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Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2021

  1. 1. Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2021 @risj_oxford | #DNR21 You are welcome to use the data and slides in this report for any purpose (commercial or non-commercial) in return for simple attribution under a Creative Commons license Please cite as: Newman, Nic, Richard Fletcher, Anne Schulz, Simge Andı, Craig T. Robertson, Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. 2021. Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2020. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.
  2. 2. 92,000 respondents 46 Markets 1 2 4 5 3 Continents 6 Including India, Indonesia, Thailand, Nigeria, Colombia and Peru for the first time Now representing half the world’s population 6
  3. 3. Online poll conducted between January to early February 2021 Market Sample Size Population Internet Penetration Europe UK 2,039 67m 95% Austria 2,000 9.0m 88% Belgium 2,008 11.6m 94% Bulgaria 2,018 7.0m 67% Croatia 2,008 4.1m 92% Czech Republic 2,007 10.6m 88% Denmark 2,005 5.8m 98% Finland 2,009 5.6m 94% France 2,012 65m 92% Germany 2,011 82m 96% Greece 2,017 11.1m 73% Hungary 2,032 9.7m 89% Ireland 2,031 4.8m 92% Italy 2,010 59m 93% Netherlands 2,006 17m 96% Norway 2,010 5.4m 98% Market Sample Size Population Internet Penetration Poland 2,009 38m 78% Portugal 2,101 10.2m 78% Romania 2,010 19m 74% Slovakia 2,024 5.5m 85% Spain 2,019 46m 93% Sweden 2,005 10.1m 96% Switzerland 2,000 8.6m 94% Turkey 2,022 83m 83% Americas USA 2,001 327m 96% Argentina 2,007 45m 93% Brazil 2,009 211m 71% Canada 2,036 37m 90% Chile 2,009 18m 78% Colombia 2,046 49m 63% Mexico 2,036 131m 65% Peru 2,010 33m 68% Market Sample Size Population Internet Penetration Asia Pacific Australia 2,034 26m 84% Hong Kong 1,501 7.6m 89% India 2,049 1393m 54% Indonesia 2,007 276m 71% Japan 2,004 126m 95% Malaysia 2,019 33m 89% Philippines 2,029 111m 78% Singapore 2,034 5.9m 88% South Korea 2,006 51m 96% Taiwan 2,042 24m 92% Thailand 2,015 70m 82% Africa Kenya 2,005 55m 85% Nigeria 2,051 211m 73% South Africa 2,009 60m 58% Polling by Supported by 3
  4. 4. Lockdown impact @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  5. 5. 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 1 2 3 4 5 6 Coronavirus % using TV news weekly, 2016-21: 5 2021 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Germany 69% Ireland 68% France 68% Denmark 67% Spain 64% Norway 63% UK 60% TV news retains viewers as the crisis continues 79% 78% 73% 70% 72% 74% Q3. Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news? Base: Total 2016–21 samples in each market (most n ≈ 2000).
  6. 6. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 1 2 3 4 5 6 Coronavirus % using print weekly, 2016-21: 2021 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Switzerland 37% Portugal 27% Germany 26% Poland 17% Brazil 12% 63% 47% 32% 38% 40% Accelerated decline for print Q3. Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news? Base: Total 2016–21 samples in each market (most n ≈ 2000).
  7. 7. 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% +10pp +0pp -5pp +5pp % of that trust 2021 Trusted brands still doing better online a year on… Change in online reach, 2020-21: SRF [Switzerland] VG [Nor] Irish Times [IRL] Yle [Fin] Observador [PRT] Higher trust: often public broadcasters or commercial brands with long history of accurate news Lower trust: often popular brands or those with partisan reputation
  8. 8. Overall trust in news is up– reversing recent declines 8 Proportion that trusts most news most of the time is up six percentage points while trust in distributed environments stays at similar levels to last year Q6_1/2/3/4. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements: I think you can trust the news/news I use/news in social media/news in search most of the time. Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  9. 9. 9 Proportion that trusts the news by country/region Q6_1/2/3/4. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statement I think you can trust the news/most of the time. Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  10. 10. Misinformation @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  11. 11. More people say they have seen misinformation about COVID-19 than about politics Much higher levels in Africa and Latin America than in Europe: 54% say they have seen misinformation about COVID-19 29% say they have seen misinformation about celebrities 20% say they have seen misinformation about climate change 43% say they have seen misinformation about politics
  12. 12. Politicians are seen as a big part of the problem Higher in countries where COVID-19 has become highly politicised such as Brazil % that find each most concerning – all markets: 29% Most concerned about behaviour of politicians 15% Most concerned about behaviour of activists 11% Most concerned about behaviour of journalists 9% Most concerned about behaviour of foreign governments 16% Most concerned about behaviour of ordinary people 41% in Brazil, but just 19% in Germany and 10% in Norway
  13. 13. False & misleading misinformation is spreading through different platforms Can be harder to spot and debunk in messaging apps like WhatsApp % that find each most concerning – selected markets: 13 Q_FAKE_NEWS_2021c. Thinking specifically about coronavirus (COVID-19) and its effects, which of the following, if any, are you most concerned about online? False or misleading information via… Base: Total sample in all markets = 93,372
  14. 14. Paying for news @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  15. 15. 🇳🇴 🇸🇪 🇫🇮 🇩🇰 Proportion paying for any online news in the last year subscription, membership, donation or one-off for an article or e-edition 15 XX 28% Average in Nordic countries pay (+2) 21% USA was 9% in 2016 17% Netherlands (+3) NORWAY 45% (+3) SWEDEN 30% (+3) FINLAND 20% DENMARK 16% BUT LITTLE PROGRESS ELSEWHERE 🇫🇷 France 11%, 🇩🇪 Germany 9%, 🇬🇧 UK 8% Q7a. Have you paid for ONLINE news content, or accessed a paid for ONLINE news service in the last year ? (This could be a digital subscription, combined digital/print subscription or one off payment for an article or app or e-edition) Base: Total sample in each market
  16. 16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Growth of online payment over time (2016-21) Most success in a handful of richer countries 16 XX 2021 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Norway 45% Sweden 30% United States 21% France 11% UK 8% Netherlands 17% Coronavirus bumps in some countries More/tighter paywalls 27% 20% 9% 12% 11% 7% Trump bump Swedish Elections Q7a. Have you paid for ONLINE news content, or accessed a paid for ONLINE news service in the last year? (This could be a digital subscription, combined digital/print subscription or one-off payment for an article or app or e-edition). Base: Total 2016-21 samples in each market (most n ≈ 2000). Note: 20 market average includes USA, UK Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Canada, Australia, Japan, Poland.
  17. 17. 31% 24% 7% New York Times Washington Post Wall Street Journal Quality national titles still benefitting most… 20% 19% 16% The Telegraph The Times The Guardian United States Norway 19% 16% 13% VG (Verdens Gang) Aftenposten Dagbladet 23% Local, regional, and city papers/websites 57% Local, regional, and city papers/websites 3% Local, regional, and city papers/websites 45% of subscribers United Kingdom 52% of subscribers 41% of subscribers Winner takes most dynamics persisting but local subscription is important in some countries Q7_subs_name. You said you have paid a subscription/membership to one or more digital news services in the last year… Please enter the name of the news subscription you value most, followed by your supplementary subscriptions? Base: All that paid for a subscription/membership to a digital news service in the last year: Norway = 656; USA = 336; UK = 125.
  18. 18. Quality national titles still benefitting most… 18 XX Example of national titles Median number of subscriptions Ave age subscriber (ongoing payment) % of subscribers paying for local titles Australia Sydney Morning Herald, Herald Sun 1 50-55 30% Austria Kronen Zeitung, Der Standard 1 45-50 13% Canada Globe & Mail, Toronto Star 1 50-55 9% Denmark Berlingske, Politiken 1 55-60 25% France Le Monde, Mediapart 1 45-50 15% Finland Helsingin Sanomat, Aamulehti 1 45-50 31% Germany Bild, Der Spiegel 1 45-50 31% Ireland Irish Times, Irish Independent 1 40-45 1% Italy Corriere della Serra, La Repubblica 1 50-55 14% Netherlands De Telegraaf, AD, Volkskrant 1 45-50 16% Norway VG, Aftenposten, Dagbladet 1 50-55 57% Sweden Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter 1 50-55 37% Spain El Pais, El Mundo, elDiario.es 1 40-45 15% United States New York Times, Washington Post 2 50-55 23% United Kingdom Times, Telegraph, Guardian 1 50-55 3%
  19. 19. Why are people taking out more than one subscription? 19 VALUES BASED “I believe strongly and profoundly in the value of fact- based, investigative journalism. If I want to live in a free and democratic society, I believe it is my duty as a citizen to support a free, independent, and fact-based press and media” Subscribes to nine publications including New York Times, W Post, Indy Star, Economist, Wall Street Journal, ProPublica, NY review of Books, New Yorker and Guardian (R-W) M, 54, USA SPECIAL OFFERS “I got an offer for Aftonbladet + for SEK 1 – I took it (on top of local paper) F, 45 Sweden DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES “Each provides a different perspective about different topics and fills different needs. They tend to provide accurate or alternative viewpoints” Wall Street Journal, The Athletic (Sport), National Review (conservative opinion magazine/website) M, 52, USA BREADTH AND DEPTH “Apple News+ provides the greatest breadth of information. New York Times and Washington Post offer the most in-depth information” M, 62, USA
  20. 20. How fair is the news? @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  21. 21. -37 -59 -1 -25 31 -4 16 -2 24 17 -8 -12 Perceptions of fairness by politics Those on the political right feel the news media is unfair to them. In Spain and the UK criticism of the media also comes from the left. Spain UK USA Germany Left Centre Right 0 -60 40 60 20 -40 -20 Net: Fair Net: Unfair Q1F. Some people talk about ‘left’, ‘right’, and ‘centre’ to describe parties and politicians. With this in mind, where would you place yourself on the following scale? Div2_2021_1. Thinking about the news in general in your country, do you think that news organisations in your country cover each of the following fairly or unfairly? Base: Left/Centre/Right: Germany = 265/1443/125, USA = 429/809/446, UK = 358/1010/254, Spain = 530/916/214.
  22. 22. -20 8 -18 6 9 22 29 35 Perceptions of fairness amongst the young Young people in general and young women in particular are most likely to feel media coverage is unfair 18-24s: Germany USA UK Spain Male Female 0 -60 40 60 20 -40 -20 Net: Fair Net: Unfair Div2_2021_3. Thinking about the news in general in your country, do you think that news organisations in your country cover each of the following fairly or unfairly? Base: Male/Female: Germany = 101/93, USA = 114/101, UK = 88/117, Spain = 65/87.
  23. 23. Perceptions of fairness by region 23 USA By race/ethnicity
  24. 24. Impartiality @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  25. 25. Across all countries, audiences still want a range of views 25 XX 12% 15% 74% Don't know News outlets should argue for the views that they think are the best News outlets should reflect a range of different views and leave it up to people to decide With subjects like politics and COVID-19 – it is really important to remain neutral and allow the reader or listener or the watcher to make their decisions on their own about how they feel about something” F, 21, UK focus group “ Still a strong commitment to ideal of impartial and objective news Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/2_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view? Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  26. 26. 10% 24% 66% Don't know There are some issues where it makes no sense for news outlets to try to be neutral News outlets should try to be neutral on every issue But there are some issues where it is hard to be neutral 26 “ “ U35 35+ 31% 22% It’s OK to lean to another side on [a subject] like domestic abuse and [for a journalist] to express an opinion on that” F, UK focus group Younger groups are more likely to want news organisations to take a stand on some issues Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/2_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view? Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  27. 27. Left-leaning people are more likely to say neutrality sometimes doesn't make sense 27 “ Those on the right are more strongly wedded to neutrality Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/2_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view? Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  28. 28. 11% 17% 72% Don't know News outlets should give less time to sides they think have a weaker argument News outlets should give equal time to all sides Commitment to equal time to all sides of an argument 28 XX “ These [anti-vaccination] opinions exist, so we have to see them … Do not just sweep it under the table and then suddenly be surprised that something exists” F, Germany focus group Public has a strong preference to allow all views to be heard but those on the left (and young) more likely to want to close down some debates LEFT RIGHT 22% 15% Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/3_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view? Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  29. 29. Gateways and social media @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  30. 30. 25% 26% 25% 9% 8% 5% 8% (+1) 7% (+1) 5% (-) 18% 34% 26% 8% 9% 3% How do people prefer to access news online? Each year, more say they people prefer to access news via search or social media 30 Direct Social Media Search Mobile Alerts Aggregators Email 80% (+1) side-door access 73% (+2) side-door access Direct Social Media Search Mobile Alerts Aggregators Email Under 35s – all countries All ages – all countries Q10a. Which of these was the **MAIN** way in which you came across news in the last week? Base: All/U35s that came across news online last week in all markets: 85,831/26,985.
  31. 31. Facebook becoming less important for news, visual networks like Instagram (and TikTok) on the rise % use each social network for news weekly (2014-21) 31 XX 2021 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 36% 16% 9% 7% 2% 2% 1% 1% 36% 20% 17% 11% 8% 2% 3% Q12B. Which, if any, of the following have you used for news in the last week? Base: Total 2014-21 sample in selected markets (most n ≈ 2000). Note: From 2015–21 the 12 countries included are UK, USA, Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Ireland, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Australia, and Brazil. In 2014, we did not poll in Australia or Ireland.
  32. 32. Profile of Tik Tok users… Younger, tend to be in global south 32
  33. 33. How people use different social networks for news @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  34. 34. 25% 16% 13% 11% 11% 13% 17% 16% 11% 10% 13% 9% 20% 11% 12% 12% 12% 16% 10% 21% 23% 30% 35% 16% 11% 13% 12% 11% 11% 9% 14% 17% 23% 18% 15% 32% 34 Q12_Social_motivations. You said that you use [social network] for news… What is the MAIN reason that you use [social network] for news? Base: All that use Twitter/Facebook/YouTube/Instagram/Snapchat/TikTok for news in all markets: 6,338/28,762/15,663/6,570/924/1,500. Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Twitter Facebook YouTube Instagram Snapchat TikTok Good place to get the very latest news Enjoy the debate and comments Gives me news that is personally important to me Perspectives not available in mainstream media Fun and entertaining way to pass the time I mostly see news while I’m there for other reasons Motivations around news are very different across networks Main motivation for each network when it comes to news
  35. 35. 31% 28% 25% 21% 17% 14% 11% 14% 16% 14% 13% 14% 18% 10% 12% 8% 7% 8% 18% 14% 24% 34% 35% 36% 16% 25% 15% 17% 20% 23% 6% 9% 9% 7% 8% 5% Where do we pay most attention when it comes to social platforms? Mainstream media and journalists often lead conversations in Twitter and Facebook but they struggle to get attention in newer networks. 35 Q12_Social_sources. You said that you use [social platform] for news… When it comes to news on [social platform] which of these do you generally pay most attention to? Base – all markets Twitter= 6,338, Facebook=28,766, YouTube=15,667, Instagram=6,571, Snapchat=925, TikTok=1,500 Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news outlets/mainstream journalists Smaller or alternative news sources Politicians/political activists Personalities (incl. celebrities and influencers) Ordinary people Other/none Twitter Facebook YouTube Instagram Snapchat TikTok
  36. 36. Local news @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  37. 37. Proportion that accessed selected local topics in the last week
  38. 38. Market-level community attachment by market-level average access rate across 15 local topics
  39. 39. Proportion that thinks each is the best source of news for different local topics – 38 markets
  40. 40. Proportion that thinks each is the best source of news for different local topics – Norway, Germany, USA
  41. 41. Proportion that thinks each is the best source of news for different local topics – Japan, UK, Chile
  42. 42. Financing of the Commercial News Media @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  43. 43. Low awareness about the problems of the news industry, little support for government help In 33 markets: 43 XX 53% are not concerned about financial state of commercial news media 27% would support government stepping in to help 31% are aware that news is less profitable these days
  44. 44. Proportion that thinks commercial news media have become more profitable in the last decade – 33 markets
  45. 45. Proportion concerned about the financial state of commercial news organisations by knowledge and interest – selected markets
  46. 46. Proportion that thinks the government should step in to help commercial news organisations that can’t make enough money on their own by concern– selected markets
  47. 47. Country and market data EUROPE @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  48. 48. United Kingdom – Changing media
  49. 49. United Kingdom – Trust
  50. 50. Austria – Changing media
  51. 51. Austria – Trust
  52. 52. RISJ Digital News Report 2020 55 Belgium – Weekly Reach (French)
  53. 53. Belgium – Changing Media
  54. 54. Belgium – Trust
  55. 55. Bulgaria – Changing media
  56. 56. Bulgaria – Trust
  57. 57. Croatia – Changing media
  58. 58. Croatia – Trust
  59. 59. Czech Republic – Changing media
  60. 60. Czech Republic-Trust
  61. 61. Denmark – Changing media
  62. 62. Denmark - Trust
  63. 63. Finland – Changing media
  64. 64. Finland – Trust
  65. 65. France – Changing media
  66. 66. France – Trust
  67. 67. Germany – Changing media
  68. 68. Germany – Trust
  69. 69. Greece – Changing media
  70. 70. Greece – Trust
  71. 71. Hungary – Changing media
  72. 72. Hungary – Trust
  73. 73. Ireland – Changing media
  74. 74. Ireland – Trust
  75. 75. Italy – Changing media
  76. 76. Italy – Trust
  77. 77. Netherlands – Changing media
  78. 78. Netherlands – Trust
  79. 79. Norway – Changing media
  80. 80. Norway – Trust
  81. 81. Poland – Changing media
  82. 82. Poland – Trust
  83. 83. Portugal – Changing media
  84. 84. Portugal – Trust
  85. 85. Romania – Changing media
  86. 86. Romania – Trust
  87. 87. Slovakia – Changing media
  88. 88. Slovakia – Trust
  89. 89. Spain – Changing media
  90. 90. Spain – Trust
  91. 91. Sweden – Changing media
  92. 92. Sweden – Trust
  93. 93. Switzerland – Weekly Reach (French)
  94. 94. Switzerland – Changing media
  95. 95. Switzerland – Trust
  96. 96. RISJ Digital News Report 2021 119
  97. 97. 120 Turkey – Changing media
  98. 98. RISJ Digital News Report 2020 121 Turkey – Trust
  99. 99. Country and market data AMERICAS @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  100. 100. United States – Changing media
  101. 101. United States – Trust
  102. 102. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  103. 103. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Argentina – Changing media
  104. 104. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Argentina – Trust
  105. 105. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  106. 106. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Brazil – Changing media
  107. 107. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Brazil – Trust
  108. 108. Canada – Weekly Reach (French)
  109. 109. Canada – Changing media
  110. 110. Canada – Trust
  111. 111. Chile – Changing media
  112. 112. Chile – Trust
  113. 113. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  114. 114. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Colombia – Changing media
  115. 115. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Colombia – Trust
  116. 116. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  117. 117. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Mexico – Changing media
  118. 118. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Mexico – Trust
  119. 119. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  120. 120. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Peru – Changing media
  121. 121. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Peru – Trust
  122. 122. Country and market data ASIA PACIFIC @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  123. 123. Australia – Changing media
  124. 124. Australia – Trust
  125. 125. Hong Kong – Changing media
  126. 126. Hong Kong – Trust
  127. 127. These data are based on a survey of mainly English-speaking, online news users in India – a small subset of a larger, more diverse, media market. Respondents are generally more affluent, younger, have higher levels of formal education, and are more likely to live in cities than the wider Indian population. Findings should not be taken to be nationally representative.
  128. 128. India – Changing media These data are based on a survey of mainly English-speaking, online news users in India – a small subset of a larger, more diverse, media market. Respondents are generally more affluent, younger, have higher levels of formal education, and are more likely to live in cities than the wider Indian population. Findings should not be taken to be nationally representative.
  129. 129. India – Trust These data are based on a survey of mainly English-speaking, online news users in India – a small subset of a larger, more diverse, media market. Respondents are generally more affluent, younger, have higher levels of formal education, and are more likely to live in cities than the wider Indian population. Findings should not be taken to be nationally representative.
  130. 130. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  131. 131. Indonesia – Changing media
  132. 132. Indonesia – Trust
  133. 133. Japan – Changing media
  134. 134. Japan – Trust
  135. 135. Malaysia – Changing media
  136. 136. Malaysia – Trust
  137. 137. Philippines – Changing media
  138. 138. Philippines – Trust
  139. 139. Singapore – Changing media
  140. 140. Singapore – Trust
  141. 141. South Korea – Changing media
  142. 142. South Korea – Trust
  143. 143. Taiwan – Changing media
  144. 144. Taiwan – Trust
  145. 145. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  146. 146. Thailand – Changing media
  147. 147. Thailand – Trust
  148. 148. Country and market data AFRICA @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  149. 149. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  150. 150. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Kenya – Changing media
  151. 151. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Kenya - Trust
  152. 152. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  153. 153. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Nigeria – Changing media
  154. 154. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Nigeria - Trust
  155. 155. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  156. 156. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users South Africa – Changing media
  157. 157. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users South Africa – Trust
  158. 158. Access or download the full report https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk @risj_oxford | #DNR21

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