Duplicating and refractory materials  used in removable partial/endodontic co...
Duplicating and refractory materials used in removable partial/endodontic co...
 
Ladle & tundish dryers & preheaters
Ladle & tundish dryers & preheatersLadle & tundish dryers & preheaters
Ladle & tundish dryers & preheaters
 
Theory and Operation of Methanation Catalyst
Theory and Operation of Methanation CatalystTheory and Operation of Methanation Catalyst
Theory and Operation of Methanation Catalyst
 
Refractories-A Short Description
Refractories-A Short Description  Refractories-A Short Description
Refractories-A Short Description
 
Iron making refractories
Iron making refractoriesIron making refractories
Iron making refractories
 
Refractories
RefractoriesRefractories
Refractories
 
carbon fibre
carbon fibrecarbon fibre
carbon fibre
 
Technotech Airflow Systems, Nagpur, HVAC & Clean Room Solutions
Technotech Airflow Systems, Nagpur, HVAC & Clean Room SolutionsTechnotech Airflow Systems, Nagpur, HVAC & Clean Room Solutions
Technotech Airflow Systems, Nagpur, HVAC & Clean Room Solutions
 
Carbon fibre final ppt
Carbon fibre final pptCarbon fibre final ppt
Carbon fibre final ppt
 

Similar to Anchoring of monolithic_refractories_-_uk

Inspection manual for piping
Inspection manual for pipingInspection manual for piping
Inspection manual for pipingKhiem Vo Duy
 
Copper-nickel Welding
Copper-nickel WeldingCopper-nickel Welding
Copper-nickel WeldingNelson Loi
 
Field welding and cutting ductile iron pipe
Field welding and cutting ductile iron pipeField welding and cutting ductile iron pipe
Field welding and cutting ductile iron pipeLudi Lunar
 
Silcosil silicone-insulators-ai-en
Silcosil silicone-insulators-ai-enSilcosil silicone-insulators-ai-en
Silcosil silicone-insulators-ai-enRosmer Ocando
 
IRJET- Beam-Column Connections in Cold-Formed Light Gauge Steel Structures
IRJET- Beam-Column Connections in Cold-Formed Light Gauge Steel StructuresIRJET- Beam-Column Connections in Cold-Formed Light Gauge Steel Structures
IRJET- Beam-Column Connections in Cold-Formed Light Gauge Steel StructuresIRJET Journal
 
Structural steel
Structural steelStructural steel
Structural steelRohit kumar
 
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - EMT Fititngs
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - EMT Fititngs SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - EMT Fititngs
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - EMT Fititngs Thorne & Derrick International
 
Danke Power Report
Danke Power ReportDanke Power Report
Danke Power ReportPriten Vasa
 
BIC Magazine - Tapered Pressure Seal Eliminates Diaphragm in Heat Exchanger
BIC Magazine - Tapered Pressure Seal Eliminates Diaphragm in Heat ExchangerBIC Magazine - Tapered Pressure Seal Eliminates Diaphragm in Heat Exchanger
BIC Magazine - Tapered Pressure Seal Eliminates Diaphragm in Heat ExchangerJames R 'Chezo' Cesarini PE
 
Experience in In-Situ Repair Welding of Steam Turbine Shrouds and Blades by S...
Experience in In-Situ Repair Welding of Steam Turbine Shrouds and Blades by S...Experience in In-Situ Repair Welding of Steam Turbine Shrouds and Blades by S...
Experience in In-Situ Repair Welding of Steam Turbine Shrouds and Blades by S...RAMASUBBU VELAYUTHAM
 
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - Rigid IMC Fittings
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - Rigid IMC Fittings SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - Rigid IMC Fittings
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - Rigid IMC Fittings Thorne & Derrick International
 
Innovated CGS Once-shaping Modular Tank Panel
Innovated CGS Once-shaping Modular Tank PanelInnovated CGS Once-shaping Modular Tank Panel
Innovated CGS Once-shaping Modular Tank Panel菁 宋
 
Thomson bronze nut_catalog
Thomson bronze nut_catalogThomson bronze nut_catalog
Thomson bronze nut_catalogElectromate
 
Thomson BSA Bronze Nuts
Thomson BSA Bronze Nuts Thomson BSA Bronze Nuts
Thomson BSA Bronze Nuts Electromate
 
Manufacturing of liquid propellant tank
Manufacturing of liquid propellant tankManufacturing of liquid propellant tank
Manufacturing of liquid propellant tankSai Malleswar
 
How to prevent weld failure
How to prevent weld failure How to prevent weld failure
How to prevent weld failure أحمد دعبس
 
final ppt on industrial training 87205304.pptx
final ppt on industrial training 87205304.pptxfinal ppt on industrial training 87205304.pptx
final ppt on industrial training 87205304.pptxMrBeast49
 
various connection of steel structure
various connection of steel structurevarious connection of steel structure
various connection of steel structuremridupawan khanikar
 
Screw Surfacing Materials For Wear and Corrosion Resistance
Screw Surfacing Materials For Wear and Corrosion ResistanceScrew Surfacing Materials For Wear and Corrosion Resistance
Screw Surfacing Materials For Wear and Corrosion ResistanceGlycon Corp.
 

Similar to Anchoring of monolithic_refractories_-_uk (20)

Inspection manual for piping
Inspection manual for pipingInspection manual for piping
Inspection manual for piping
 
Copper-nickel Welding
Copper-nickel WeldingCopper-nickel Welding
Copper-nickel Welding
 
Field welding and cutting ductile iron pipe
Field welding and cutting ductile iron pipeField welding and cutting ductile iron pipe
Field welding and cutting ductile iron pipe
 
Silcosil silicone-insulators-ai-en
Silcosil silicone-insulators-ai-enSilcosil silicone-insulators-ai-en
Silcosil silicone-insulators-ai-en
 
IRJET- Beam-Column Connections in Cold-Formed Light Gauge Steel Structures
IRJET- Beam-Column Connections in Cold-Formed Light Gauge Steel StructuresIRJET- Beam-Column Connections in Cold-Formed Light Gauge Steel Structures
IRJET- Beam-Column Connections in Cold-Formed Light Gauge Steel Structures
 
Structural steel
Structural steelStructural steel
Structural steel
 
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - EMT Fititngs
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - EMT Fititngs SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - EMT Fititngs
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - EMT Fititngs
 
Danke Power Report
Danke Power ReportDanke Power Report
Danke Power Report
 
BIC Magazine - Tapered Pressure Seal Eliminates Diaphragm in Heat Exchanger
BIC Magazine - Tapered Pressure Seal Eliminates Diaphragm in Heat ExchangerBIC Magazine - Tapered Pressure Seal Eliminates Diaphragm in Heat Exchanger
BIC Magazine - Tapered Pressure Seal Eliminates Diaphragm in Heat Exchanger
 
Oz3426202627
Oz3426202627Oz3426202627
Oz3426202627
 
Experience in In-Situ Repair Welding of Steam Turbine Shrouds and Blades by S...
Experience in In-Situ Repair Welding of Steam Turbine Shrouds and Blades by S...Experience in In-Situ Repair Welding of Steam Turbine Shrouds and Blades by S...
Experience in In-Situ Repair Welding of Steam Turbine Shrouds and Blades by S...
 
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - Rigid IMC Fittings
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - Rigid IMC Fittings SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - Rigid IMC Fittings
SEPCO Steel Electric Conduit & Cable Fittings - Rigid IMC Fittings
 
Innovated CGS Once-shaping Modular Tank Panel
Innovated CGS Once-shaping Modular Tank PanelInnovated CGS Once-shaping Modular Tank Panel
Innovated CGS Once-shaping Modular Tank Panel
 
Thomson bronze nut_catalog
Thomson bronze nut_catalogThomson bronze nut_catalog
Thomson bronze nut_catalog
 
Thomson BSA Bronze Nuts
Thomson BSA Bronze Nuts Thomson BSA Bronze Nuts
Thomson BSA Bronze Nuts
 
Manufacturing of liquid propellant tank
Manufacturing of liquid propellant tankManufacturing of liquid propellant tank
Manufacturing of liquid propellant tank
 
How to prevent weld failure
How to prevent weld failure How to prevent weld failure
How to prevent weld failure
 
final ppt on industrial training 87205304.pptx
final ppt on industrial training 87205304.pptxfinal ppt on industrial training 87205304.pptx
final ppt on industrial training 87205304.pptx
 
various connection of steel structure
various connection of steel structurevarious connection of steel structure
various connection of steel structure
 
Screw Surfacing Materials For Wear and Corrosion Resistance
Screw Surfacing Materials For Wear and Corrosion ResistanceScrew Surfacing Materials For Wear and Corrosion Resistance
Screw Surfacing Materials For Wear and Corrosion Resistance
 

Recently uploaded

guest bathroom white and bluesssssssssss
guest bathroom white and bluesssssssssssguest bathroom white and bluesssssssssss
guest bathroom white and bluesssssssssssNadaMohammed714321
 
General Simple Guide About AI in Design By: A.L. Samar Hossam ElDin
General Simple Guide About AI in Design By: A.L. Samar Hossam ElDinGeneral Simple Guide About AI in Design By: A.L. Samar Hossam ElDin
General Simple Guide About AI in Design By: A.L. Samar Hossam ElDinSamar Hossam ElDin Ahmed
 
Map of St. Louis Parks
Map of St. Louis Parks                              Map of St. Louis Parks
Map of St. Louis Parks CharlottePulte
 
10 Best WordPress Plugins to make the website effective in 2024
10 Best WordPress Plugins to make the website effective in 202410 Best WordPress Plugins to make the website effective in 2024
10 Best WordPress Plugins to make the website effective in 2024digital learning point
 
simpson-lee_house_dt20ajshsjsjsjsjj15.pdf
simpson-lee_house_dt20ajshsjsjsjsjj15.pdfsimpson-lee_house_dt20ajshsjsjsjsjj15.pdf
simpson-lee_house_dt20ajshsjsjsjsjj15.pdfLucyBonelli
 
DAKSHIN BIHAR GRAMIN BANK: REDEFINING THE DIGITAL BANKING EXPERIENCE WITH A U...
DAKSHIN BIHAR GRAMIN BANK: REDEFINING THE DIGITAL BANKING EXPERIENCE WITH A U...DAKSHIN BIHAR GRAMIN BANK: REDEFINING THE DIGITAL BANKING EXPERIENCE WITH A U...
DAKSHIN BIHAR GRAMIN BANK: REDEFINING THE DIGITAL BANKING EXPERIENCE WITH A U...Rishabh Aryan
 
AI and Design Vol. 2: Navigating the New Frontier - Morgenbooster
AI and Design Vol. 2: Navigating the New Frontier - MorgenboosterAI and Design Vol. 2: Navigating the New Frontier - Morgenbooster
AI and Design Vol. 2: Navigating the New Frontier - Morgenbooster1508 A/S
 
Interior Design for Office a cura di RMG Project Studio
Interior Design for Office a cura di RMG Project StudioInterior Design for Office a cura di RMG Project Studio
Interior Design for Office a cura di RMG Project StudioRMG Project Studio
 
Karim apartment ideas 01 ppppppppppppppp
Karim apartment ideas 01 pppppppppppppppKarim apartment ideas 01 ppppppppppppppp
Karim apartment ideas 01 pppppppppppppppNadaMohammed714321
 
Sharif's 9-BOX Monitoring Model for Adaptive Programme Management
Sharif's 9-BOX Monitoring Model for Adaptive Programme ManagementSharif's 9-BOX Monitoring Model for Adaptive Programme Management
Sharif's 9-BOX Monitoring Model for Adaptive Programme ManagementMd. Shariful Hoque
 
FW25-26 Knit Cut & Sew Trend Book Peclers Paris
FW25-26 Knit Cut & Sew Trend Book Peclers ParisFW25-26 Knit Cut & Sew Trend Book Peclers Paris
FW25-26 Knit Cut & Sew Trend Book Peclers ParisPeclers Paris
 
10 must-have Chrome extensions for designers
10 must-have Chrome extensions for designers10 must-have Chrome extensions for designers
10 must-have Chrome extensions for designersPixeldarts
 
怎么办理英国Newcastle毕业证纽卡斯尔大学学位证书一手渠道
怎么办理英国Newcastle毕业证纽卡斯尔大学学位证书一手渠道怎么办理英国Newcastle毕业证纽卡斯尔大学学位证书一手渠道
怎么办理英国Newcastle毕业证纽卡斯尔大学学位证书一手渠道yrolcks
 
CAPITAL GATE CASE STUDY -regional case study.pdf
CAPITAL GATE CASE STUDY -regional case study.pdfCAPITAL GATE CASE STUDY -regional case study.pdf
CAPITAL GATE CASE STUDY -regional case study.pdfAlasAlthaher
 
The spirit of digital place - game worlds and architectural phenomenology
The spirit of digital place - game worlds and architectural phenomenologyThe spirit of digital place - game worlds and architectural phenomenology
The spirit of digital place - game worlds and architectural phenomenologyChristopher Totten
 
world health day 2024.pptxgbbvggvbhjjjbbbb
world health day 2024.pptxgbbvggvbhjjjbbbbworld health day 2024.pptxgbbvggvbhjjjbbbb
world health day 2024.pptxgbbvggvbhjjjbbbbpreetirao780
 
Unit1_Syllbwbnwnwneneneneneneentation_Sem2.pptx
Unit1_Syllbwbnwnwneneneneneneentation_Sem2.pptxUnit1_Syllbwbnwnwneneneneneneentation_Sem2.pptx
Unit1_Syllbwbnwnwneneneneneneentation_Sem2.pptxNitish292041
 
Piece by Piece Magazine
Piece by Piece Magazine                      Piece by Piece Magazine
Piece by Piece Magazine CharlottePulte
 
NBA power point presentation final copy y
NBA power point presentation final copy yNBA power point presentation final copy y
NBA power point presentation final copy ysrajece
 
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.ppt
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.pptMaking and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.ppt
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.pptJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 

Recently uploaded (20)

guest bathroom white and bluesssssssssss
guest bathroom white and bluesssssssssssguest bathroom white and bluesssssssssss
guest bathroom white and bluesssssssssss
 
General Simple Guide About AI in Design By: A.L. Samar Hossam ElDin
General Simple Guide About AI in Design By: A.L. Samar Hossam ElDinGeneral Simple Guide About AI in Design By: A.L. Samar Hossam ElDin
General Simple Guide About AI in Design By: A.L. Samar Hossam ElDin
 
Map of St. Louis Parks
Map of St. Louis Parks                              Map of St. Louis Parks
Map of St. Louis Parks
 
10 Best WordPress Plugins to make the website effective in 2024
10 Best WordPress Plugins to make the website effective in 202410 Best WordPress Plugins to make the website effective in 2024
10 Best WordPress Plugins to make the website effective in 2024
 
simpson-lee_house_dt20ajshsjsjsjsjj15.pdf
simpson-lee_house_dt20ajshsjsjsjsjj15.pdfsimpson-lee_house_dt20ajshsjsjsjsjj15.pdf
simpson-lee_house_dt20ajshsjsjsjsjj15.pdf
 
DAKSHIN BIHAR GRAMIN BANK: REDEFINING THE DIGITAL BANKING EXPERIENCE WITH A U...
DAKSHIN BIHAR GRAMIN BANK: REDEFINING THE DIGITAL BANKING EXPERIENCE WITH A U...DAKSHIN BIHAR GRAMIN BANK: REDEFINING THE DIGITAL BANKING EXPERIENCE WITH A U...
DAKSHIN BIHAR GRAMIN BANK: REDEFINING THE DIGITAL BANKING EXPERIENCE WITH A U...
 
AI and Design Vol. 2: Navigating the New Frontier - Morgenbooster
AI and Design Vol. 2: Navigating the New Frontier - MorgenboosterAI and Design Vol. 2: Navigating the New Frontier - Morgenbooster
AI and Design Vol. 2: Navigating the New Frontier - Morgenbooster
 
Interior Design for Office a cura di RMG Project Studio
Interior Design for Office a cura di RMG Project StudioInterior Design for Office a cura di RMG Project Studio
Interior Design for Office a cura di RMG Project Studio
 
Karim apartment ideas 01 ppppppppppppppp
Karim apartment ideas 01 pppppppppppppppKarim apartment ideas 01 ppppppppppppppp
Karim apartment ideas 01 ppppppppppppppp
 
Sharif's 9-BOX Monitoring Model for Adaptive Programme Management
Sharif's 9-BOX Monitoring Model for Adaptive Programme ManagementSharif's 9-BOX Monitoring Model for Adaptive Programme Management
Sharif's 9-BOX Monitoring Model for Adaptive Programme Management
 
FW25-26 Knit Cut & Sew Trend Book Peclers Paris
FW25-26 Knit Cut & Sew Trend Book Peclers ParisFW25-26 Knit Cut & Sew Trend Book Peclers Paris
FW25-26 Knit Cut & Sew Trend Book Peclers Paris
 
10 must-have Chrome extensions for designers
10 must-have Chrome extensions for designers10 must-have Chrome extensions for designers
10 must-have Chrome extensions for designers
 
怎么办理英国Newcastle毕业证纽卡斯尔大学学位证书一手渠道
怎么办理英国Newcastle毕业证纽卡斯尔大学学位证书一手渠道怎么办理英国Newcastle毕业证纽卡斯尔大学学位证书一手渠道
怎么办理英国Newcastle毕业证纽卡斯尔大学学位证书一手渠道
 
CAPITAL GATE CASE STUDY -regional case study.pdf
CAPITAL GATE CASE STUDY -regional case study.pdfCAPITAL GATE CASE STUDY -regional case study.pdf
CAPITAL GATE CASE STUDY -regional case study.pdf
 
The spirit of digital place - game worlds and architectural phenomenology
The spirit of digital place - game worlds and architectural phenomenologyThe spirit of digital place - game worlds and architectural phenomenology
The spirit of digital place - game worlds and architectural phenomenology
 
world health day 2024.pptxgbbvggvbhjjjbbbb
world health day 2024.pptxgbbvggvbhjjjbbbbworld health day 2024.pptxgbbvggvbhjjjbbbb
world health day 2024.pptxgbbvggvbhjjjbbbb
 
Unit1_Syllbwbnwnwneneneneneneentation_Sem2.pptx
Unit1_Syllbwbnwnwneneneneneneentation_Sem2.pptxUnit1_Syllbwbnwnwneneneneneneentation_Sem2.pptx
Unit1_Syllbwbnwnwneneneneneneentation_Sem2.pptx
 
Piece by Piece Magazine
Piece by Piece Magazine                      Piece by Piece Magazine
Piece by Piece Magazine
 
NBA power point presentation final copy y
NBA power point presentation final copy yNBA power point presentation final copy y
NBA power point presentation final copy y
 
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.ppt
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.pptMaking and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.ppt
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.ppt
 

Anchoring of monolithic_refractories_-_uk

  • 1. ANCHORING OF MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES DESIGN AND INSTALLATION MANUAL Thermal Ceramics
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS A. Preface Introduction 3 B. Anchoring of Monolithic Refractories 1. General 4 2. Anchor Types 4 2.1 Wire Anchors 4 2.1.1 Wire Anchor Styles 4 2.1.2 Anchor Length 5 2.1.3 Anchor Welding 5 2.2 Ceramic Anchors 6 3. Anchor Length and Spacing 7 3.1 Wire and Metal Anchors 7 3.2 Ceramic Anchors 7 4. Special Anchoring Systems 7 4.1 Hexmesh Anchoring 7 4.2 S-Bar Anchoring 7 5. Conclusion 8 List of Figures Figure 1 Assorted Wire Anchors 4 Figure 2 Various Anchor Styles 5 Figure 3 Rotary Kiln Anchor 5 Figure 4 Multicomponent Anchor 5 Figure 5 Anchors with Plastic Caps 5 Figure 6 Lining Thickness Guide 5 Figure 7 Stick Welding Anchors 6 Figure 8 Ceramic Anchors 6 Figure 9 Diagram of Brick and C-Clip 6 Figure 10 Castable Bullnose 6 Figure 11 Diagram of Brick and Ice Tongs 6 Figure 12 Square Pattern 7 Figure 13 Diamond Pattern 7 Figure 14 Hexmesh Anchoring System 7 Figure 15 S-Bar Anchoring System 8 List of Tables Table 1 Maximum Use Temperature of Various Grades of Stainless Steel 4 Table 2 Anchor Density 7 Table 3 Suggested Anchor Spacing 8 December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Over the past 75 years, Thermal Ceramics has proven to be a world leader in solving heat intensive problems. In addition to manufacturing ceramic fiber, brick and fired shape products, a wide range of refractory mono- lithic products are available. From lightweight, highly insulating materials to dense, high strength products, Thermal Ceramics has a refractory castable to meet the needs of the customer. All industries are serviced with these products, including ferrous, non-ferrous, chemical, utility and ceramic related markets. The Thermal Ceramic operation in Augusta, Georgia has been certified to ISO 9002 standards for refracto- ry monolithic production. At this facility, both raw mate- rials and finished products are routinely tested to make sure they meet a demanding quality level. An experienced staff of refractory specialists is on hand at Thermal Ceramics to assist you in product selection, system design, and installation techniques. This Design and Installation Manual is intended to give the designers, installers and users of Thermal Ceramics monolithic products a broad range of infor- mation guidelines on the particular topic. Any ques- tions or comments regarding this manual should be addressed to your local Thermal Ceramics represen- tative. DESIGN & INSTALLATION MANUAL ANCHROING OF MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 3
  • 4. December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 4 1. GENERAL With the design of high performance furnaces and ves- sels containing complete linings of monolithics, anchor- ing the refractory to the vessel structure is an integral part of any successful installation. The anchors that can now be specified for a project are an immense improvement over early designs and provide an installer with a wide variety of choices depending on the prevailing service conditions. The following information gives a broad overview of this subject, but since all projects are differ- ent, the information presented is only a guide. For spe- cific information, contact your Thermal Ceramics repre- sentative. 2. ANCHOR TYPES 2.1 Wire Anchors Wire anchors can be fabricated in a multitude of different sizes and shapes as shown below. They can be specified in various grades of stainless steel depending on the atmosphere and temperature they are expected to face. Wire anchors are the most common anchoring devices used due to their low cost and easy installation. They are used in most applications where service (lining) tempera- tures do not exceed 2000°F. Various grades of stainless steels are used for wire anchors because carbon steel is not suitable for high temperatures. The choice of metal depends on the actual temperature the anchor will face as shown in Table 1. The maximum temperature can be used only as a guide. As the lining temperature approaches the anchor’s max- imum temperature, the anchor will begin to suffer plastic deformation. This may cause problems especially where there are high loads to support. In this case, an anchor of higher service temperature should be specified or the anchors should be solution annealed. In all cases, the anchor or holder should be designed to operate as cool as possible and should be installed in ways which allow heat dissipation by conduction and/or circulation. The temperature that the wire anchor is sub- jected to controls the rate of oxidation and is a main determinant in its life expectancy. Operating at excessive temperatures can create a carbide precipitation in the metal that will change the original properties of the parent metal, causing rapid oxidation and leading to premature failure. The furnace atmosphere will also affect the maximum temperature that an anchor can handle. Reducing sul- phurous or nitriding environments can severely affect the metallic anchor and care should be taken in the choice of metal alloy for such environments. For instance, the chemistry of 316 SS provides better resistance to sulphur attack than other stainless steel grades. 2.1.1 Wire Anchor Styles The following are examples of the various styles of anchors that can be supplied for different purposes. The most common wire anchors are “V” type or steerhorn anchors. They generally have legs with unequal lengths to reduce the chance of shear planes in the lining. Another variation is to twist the legs to give more holding surface area, especially for overhead use. The anchor in Figure 3 is specially designed for units which will be subjected to mechanical movement during operation, e.g. rotary kilns. The nut is welded to the shell and the anchor only tack welded to the nut. As the lining and anchor are subjected to the stresses of movement, the tack weld will break, allowing the anchor to “float” in the nut, yet remain fixed to the shell. Figure 1 - Assorted Wire Anchors Maximum Temperature of Metallic Components (°F) Type of Steel Required 500 Carbon Steel 1500 304 SS 1500 316 SS 1600 309 SS 1700 310 SS 2000 Inconel 601 Table 1 - Maximum Use Temperature of Various Grades of Stainless Steel
  • 5. The anchor shown in Figure 4 is sometimes used in mul- ticomponent linings either gunned or cast. The lengths of the different sections can be altered to suit the different thicknesses of the linings. 2.1.2 Anchor Length The length of wire anchors should allow the tips of the anchor to be positioned a minimum of one inch behind the hot face. Generally, this should approximate to three quarters of the lining thickness. Allowance must also be made for the expansion of the wire anchor in the refrac- tory mass. This can be achieved by placing plastic caps over the tips of the anchor or coating the complete anchor with a tar solution (Figure 5). They melt at elevated tem- peratures allowing the anchor to grow slightly without inducing a stress on the refractory. 2.1.3 Anchor Welding Wire anchors need at least a 1 /2 inch of weld fillet on both sides; tack welding of anchors to the shell is not suffi- cient. Some heavy rod anchors may require additional welding. Welding is critical to the performance of the lin - ing. If the welds fail, the anchors will not hold the lining in place and a complete lining collapse could quite easily occur. The installer should check approximately one in every 100 anchors by striking with a hammer. If a dull sound is heard or the anchor falls off, then check all anchors for potential failures and replace those that fail. If a ringing sound is heard, a good weld is indicated. DESIGN & INSTALLATION MANUAL ANCHROING OF MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 5 Figure 2 - Various Anchor Styles Figure 3 - Rotary kiln Anchor Figure 4 - Multicomponent Anchor Figure 5 - Anchors with Plastic Caps Figure 6 - Lining Thickness Guide
  • 6. December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 6 2.2 Ceramic Anchors For dense monolithic linings with thick cross-sections (greater than 9-10 inches), pre-fired refractory anchors is the preferred method of anchoring the structure. Ceramic anchors have several advantages over other types of anchoring systems. They have more holding power than metal anchors due to their design and greater surface area. They also extend through to the hot face providing extra retention of the lining. Also, being ceramic, they can withstand much greater temperatures and tougher atmospheric conditions than standard wire or metal anchors. Thermal Ceramics makes various lengths of anchor tile including T-9 (9 inch long) and T-131 /2 (131 /2 inch long) from the Firebrick 80® composition. The brick shape, with its grooves and rises, provides excellent retention power over the monolithic lining. The head of this anchor is designed to accept slip-over castings (commonly known as C-Clips). The brick is excellent in roof applications and can also be used in wall construction with the C-Clip. A certain amount of movement can occur between the refractory anchor and the C-Clip to accommodate expan- sion and contraction of the lining. This can be done by using a threaded stud standoff and PVC spacers. The C- Clip can be hung from steelwork in the roof, or can- tilevered out from the vessel wall. They are available in various lengths and steel grades (generally 310SS) to suit different applications. Besides C-Clips, ice tong type support anchors can be used for holding the brick in roof construction. Figure 7 - Stick Welding Anchors Figure 8 - Ceramic Anchors Figure 9 - Diagram of Brick and C-Clip Figure 10 - Castable Bullnose Figure 11 - Diagram of Brick and Ice Tongs
  • 7. 3. ANCHOR LENGTH AND SPACING 3.1 Wire and Metal Anchors The distance between anchors needs careful considera- tion. Edges, roofs, bullnoses, and areas where vibration, mechanical movement or gravity impose loads on the lin - ing need more anchoring than a straight wall or floor. Standard spacing for various areas is suggested in Table 3. Anchors are usually welded in a square pattern (as near as possible in some cases), but alternative patterns such as diamond are also suitable in many installations. The tines are rotated 90° from neighboring anchors. Where X = anchor spacing 3.2 Ceramic Anchors The total length of the refractory anchoring including brick and anchor support equals the lining thickness. 4. SPECIAL ANCHORING SYSTEMS 4.1 Hexmesh Anchoring Hexmesh systems are used when maximum abrasion resistance is required with moderate temperature linings. Generally, the mesh stands away from the shell on studs or bars allowing a layer of insulation behind the hot face. Where heat loss is not a problem, the mesh can be direct- ly welded to the shell. Sometimes mesh is supplied with extended legs, allowing refractory to flow underneath and between the cells, causing bonding between cells which increases the strength of the complete surface. Final lin - ing thickness should be flush with the surface of the hexmesh. Hexmesh needs to be installed correctly for optimum per- formance. A continuous full penetration fillet weld should be used to attach the mesh to the shell. If the mesh is not tight against the steel shell, it can “chatter” from vibration or movement under operating conditions. This can cause the refractory to crack or dislodge from the cells. 4.2 S-Bar Anchoring S-bars (or Stop bars) were originally developed as an alternative to hexmesh systems (Figure 15). The funda- mental design requirements for S-bars are to supply an anchorage system of a design to hold ultra-thin refracto- ry linings in place, and to reduce wear of refractory by abrasion of particles. S-bars are directly welded to the vessel shell. Under operating conditions, refractory wears in the direction of the abrasive medium. This is usually the direction of gas flow. The S-bars are arranged so the head of the bar acts as a barrier to these particles, shielding the refractory downstream. The S-bars are always placed at right angles to the direction of air flow, and since they overlap DESIGN & INSTALLATION MANUAL ANCHROING OF MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 7 Anchor Spacing Anchors/ft2 6 inch 4 8 2.25 10 1.44 12 1 14 0.75 18 0.45 Table 2 - Anchor Density Figure 12 - Square Pattern Figure 13 - Diamond Pattern Figure 14 - Hexmesh Anchoring System
  • 8. each other, there is no easy path for the abrasive parti- cles to take. They have proved successful in many appli- cations where extreme abrasion resistance needs to be coupled with very thin linings. Similar to hexmesh systems, S-bars can be designed on extended legs to allow an insulating layer beneath the dense hot face (which should be flush with the anchor surface). 5. CONCLUSION Due to the almost infinite number of different needs for refractory and refractory anchors, the preceding pages are presented only as a general guide to the selection and installation of refractory anchors. For specific appli- cations and information, contact your Thermal Ceramics representative. Notice: Some of the products described in this literature contain Refractory Ceramic Fiber (RCF) and/or crystalline silica (cristobalite or quartz). Based on experimental animal data, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified RCF, along with fibrous glasswool and mineral wool, as a possible human carcinogen (Group2B) and respirable crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A). To reduce the potential risk of health effects, Thermal Ceramics recommends engineering controls and safe work practices be followed by product users. Contact the Thermal Ceramics Product Stewardship Group (1-800- 722-5681) to request detailed information contained in its MSDSs and product literature and videos. December 2002 Thermal Ceramics Page 8 Figure 15 - S-Bar Anchoring System ANCHOR TYPES Wire & Rod Ceramic Location Lining Thickness (in) Suggested Anchor Centers (in) Suggested Anchor Centers (in) Wall and Slopes 2-4 6 - 4-8 9 - 8-12 12 18 12-16 - 18 >16 - 24 Roofs and Bullnose 4-8 7 12 >8 10 12 Floors 2-4 12 - 4-9 18 - >9 20 - Table 3 - Suggested Anchor Spacing
  • 9. 12.02/M150/1.5M COPYRIGHT © 2002 THERMAL CERAMICS INC. Global Headquarters Thermal Ceramics Global L'Européen - Bât. C 2, rue Joseph Monier 92859 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France T: +33 (0)1 47 16 22 23 F: +33 (0)1 47 16 22 40 E-mail: info@tc-global.com Global Marketing Offices Thermal Ceramics Americas 2102 Old Savannah Road Augusta • Georgia • 30906 T: +1 (706) 796 4200 F: +1 (706) 796 4398 E-Mail: tceramics@thermalceramics.com Thermal Ceramics Asia Pacific 28 Jalan Kilang Barat Kewalram House Singapore • 159362 T: +65 6273 1351 F: +65 6273 0165 E-mail: thermalceramics@tcasia.com.sg Thermal Ceramics Europe Tebay Road • Bromborough • Wirral CH62 3PH • England T: +44 (0) 151 334 4030 F: +44 (0) 151 334 1684 E-mail: marketing@thermalceramics.co.uk Sales and Marketing Office Locations For further information, contact your nearest Thermal Ceramics technical sales office. You may also fax us toll-free at 1-800-KAOWOOL, or write to Thermal Ceramics, P. O. Box 923, Dept. 140, Augusta, GA30903. www.thermalceramics.com North America Canada T: +1 (905) 335 3414 F: +1 (905) 335 5145 Mexico T: +52 (555) 576 6622 F: +52 (555) 576 3060 United States of America Southeastern Region T: +1 (800) 338 9284 F: +1 (706) 796 4324 Midwest Region T: +1 (866) 785 2738 F: +1 (866) 785 2760 Eastern Region T: +1 (866) 785 2763 F: +1 (866) 785 2764 Western Region T: +1 (866) 785 2765 F: +1 (866) 785 2782 South America Argentina T: +54 (11) 4373 4439 F: +54 (11) 4372 3331 Brazil T: +55 (11) 4178 1999 F: +55 (11) 4178 1675 Chile T: +56 (2) 854 1064 F: +56 (2) 854 1952 Colombia T: +57 (222) 82935/82803 F: +57 (222) 82935/82803 Guatemala T: +50 (2) 4733 295/6 F: +50 (2) 4730 601 Venezuela T: +58 (241) 878 3164 F: +58 (241) 878 6712