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Digital News Report 2019

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These slides are from the Reuters Institute's Digital News Report 2019, a worldwide survey of 75,000 news consumers from 38 countries worldwide.

Published in: News & Politics
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Digital News Report 2019

  1. 1. @risj_oxford | #DNR19 Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2019
  2. 2. World’s biggest ongoing news survey - 2019 75,000 respondents 38 Markets 2 6 6
  3. 3. Methodology RESEARCH CONDUCTED ONLINE IN JANUARY/EARLY FEBRUARY 2019 3 Country Sample Size Internet penetration USA 2012 96% UK 2134 95% Germany 2066 96% France 2106 93% Italy 2042 92% Spain 2087 93% Portugal 2072 78% Ireland 2096 93% Norway 2055 99% Sweden 2030 97% Finland 2039 94% Denmark 2063 97% Country Sample Size Internet penetration Belgium 2075 94% Netherlands 2154 96% Switzerland 2059 91% Austria 2050 88% Hungary 2058 89% Slovakia 2101 85% Czech Republic 2047 88% Poland 2035 78% Romania 2051 74% Bulgaria* 2041 66% Croatia 2043 91% Greece 2052 70% Turkey* 2019 68% Country Sample Size Internet penetration Japan 2017 93% Korea, South 2035 93% Taiwan 1005 88% Hong Kong 2056 87% Malaysia* 2101 78% Singapore 2033 84% Australia 2010 88% Canada 2055 90% Brazil* 2013 71% Argentina 2006 93% Chile 2004 78% Mexico* 2015 65% South Africa* 2085 54% Polling by Supported by
  4. 4. Key findings More people are paying for online news (in some countries) but the limits of subscription are becoming clear Many say they are relying more on reputable brands and less time with ‘less accurate’ brands than this time last year Despite this, trust in the news continues to fall, with people people complaining about news overload and negativity People in most countries are spending less time on Facebook and more time with Instagram and WhatsApp Podcasts (and news podcasts) are striking a real chord with consumers – especially the young
  5. 5. @risj_oxford Paying for news
  6. 6. “ I now realize that good journalism requires money. If I keep relying only on free news stories, the quality of journalism I get will be dumbed down and made much worse” M, 52, USA Some people are now paying for news 6 PEOPLE ARE REALISING THAT QUALITY COSTS 23%Average in Nordic countries pay 16%Now pay for online news in the US 9%In the UK But only NORDIC COUNTRIES LEAD THE WORLD Q7a. Have you paid for ONLINE news content, or accessed a paid for ONLINE news service in the last year ? (This could be a digital subscription, combined digital/print subscription or one off payment for an article or app or e-edition)
  7. 7. With the exception of the US & Nordics the proportion paying for news remains flat 7 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 USA UK Germany France Spain Trump bump Maintained
  8. 8. 8 Winner takes all environment? HALF OF US SUBSCRIPTIONS GOING TO 3 PUBLICATIONS … EVERYONE CHASING SAME GROUP OF EDUCATED, RICHER, INTERESTED IN NEWS
  9. 9. 9 Proportion of digital-only subscribers – selected markets
  10. 10. 10 Average (median) number of subscriptions is ONE Q7a. Have you paid for ONLINE news content, or accessed a paid for ONLINE news service in the last year ? (This could be a digital subscription, combined digital/print subscription or one off payment for an article or app or e-edition) Base: All markets 2019 – USA: 2012; UK: 2023; Germany: 2022; France: 2005; Spain: 2005; Japan: 2017 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 1 2 3 4 5 Number of subscriptions/donations per person UK Includes all payments • Donations • Bundles • Those paid for by businesses
  11. 11. 11 Average (median) number of subscriptions is ONE – Germany
  12. 12. 12 News is competing on value with other options …. 15%If you could only have one subscription next year? Netflix etc Spotify etcSpotify etc Netflix etc Spotify etc Netflix etc Spotify etc
  13. 13. 13 Consumers don’t always like this interruption …. “I prefer it if they flag premium/paid-for content up before they make me click any links to content” (M, 50) “It is an understandable way to raise revenue but I prefer the Guardian model, which doesn't limit access to just those who can afford it.” (F, 43) “I do not always agree with it as I believe we should all have access to news for free..” (F, 26) Barriers to content are growing ….
  14. 14. 14 Proportion that say they see a paywall less than once a week – selected markets
  15. 15. @risj_oxford Gateways to news
  16. 16. 16 Main gateways to news : Four models of online access
  17. 17. 17 Relationship between preference for direct news access and digital news subscriptions
  18. 18. 18 Proportion that used a newsletter/mobile alert in the last week (2014-19) – selected countries
  19. 19. @risj_oxford First contact with the news
  20. 20. 20 Proportion that used each for first contact with news (2016 and 2019) – UK and USA
  21. 21. 43% 34% 11% 3% 2% News website or app Social media Homescreen links Email Aggregator Other/Don't know Q9d You mentioned that your FIRST contact with news in the morning is using smartphone, in which ONE of the following places do you typically find your first news? Base: All using internet via smartphone first thing for news UK: 516 ; USA: 460 In the UK Almost half go first to a news app 20% 43% 10% 8% 11% News website or app Social media Homescreen links Email Aggregator Other/Don't know In the US social is the first destination for most Facebook 17% Twitter 11% Instagram 3% Facebook 25% Twitter 11% Instagram 2% Where do people first find news on smartphone?
  22. 22. 22 Proportion of smartphone-first users that used each for first contact with news
  23. 23. @risj_oxford Smartphone rise
  24. 24. SPAIN UK 24 FRANCE GERMANY USA access news via smartphone across all 38 countries 66% 64% 57% 59% 56% +4 8b Which, if any, of the following devices have you used to access news in the last week? Base: Total sample in each market 15% 25% 35% 45% 55% 65% 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 63% Weekly smartphone usage for news 2013-19 selected countries
  25. 25. 25 Main device for news (2013-19) - UK
  26. 26. @risj_oxford News aggregators
  27. 27. 27 Proportion that used each news aggregator in the last week (2017 and 2019) – Selected Regions
  28. 28. 28 Proportion that used Apple News in the last week, 2016-19 – US / UK
  29. 29. @risj_oxford Social media and the move to messaging
  30. 30. Pivot to private and ephemeral messaging 8% Q12a/b. Which, if any, of the following have you used for any purpose/for news in the last week? Base: ‘Main’ 12 market average: UK, USA, Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Ireland, Denmark, Finland, Australia, Brazil & Japan (10 market average for 2014 exl Australia & Ireland) 36% 16% 9% 10% 3% 64% 45% 32% 37% 21% 12% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Weekly use for news 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Facebook algorithm changes Weekly use for any purpose Facebook and Twitter are flat. Attention and time is shifting to newer networks
  31. 31. Net difference in time spent with each social network in last year - UK 31
  32. 32. Proportion of Facebook and Whatsapp users that used each type of group in the past month – selected markets 32
  33. 33. Proportion that used Instagram and Snapchat for news – Selected Markets 33
  34. 34. 34 Q12B. Which, if any, of the following have you used for news in the last week? Showing WhastApp code Base: Total sample in each country. *India poll conducted Jan 2019 with English-speaking, online news users in India – a small (but important) subset of a larger, more diverse, and very complex Indian media market WhatsApp for news Brazil 53% (+5) India 52% Malaysia 50% WhatsApp Groups used very differently in Brazil, Malaysia, Turkey. More likely to be big groups with people don’t know With greater potential for misinformation Proportion that used Instagram and Snapchat for news – Selected Markets (DNR 2019 + India)
  35. 35. 35 Proportion of Facebook and WhatsApp users that are members of each group
  36. 36. 36 Proportion that trusts most news from social media most of the time
  37. 37. @risj_oxford Trust in news
  38. 38. 38 Proportion that trusts most news most of the time
  39. 39. 39 Proportion that trusts most news most of the time
  40. 40. 40 Proportion that trusts most news most of the time over time – USA and UK
  41. 41. 41 Proportion concerned about what is real and what is fake on the internet when it comes to news – All Markets
  42. 42. @risj_oxford Digital literacy
  43. 43. 43 Proportion that say they have changed online habits in the last year – All Markets
  44. 44. 44 Proportion that say they have changed online habits in the last year – Selected Markets
  45. 45. @risj_oxford Alternative and partisan websites
  46. 46. 46 Proportion that have heard/used each in the last week
  47. 47. 47 Proportion that have heard/used each in the last week
  48. 48. 48 Proportion that have heard/used each in the last week
  49. 49. @risj_oxford Populism and the media
  50. 50. 50 Proportion with populist attitudes – selected markets
  51. 51. 51 Main source of news by populist attitudes – USA
  52. 52. 52 Main gateway to online news by attitudes – Europe and USA
  53. 53. 53 Proportion that use each social network for news by attitudes – Europe and USA
  54. 54. 54 Proportion that interact with news on social media by attitudes – Europe and USA
  55. 55. 55 Proportion that use each outlet for news by attitudes – UK
  56. 56. 56 Cross-platform audience map - UK
  57. 57. 57 Cross-platform audience map - USA
  58. 58. 58 Cross-platform audience map - Germany
  59. 59. 59 Cross-platform audience map - Germany
  60. 60. 60 Cross-platform audience map - Sweden
  61. 61. 61 Cross-platform audience map - Spain
  62. 62. 62 Cross-platform audience map - France
  63. 63. 63 Cross-platform audience map - Italy
  64. 64. @risj_oxford Attitudes towards the news media
  65. 65. 65 Proportion that agreed with each attitude towards the news – All Markets
  66. 66. 66 Proportion that agreed with each attitude towards the news – Selected Markets
  67. 67. 67 Proportion that agreed with each attitude towards the news – Selected Markets
  68. 68. 68 Proportion that agreed with each attitude towards the news – Selected Markets
  69. 69. 69 Proportion that agreed with each attitude towards the news – Selected Markets
  70. 70. 70 Proportion that trusts news by attitudes towards the news – All Markets
  71. 71. 71 Proportion that paid for online news in the last year by attitudes towards the news – All Markets
  72. 72. 72 Proportion that agrees that the news media monitor and scrutinise the powerful – All Markets
  73. 73. @risj_oxford Young people and the news
  74. 74. 74 Proportion that said each was their first contact with news in the morning by age - Selected Markets
  75. 75. 75 Proportion that uses each during first contact with news in the morning via smartphone by age – Selected Markets
  76. 76. 76 Proportion that used each social network for news in the last week – All Markets
  77. 77. 77 Proportion that prefers text over video by age – All Markets
  78. 78. @risj_oxford Podcasts and audio
  79. 79. 79 Proportion that used a podcast in the last month
  80. 80. 80 Proportion that used a podcast in the last month – by age
  81. 81. 81 Proportion that used each device to listen to podcasts – UK
  82. 82. 82 Proportion that used a podcast in each location by age – Selected Markets
  83. 83. 83 Proportion that used a podcast via private/public transport in the last month – Selected Markets
  84. 84. 84 Main reasons for listening to podcasts by age – UK
  85. 85. 85 Proportion that used each podcast genre in the last month – All Markets
  86. 86. 86 Proportion that used a smart speaker for any purpose/for news in the last week – Selected Markets
  87. 87. 87 Proportion of smart speaker owners that use each device – USA
  88. 88. @risj_oxford News avoidance
  89. 89. 89 Proportion that often or sometimes actively avoids the news – All markets
  90. 90. 90 Reasons for avoiding news - UK
  91. 91. 91 Reasons for avoiding news among leave and remain voters - UK
  92. 92. @risj_oxford | #DNR19 Key data by country
  93. 93. 93 UK: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  94. 94. 94 UK:SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  95. 95. 95 UK: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  96. 96. 96 AUSTRIA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  97. 97. 97 AUSTRIA:SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  98. 98. 98 AUSTRIA: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  99. 99. 99 BELGIUM: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  100. 100. 100 BELGIUM: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  101. 101. 101 BELGIUM: BRAND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  102. 102. 102 BELGIUM: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  103. 103. 103 BULGARIA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  104. 104. 104 BULGARIA: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  105. 105. 105 BULGARIA: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  106. 106. 106 CROATIA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  107. 107. 107 CROATIA: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  108. 108. 108 CROATIA: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  109. 109. 109 CZECH REPUBLIC: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  110. 110. 110 CZECH REPUBLIC: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  111. 111. 111 CZECH REPUBLIC: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  112. 112. 112 DENMARK: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  113. 113. 113 DENMARK: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  114. 114. 114 DENMARK: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  115. 115. 115 FINLAND: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  116. 116. 116 FINLAND: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  117. 117. 117 FINLAND: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  118. 118. 118 FRANCE: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  119. 119. 119 FRANCE: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  120. 120. 120 FRANCE: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  121. 121. 121 GERMANY: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  122. 122. 122 GERMANY: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  123. 123. 123 GERMANY: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  124. 124. 124 GREECE: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  125. 125. 125 GREECE: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  126. 126. 126 GREECE: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  127. 127. 127 HUNGARY: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  128. 128. 128 HUNGARY: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  129. 129. 129 HUNGARY: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  130. 130. 130 IRELAND: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  131. 131. 131 IRELAND: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  132. 132. 132 IRELAND: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  133. 133. 133 ITALY: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  134. 134. 134 ITALY: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  135. 135. 135 ITALY:PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  136. 136. 136 NETHERLANDS: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  137. 137. 137 NETHERLANDS: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  138. 138. 138 NETHERLANDS: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  139. 139. 139 NORWAY: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  140. 140. 140 NORWAY: SOURCES DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  141. 141. 141 NORWAY: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  142. 142. 142 POLAND: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  143. 143. 143 POLAND: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  144. 144. 144 POLAND: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  145. 145. 145 PORTUGAL: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  146. 146. 146 PORTUGAL: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  147. 147. 147 PORTUGAL: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  148. 148. 148 ROMANIA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  149. 149. 149 ROMANIA: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  150. 150. 150 ROMANIA: PAY AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  151. 151. 151 SLOVAKIA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  152. 152. 152 SLOVAKIA: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  153. 153. 153 SLOVAKIA: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  154. 154. 154 SPAIN: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  155. 155. 155 SPAIN: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  156. 156. 156 SPAIN: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  157. 157. 157 SWEDEN: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  158. 158. 158 SWEDEN: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  159. 159. 159 SWEDEN: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  160. 160. 160 SWITZERLAND: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  161. 161. 161 SWITZERLAND: TRUST, SOURCES AND DEVICES RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  162. 162. 162 SWITZERLAND: BRAND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  163. 163. 163 SWITZERLAND: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  164. 164. 164 TURKEY: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  165. 165. 165 TURKEY: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  166. 166. 166 TURKEY: PAY AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  167. 167. 167 USA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  168. 168. 168 USA: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  169. 169. 169 USA: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  170. 170. 170 ARGENTINA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  171. 171. 171 ARGENTINA: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  172. 172. 172 ARGENTINA: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  173. 173. 173 BRAZIL: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  174. 174. 174 BRAZIL: TRUST, SOURCES & DEVICES RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  175. 175. 175 BRAZIL: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  176. 176. 176 CANADA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  177. 177. 177 CANADA: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  178. 178. 178 CANADA: BRAND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  179. 179. 179 CANADA: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  180. 180. 180 CHILE: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  181. 181. 181 CHILE: TRUST, DEVICES AND SOURCES RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  182. 182. 182 CHILE: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  183. 183. 183 MEXICO: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  184. 184. 184 MEXICO: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  185. 185. 185 MEXICO: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  186. 186. 186 AUSTRALIA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  187. 187. 187 AUSTRALIA: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  188. 188. 188 AUSTRALIA: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  189. 189. 189 HONG KONG: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  190. 190. 190 HONG KONG: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  191. 191. 191 HONG KONG: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  192. 192. 192 JAPAN: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  193. 193. 193 JAPAN: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  194. 194. 194 JAPAN: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  195. 195. 195 MALAYSIA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  196. 196. 196 MALAYSIA: TRUST, SOURCES AND DEVICES RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  197. 197. 197 MALAYSIA: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  198. 198. 198 SINGAPORE: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
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  200. 200. 200 SINGAPORE: PAY, PODCASTS AND SOCIAL MEDIA RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  201. 201. 201 SOUTH KOREA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  202. 202. 202 SOUTH KOREA: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  203. 203. 203 SOUTH KOREA: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  204. 204. 204 TAIWAN: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  205. 205. 205 TAIWAN: SOURCES, DEVICES AND TRUST RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  206. 206. 206 TAIWAN: PAY, SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHARING RISJ Digital News Report 2019
  207. 207. More at : digitalnewsreport.org @risj_oxford | #DNR19 ReutersInstituteDigital NewsReport2019

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