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Sources of demographic data 2019

A short introduction on the sources of demographic data sources and local context of Saudi Arabia

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Sources of demographic data 2019

  1. 1. Sources of demographic data Dr. S. A. Rizwan, M.D. Public Health Specialist SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2. Learning objectives Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • At the end of this lecture you should be able to  Enumerate the various sources of demographic data  Describe the key features, merits and demerits of the main sources  Understand the local context Dec 2019 2
  3. 3. Outline Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh Direct methods • Census • Vital registration • Population registers Indirect methods • Sample surveys • Other sources Dec 2019 3
  4. 4. KSA demographics – 1/6 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 4
  5. 5. KSA demographics – 2/6 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 5
  6. 6. KSA demographics – 3/6 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 6
  7. 7. KSA demographics – 4/6 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 7
  8. 8. KSA demographics – 5/6 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh Population density in KSA 2010 Persons per sq. km of land Dec 2019 8
  9. 9. KSA demographics – 6/6 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 Population growth projections Population in top 20 cities, 2019 9
  10. 10. Section 1: Census Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 10
  11. 11. History of census Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Ancient (tax/military) • Babylonians • Persians • Greeks, Romans • Egypt – Palermo stone & Sneferu Dec 2019 The Palermo Stone, the fragment of the Egyptian Royal Annals housed in Palermo, Italy (2392–2283 BCE) Large-scale census was taken around 2600 BCE (before Common Era) under the reign of Sneferu 11
  12. 12. History of census Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Modern type of census • 1665 - Quebec • 1703 - Iceland • 1790 - US • 1801/1841 - Britain and France – popularised by the UN post WW2 Dec 2019 12
  13. 13. Definition of census Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • “Total process of collecting, compiling and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining at a specified time or times, to all persons in a country or delimited territory” - UN • Latin word - censere ‘assess’ Dec 2019 13
  14. 14. Features of census Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Individual enumeration • Universality • Simultaneity • Defined periodicity • Precisely defined territory • Census moment/time • De facto/de jure • Canvasser or household method • Census validation surveys Dec 2019 14
  15. 15. Uses of census – 1/3 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Basic national population data • Also • Trends in population growth • Change in age and sex structure • Cause of fertility, mortality, migration, urbanization • Religion and ethnic composition • Analysis of economic development • Future trends of population growth • National, local, public and private planning Dec 2019 15
  16. 16. Uses of census – 2/3 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Useful for estimating, calculating birth and death rates • Changes in the national occupational and industrial composition • Levels of literacy and educational attainments Dec 2019 16
  17. 17. Uses of census – 3/3 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Estimating school going population, military and economic manpower • Future growth of cities and requirement of food, water, housing and health services • Revolutionary expansion of economic, sociological and demographic knowledge Dec 2019 17
  18. 18. Information to collect Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 18
  19. 19. Example of a census form Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 19
  20. 20. Errors in census Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Content errors • Misreporting • Age heaping • Coverage errors • How to evaluate errors? • post-enumeration surveys • data validation • comparison with secondary data sources Dec 2019 20
  21. 21. Census in KSA Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Conducted in 1974, 1992, 2004 and 2010 • Latest: Population and Housing 2010* • General Authority of Statistics, Ministry of Economics and Planning* • https://www.stats.gov.sa/en/13 • The five stages of Saudi statistical work and associated royal decrees* • https://www.stats.gov.sa/en/%D8%B5%D9%81%D8%AD%D 8%A9/statistical-sector Dec 2019 21
  22. 22. Household information in KSA census Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh 1. Main source of drinking water 2. Main fuel used for cooking 3. Main source of light 4. Toilet facility 5. Household conveniences 6. Whether any death in the household 7. Information on the diseased person(s) 8. Sex, age, date, and cause 9. Level of education 10. Whether currently attending any school 11. Marital status 12. Age at first marriage 13. No. of children ever born alive 14. Any live births during last 12 months 15. Work usually done during the last 12m 16. No. of months worked during the last 12m 17. Occupation (type of usual work) 18. Industry (place of usual work) 19. Employment Status 20. Reasons for usually not working 21. Living arrangements of children below 16y Dec 2019 22
  23. 23. Individual information in KSA census Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh 1. Serial number of household member 2. Full name and sex of the household member 3. Age 4. Place of birth 5. Duration of stay at the present place 6. Reason for staying in this district 7. Residence five years ago 8. Whether able to read and write Dec 2019 23
  24. 24. Merits and demerits of census Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Complete data • High level of accuracy • Useful for a variety of planning purposes • Frame of reference for surveys • Costly & Time consuming • Data quality issues (e.g. age) • Inadequate experienced staff • Public support issues • Limited data compared to surveys • Under-enumeration of vulnerable group Dec 2019 24
  25. 25. Public awareness campaigns Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 25
  26. 26. Public awareness campaigns Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 26
  27. 27. Section 2: Vital registration Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 27
  28. 28. History of vital registration Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • 14th century - Parish registers in churches in Europe • Household and individual records in China from 1750 forward • 19th, 20th centuries - civil or state registration established • Mid-eighteenth century - Scandinavian countries had a continuous system of registering births, deaths and marriages • 1837 - Civil registration system in England and Wales • 1854 – Scotland Dec 2019 28
  29. 29. Definition of vital registration Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Defined as the continuous, permanent, compulsory and universal recording of the occurrence and characteristics of vital events • A major source of demographic data • Aka civil registration or vital statistics • First and foremost - legal documents provided by the law Dec 2019 29
  30. 30. Features of vital registration Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Universal coverage • Continuity • Confidentiality • Regular dissemination • Sample registration system* • Cause of Death* • Verbal Autopsy* Dec 2019 30
  31. 31. Information in VR Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Countries with developed VR are able to produce periodic reports on vital demographic events • Migrations • Deaths • Births • Marriages • Divorces • Adoptions Dec 2019 31
  32. 32. Merits and demerits of VR Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Continous data supply • Complementary to census • Satisfies legal and statistical requirements • Verification of census • Inaccuracies • Incomplete data • Poor coverage in developing countries • Breach of confidentiality • Lack of public support unless legally required Dec 2019 32
  33. 33. VR in KSA Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Ministry of interior, civil affairs* Dec 2019 33
  34. 34. Section 3: Sample surveys Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 34
  35. 35. Introduction Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Household sample surveys provide a cheaper alternative to censuses for timely data and a more relevant and convenient alternative to administrative record systems Dec 2019 35
  36. 36. Information in sample survey Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Socio-demographic characteristics • Conditions of living • Well-being • Peoples’ activities • Demographic characteristics • Cultural factors which influence behavior • Social and economic change • Sometimes, fringe topics such as criminal victimization, domestic violence Dec 2019 36
  37. 37. Feautres of sample surveys – 1/2 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Conducted in stages • Select the study households efficiently • Stratified, spread over geographic sub-areas and population sub-groups • Clusters of study households in order to reduce costs • Optimally balanced sample size Dec 2019 37
  38. 38. Feautres of sample surveys – 2/2 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Most flexible data collection method • Can investigate almost every demographic variable • Key source of data on special phenomenon, that are not given by census and VR • Surveys provide a basis for updating some census information Dec 2019 38
  39. 39. Examples of sample surveys Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • DHS program* – USAID • Developing countries • https://www.dhsprogram.com/ • World fertility surveys* Dec 2019 39
  40. 40. Merits and demerits of surveys Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Flexible method • Lower cost • Better quality statistical information • More feasible to engage better enumerators • Cannot replace complete counts • Sample surveys and census complementary to each other • Lower statistical precision compared to census • Possibility of errors if poorly conducted, false reporting Dec 2019 40
  41. 41. Sample surveys in KSA – 1/4 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh Earliest ones • 1991 – The Saudi Arabia Child Health Survey • 1993 – Reproductive Pattern and Child Survival • 1996 – Saudia Arabia Health Survey Dec 2019 41
  42. 42. Sample surveys in KSA – 2/4 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Statistical Yearbook* • https://www.stats.gov.sa/en/193 • Methodology of the yearbook* • https://www.stats.gov.sa/sites/default/files/uploads/ methodology_of_statistical_book_2018en.pdf Dec 2019 42
  43. 43. Sample surveys in KSA – 3/4 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Demographic survey* • https://www.stats.gov.sa/en/852 • Family health survey* • https://www.stats.gov.sa/en/965 • Population estimates* • https://www.stats.gov.sa/en/43 Dec 2019 43
  44. 44. Sample surveys in KSA – 4/4 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Economic surveys • Labour surveys • Household expenses surveys Dec 2019 44
  45. 45. Section 3: Other sources Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 45
  46. 46. Population registers Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Details about each individual are continuously recorded. • Scandinavian countries and some other European countries • Very good account of the contribution of migration in population change • Disadvantages - infringement on individual liberty Dec 2019 46
  47. 47. International organisations – 1/2 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • UN • https://population.un.org/wpp/Graphs/DemographicProfiles/ • Demographic Year Book • Population and Vital Statistics Report quarterly • Human Development Report* • World bank* • https://data.worldbank.org/country/saudi-arabia • World Development Report • WHO – Annual World Health Statistics* Dec 2019 47
  48. 48. International organisations – 2/2 Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • UNESCO - Statistical Year Book, education, literacy, school attendance • FAO - Production Year Book • ILO - Labor Statistics Year Book • CIA – World Fact Book* • Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) • Eurostat • United States Census Bureau International Data Base • Human Mortality Database Dec 2019 48
  49. 49. Local/national organisations Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Social security schemes like unemployment allowance, old age pension, maternity allowance • Insurance companies • Electoral lists • Telephone subscribe’s list • Tax payers’ list Dec 2019 49
  50. 50. Other types of data in KSA Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Statistics of government services • Hajj Statistics* • And many more by GASTAT* Dec 2019 50
  51. 51. Commercial/Private agencies Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Commonly government agencies are involved in generating demographic data • But private agencies also provide such data for market research purposes • https://www.euromonitor.com/saudi-arabia-in-2030-the- future-demographic/report* • https://www.globalmediainsight.com/blog/saudi-arabia- population-statistics-2018/ • http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/saudi- arabia-population/ • https://knoema.com/atlas/Saudi-Arabia • https://www.esri.com/data/esri_data Dec 2019 51
  52. 52. Purchasing power map Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 52
  53. 53. Section 4: Local context Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – RiyadhDec 2019 53
  54. 54. Challenges for KSA Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Environmental factors – high temperature, house-to-house survey • Desert environment • Mobile/nomadic population • Public acceptance for surveys • Importance given to privacy • High turnover of expat population • Illegal immigrants • Census not conducted periodically • Lack of experienced people • Cultural factors – male/female Dec 2019 54
  55. 55. Take home messages Demographic data sources SBPM, Joint Program – Riyadh • Census is the most important and comprehensive source of demographic data • Vital registration systems and surveys are complementary to census • All sources are essential for administration and research • You don’t ‘count’ if you don’t get ‘counted’ Dec 2019 55
  56. 56. Thank you! Email your queries to sarizwan1986@outlook.com Thanks a ‘7.746 billion’! Email your queries to rabdulkader@moh.gov.sa Dec 2019 56

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