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Research Methodology
‘Descriptive epidemiology’
Dr. Rizwan S A, M.D.,
Assistant Professor,
Department of Community Medicine,
VMCH&RI, Madurai.
27.10.2014
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 1
Outline
• Classification of research methods
• Descriptive epidemiology
– Basic premise
– Procedures
1. Define the population
2. Define and describe the disease
3. Measure the disease
4. Compare
5. Formulate hypothesis
– Uses of descriptive epidemiology
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 2
Classification of research methods
Research
methods
Observational
Descriptive
Case series,
case reports,
CS, cohort
Analytical
Ecological Cross-
sectional
Cohort Case control
Experimental
Controlled Uncontrolled
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 3
DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 4
Basic premise
• First phase of an epidemiological investigation
– When is the disease occurring? – time distribution
– Where is it occurring? - place distribution
– Who is getting the disease? - person distribution
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 5
Procedures
1. Define the population
2. Define and describe the disease
3. Measure the disease
4. Compare
5. Formulate hypothesis
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 6
1. Define the population
• ‘Population base’
• Age, sex, occupation, cultural characters
• ‘Defined population’ – denominator
• Large enough
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 7
2. Define and describe the disease
• Definition – ‘operational definition’
• Time distribution
– Short term; epidemics
– Long term
– Periodic; seasonal, cyclic
• Place distribution
– International
– National
– Rural/urban
– Local
– Migration studies
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 8
Place distribution – spot maps
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 9
2. Define and describe the disease
• Person distribution
– Age
– Sex
– Ethnicity, Race
– Marital status
– Occupation
– Social status
– Behaviour
– Stress
– Migration
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 10
3. Measure the disease
• Mortality – rates
• Morbidity - prevalence, incidence
• Disability
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 17
4. Compare with know indices
• By make comparisons between different
populations, and subgroups of the same
population, it is possible to arrive at clues to
disease etiology
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 18
5. Formulate hypothesis
• An epidemiological hypothesis should specify
– the population
– specific cause being considered
– the disease
– dose-response relationship
– time-response relationship
• Bad example
– ‘Cigarette smoking causes lung cancer’
• Good example
– ‘Smoking of 30-40 cigarettes/day causes lung cancer
in 10 per cent of smokers after 20 years of exposure’
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 19
Uses of descriptive epidemiology
• Magnitude of disease
– Mortality, morbidity
• Clues to disease aetiology
• Background data for organizing and evaluating
• Contribute to research
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 20
Summary
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 21
THANKS FOR LISTENING
Email your doubts to: sarizwan1986@outlook.com
II MBBS, Epidemiology series 22

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Descriptive epidemiology

  • 1. Research Methodology ‘Descriptive epidemiology’ Dr. Rizwan S A, M.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, VMCH&RI, Madurai. 27.10.2014 II MBBS, Epidemiology series 1
  • 2. Outline • Classification of research methods • Descriptive epidemiology – Basic premise – Procedures 1. Define the population 2. Define and describe the disease 3. Measure the disease 4. Compare 5. Formulate hypothesis – Uses of descriptive epidemiology II MBBS, Epidemiology series 2
  • 3. Classification of research methods Research methods Observational Descriptive Case series, case reports, CS, cohort Analytical Ecological Cross- sectional Cohort Case control Experimental Controlled Uncontrolled II MBBS, Epidemiology series 3
  • 4. DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY II MBBS, Epidemiology series 4
  • 5. Basic premise • First phase of an epidemiological investigation – When is the disease occurring? – time distribution – Where is it occurring? - place distribution – Who is getting the disease? - person distribution II MBBS, Epidemiology series 5
  • 6. Procedures 1. Define the population 2. Define and describe the disease 3. Measure the disease 4. Compare 5. Formulate hypothesis II MBBS, Epidemiology series 6
  • 7. 1. Define the population • ‘Population base’ • Age, sex, occupation, cultural characters • ‘Defined population’ – denominator • Large enough II MBBS, Epidemiology series 7
  • 8. 2. Define and describe the disease • Definition – ‘operational definition’ • Time distribution – Short term; epidemics – Long term – Periodic; seasonal, cyclic • Place distribution – International – National – Rural/urban – Local – Migration studies II MBBS, Epidemiology series 8
  • 9. Place distribution – spot maps II MBBS, Epidemiology series 9
  • 10. 2. Define and describe the disease • Person distribution – Age – Sex – Ethnicity, Race – Marital status – Occupation – Social status – Behaviour – Stress – Migration II MBBS, Epidemiology series 10
  • 11. 3. Measure the disease • Mortality – rates • Morbidity - prevalence, incidence • Disability II MBBS, Epidemiology series 17
  • 12. 4. Compare with know indices • By make comparisons between different populations, and subgroups of the same population, it is possible to arrive at clues to disease etiology II MBBS, Epidemiology series 18
  • 13. 5. Formulate hypothesis • An epidemiological hypothesis should specify – the population – specific cause being considered – the disease – dose-response relationship – time-response relationship • Bad example – ‘Cigarette smoking causes lung cancer’ • Good example – ‘Smoking of 30-40 cigarettes/day causes lung cancer in 10 per cent of smokers after 20 years of exposure’ II MBBS, Epidemiology series 19
  • 14. Uses of descriptive epidemiology • Magnitude of disease – Mortality, morbidity • Clues to disease aetiology • Background data for organizing and evaluating • Contribute to research II MBBS, Epidemiology series 20
  • 16. THANKS FOR LISTENING Email your doubts to: sarizwan1986@outlook.com II MBBS, Epidemiology series 22