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The “Study of the people”
Epidemiology 
• Is the basic science of preventive & social med 
• It began with Adam & eve both tried to investigate 
the qualities of “forbidden fruit” 
• Derived from word epidemic 
epi = among 
demos= people 
logos= study
Epidemiology has been defined as 
“ means of learning or asking questions.. 
and getting answers ,that lead to further 
questions” 
• Epidemiological information is used 
to plan strategies to prevent illness
following question can be asked in 
Epidemiology 
What is the event/ problem ? 
What is the magnitude of problem? 
When did it happen ? 
Where did it happen? 
Who are affected ? 
Why did it happen?
John M. Last in 1988 defined- 
• Epidemiology “The Study of the distribution 
and determinants of health related state or 
events in specified populations, 
And 
application of this study to control & prevent 
the health problems” 
Modern epidemiology deals with “facts of life”
What is health related events? 
• Are all the conditions of spectrum of health 
such as--------- 
• disease, 
• injury, 
• disability and 
• death among the population.
What is distribution? 
• It is pattern of occurrence of disease with 
reference to- 
Time . 
Place. 
Person
Study distribution helps- 
• This helps to study trend of diseases. 
• Helps to know the magnitude of problem. 
• Gives clues of etiology, mode of transmission. 
• Helps to formulate etiological hypothesis. 
(Descriptive epidemiology)
What is determinants ? 
• This is etiological risk factors. 
like…..age, sex, obesity, occupation… 
• Study helps to test etiological hypothesis. 
(this is analytical epidemiology)
What is frequency? 
• Means measuring the magnitude /extent of 
health problems in terms of morbidity and 
mortality rates,.. that helps for comparison. 
• Morbidity rates- Incidence & prevalence. 
• Mortality rates- Rates, Ratio, and proportion.
Application of epidemiology- 
• To search causes of diseases. 
• To determine probability/risk of disease. 
• To describe health status of population. 
• To control the diseases. 
• To plan health programs. 
• To evaluate health programs.
Objectives of epidemiology- 
• To reduce incidence & prevalence of diseases. 
• It help to eradicate/ eliminate the diseases. 
• To promote health and well being of society.
Epidemiological approach- 
• What is the event? 
• When & where did the disease occur? 
• Who are affected? 
• What is the extent of problem? 
• What is to be done to reduce the problem? 
• Why did it occur? 
• How can it be prevented in future?

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Epidemiology - an introduction

  • 1. The “Study of the people”
  • 2. Epidemiology • Is the basic science of preventive & social med • It began with Adam & eve both tried to investigate the qualities of “forbidden fruit” • Derived from word epidemic epi = among demos= people logos= study
  • 3. Epidemiology has been defined as “ means of learning or asking questions.. and getting answers ,that lead to further questions” • Epidemiological information is used to plan strategies to prevent illness
  • 4. following question can be asked in Epidemiology What is the event/ problem ? What is the magnitude of problem? When did it happen ? Where did it happen? Who are affected ? Why did it happen?
  • 5. John M. Last in 1988 defined- • Epidemiology “The Study of the distribution and determinants of health related state or events in specified populations, And application of this study to control & prevent the health problems” Modern epidemiology deals with “facts of life”
  • 6. What is health related events? • Are all the conditions of spectrum of health such as--------- • disease, • injury, • disability and • death among the population.
  • 7. What is distribution? • It is pattern of occurrence of disease with reference to- Time . Place. Person
  • 8. Study distribution helps- • This helps to study trend of diseases. • Helps to know the magnitude of problem. • Gives clues of etiology, mode of transmission. • Helps to formulate etiological hypothesis. (Descriptive epidemiology)
  • 9. What is determinants ? • This is etiological risk factors. like…..age, sex, obesity, occupation… • Study helps to test etiological hypothesis. (this is analytical epidemiology)
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. What is frequency? • Means measuring the magnitude /extent of health problems in terms of morbidity and mortality rates,.. that helps for comparison. • Morbidity rates- Incidence & prevalence. • Mortality rates- Rates, Ratio, and proportion.
  • 13. Application of epidemiology- • To search causes of diseases. • To determine probability/risk of disease. • To describe health status of population. • To control the diseases. • To plan health programs. • To evaluate health programs.
  • 14. Objectives of epidemiology- • To reduce incidence & prevalence of diseases. • It help to eradicate/ eliminate the diseases. • To promote health and well being of society.
  • 15. Epidemiological approach- • What is the event? • When & where did the disease occur? • Who are affected? • What is the extent of problem? • What is to be done to reduce the problem? • Why did it occur? • How can it be prevented in future?