EthosEthos is a discipline that examines one’s morality or the moral standardof the society. Ethics means expected standards in terms of yourpersonal and social welfare. It includes honesty, morality, responsibilityetc Needs of Indian ethos• Management attitude:Top management having firm belief in value oriented involving whole inthe management. Profit is earned through service and satisfaction of allstakeholders, employees, customers, shareholders, and citizen.Fulfillment of social responsibility.• Humanizing organization:Looking at the three aspects of humane organization ie., interpersonal relations, man machine equation where main in the primeconcern and inner management through mental and spiritual growth ofindividual.• Interiorizing (self) management:Self management are management by consciousness. When the soulmanages the other four members of the human being namely the body,mind, intellect and the heart, the conflict these four have amongst themcan be resolved. This management my consciousness. The objective ofself management is to first know and manage oneself and then manageothers.• Self introspection
Embark upon self study, self analysis and self criticism to locate areas offriction and disharmony, a self examination of one’s thought, feelings,emotions, sensation, passion and desire to reduce and subdue the ego• Brain stillingFor rational enduring decisions silent mind is a necessity. A perfectmounum (calm mind enjoying tranquility) is necessary. Brain stilling isthe most reliable method to discover solution to problems anddifficulties which seems to be difficult to tackled by reason and intellectbecause through this one can come into contact with the inner mind andhigh consciousness• Stepping backNever decide anything, never speak a word, and never throw yourselfinto action without stepping back. The stepping back from a situation forwhiles enable one to control and master a situation• Self dynamising meditationA dynamic meditation is meditation of transformation of lowerconsciousness into higher consciousness and hence called transformingmeditation. Through meditation in a silent and calm mind one canreaches a high level of consciousness which offer guidance in the formof institutions to tackle the multitude problem. This is calledconsciousness approach to management• Role of intuition (feeling)Intuition is the act of coming to direct knowledge or certainty withoutreasoning or inferring. It is immediate cognition by the inner mind andwhen fully developed is efficient and effective for taking prompt andsound decisions. Intuition skills enable one to cope with confidence the
fluctuating environment and rapid changes. Faith is Prerequisite todevelop and realize the power of intuition. Purpose of Indian ethos• To develop proper managementTo develop proper management system in the organization. Managementsystems based on principles as per ancient wisdom are of immense helpfor the smooth conduct of business. Value oriented management systemcan be established with the help of Indian ethos• To ensure all round developmentTo ensure all round development growth and prosperity i.e. .,productivity, marketing, profitability• Work sincerelyIndian ethos teaches us that if you work sincerely for the society, foryour organization and for the nature you will really enjoy your lifethrough money harmony, peace and happiness your image is bright• Productivity of human beingIndian wisdom indicates that productivity of human being is moreimportance than plant capacity Characteristics / Nature of values:1. Part of culture
Values are elements of culture and culture is the complex of values, ideas, attitudesand other meaningful symbols to shape human behavior in the society. Everysociety has its own culture and people in that society adhere to culturalrequirements.2. Learned responsesThe human beings live in society having certain cultural characteristics, whichprescribes them to behave in a particular way. Their behavior is represents a set ofstimuli to an individual and also a set of responses appropriate to those responsesor alternatively punished for not adopting or indirectly associated with otherstimulus situation that are rewarding. Thus through the learned experiences theindividuals are uncultured or socialized. Cultural items learned early in life tend toresist change more strongly than learned late in life3. InculcatedValues inculcated and are passed through generation to generation by specificgroups and institutions. Such transmission starts from the family from where thesocialization process starts. Apart from family, educational, religious and ethnicinstitutions also transmit cultural values from one generation to another4. Social phenomenonValues of social phenomenon. I.e. cultural habits are shared by aggregates ofpeople living in organized society. An individual ways of thinking and behaviorconstitutes culture. Group is developed and reinforced through social pressureupon those who are interacting with one another5. Gratifying responsesValues exist to meet the biological and other needs of the individuals in thesociety. Thus elements in the culture become extinguished when they no longer aregrafting to members of the society. The society rewards behaviors which aregrafting to members of the society. The society rewards behaviors which aregrafting for its members.6. Adapative process
Culture is adaptive either through a dialectical process or evolutionary process.Dialectical or sharply discontinuous change occurs when the value system a culturebecomes associated with gratification of only one group or class in theenvironment. In system and replace it with a new value system such as throughrevolution or other methods Qualities of values1. Fearlessness2. Courage3. Purity of mind and heart4. Integration of thoughts, action and behavior5. Straight forwardness6. Generosity7. Spirit of sacrifice for the sake of common goal8. Inspired ideals and vision9. Creativity10. Empathy, love and affection11. Patience12. Faith13. Friendship with all14. Calmness15. Control of mind and restraint on senses and passions16. Non violence (in ways of adopting collective bargaining)17. Non greediness
18. Firm but fair19. Charity (free health care centers, adult education etc)20. Harmlessness21. Modesty22. Gentleness, truthfulness, loyalty etc• Values for Indian managersThe managerial values are categorized in 3 parts in an organizationalenvironment1. Physical valuesAccuracyThe precesion, exactness and conforming to the fact in details of workCleanlinessIn offices, production and warehouses facilities, equipments, customerservice areas, raw material and finished product inventory, bathroomsand so on.Maximum utilization of resourcesThe desire and ability of the company to improve its performance by fullutilization of its current resources (time, money, equipment, material,space people etc)OrderlinessIn offices drawers file cabinets, shelves, paper work, files, phonenumbers, priority of work, daily and weekly plan
Punctuality and timelinessIn arriving on time work, from breaks, from lunch, to meetings, inreplying to letters and phone calls, in paying bills on time, etc. Occurringat the most suitable or opportune timeQuality of products and servicesIn terms of presentation, functionality, choice value, speed , timeliness,suitability, repeatability, life span, courtesy, friendliness etcRegularityOf meeting, reports, sales calls, performance reviews and so forthResponsivenessThe way people, the organization, systems etc react to a need comingfrom within or from outside the organizationSafetyIn office, warehouses, production and research facilities, vechiles foremployees, vendors and customers2. Organizational valuesAccountabilityOf individuals, department and division for performance, results,problems and so on.CommunicationsUp, down and sideways within the company, with customers andvendors, in terms of openness, frankness, clarity, frequency, accuracy,timeliness and brevity
CooperationAmong individuals, departments in terms of plans, activities and systemsCoordinationHorizontally between departments in terms of plans, activities andsystems. Discipline in adherence to company policy, rules, systems,procedures, schedules, standards, and ethics and so onFreedom for initiativeTo make suggestions, develop plans, make decisions, carry out ormodify actions and so on.IntegrationFor smooth operation vertically between different levels of theorganization in terms of plans, decisions, priorities.StandardizationIn terms of forms, files, procedures, reports, performance evaluations,equipment, training, recruitment, orientations, communications and soon.SystemizationIn sales, marketing, customer service accounting, research, production,engineering, recruitment, training, promotions, communications,coordination, reporting and so on.3. Psychological valuesContinuous improvementThe desire and ability of the company to develop and incorporate waysto improve itself
CreativityIn terms of new products, new ideas, new systems, new productionmethods, new applications of technology, new methods of financing,new marketing strategiesCustomer delightThe positive emotional response and joy that the customer feels frominteraction with our people and our products and servicesDecisivenessIn solving problems, planning, executing plans in terms of speed andcommitment to decisions once made.Develop peopleThe desire and ability of the company to improve the lot of theemployees working for itAgreementThe overall atmosphere and interaction between people, departments,divisions, systems, activities, rules, and policies within the company andbetween these elements and the external environment, customers,vendors, community laws and so onInnovationThe desire and ability of the company to venture into new, breakthroughareas of opportunityIntegrityKeeping to one’s word, promise, agreements being truthful, nondeceitful etc.with employees, customers, vendors, government etc
Respect for the individualIn establishing rules and policies, design of systems, making decisions,executing instructions and so on in terms of people’s health, safety, selfesteem, feelings and opinionsService to societyCommunity welfare, environmental protection, development of productsand services that meet real physical, social or psychological needs arethe primary activities of managers Values for managers in Indiaa) Core values of mangers in IndiaThere may be divergent values in tune with the nature and goals ofdifferent functional departments and also the overall organizationalculture. However there are some dominant values also known as corevalues that are considered as crucial by majority of managers• Integrity• Trust• Achievement motivation• Truthfulness• Humility and contentmentb) Personal traits of managers in IndiaPersonal traits are enduring characteristics of an individual by which he/she can be identified and also to a certain personal traits which make
him / her successful and efficient. The respondent executives indicatedthat the following are the dominant traits• Stability• Skill• Creativity• Achievement• FlexibilityC) Goals of a typical manager in IndiaValues of a manager will have a direct influence on the goal andobjective he sets. Personal goals of a manger may vary depending ongoals, culture and philosophy of the concerned organization.Nevertheless, each manager works with a certain aim and purpose in hismind. The following are the goals of a typical manger in India• Customer satisfaction• Achievement of department and organizational goals• Completion of tasks within scheduled time frame• Employee motivation• Career progressd) Important personal qualities of a managerManagers with limited abilities and skills with static values and goalsmay not be able to achieve success in all circumstances. Certain personalqualities (height, complexion, voice, dressing habits, gregariousness,versatility, etc.Should supplement and stand in good stead of anindividual supplement and stand in good stead of an individual to
accomplish all round success, The respondent executives reported thatthe following five qualities are important for a typical manager in Indiatoday• Self control• Articulation abilities• Sociability• Physical stature• Dresse) Private values for managersPrivate values of a manager refer to all those values which he holdswhile undertaking activities besides organizational responsibilities. If anindividual daily goes for a walk in the morning, it is a value and if he /she spend an hour every night helping the child doing the home workgives by the teachers at school. Therefore all the other roles that amanager has to play called private life values. All those who holdimportant position in organizational related activities. However there is asmall proportion of managerial workforce who ignores organizationalresponsibilities and work for the promotion of personal interest Elements of Indian ethos:
Indian management methods are bound to work in India. Indian ethos isbetter than other ethos present in other countries. Indian believe1. Ego sublimation rather than ego assertion2. Sacrificing spirit rather than fighting spirit3. Team achievement rather than individual achievement4. Spiritual attainment rather than material prosperity5. Self control rather than outside control6. Concept of duties rather than concept of rights7. Yielding rather than dominating8. Concern for this age world and improvement9. Respect for and search for all truth whatever be its source Work ethosWork ethos refers to certain norms of behavior governing the conduct ofworkers involved in workers involved in work situations to achievecertain desired objectives. In other words work culture is theinvolvement of workman with work.The degree of one’s involvement impacts his performance to give highor low productivity, high or low quality i.e. higher the degree ofinvolvement, higher well be the productivity and quality. Works ethos at different levels of management:Work ethos will be different at different levels. At Basic level
1. Discipline2. To maintain punctuality3. Coming to work on time4. Behaving properly with superior, colleagues and subordinates5. Not wasting time during working hours6. Dignity in relating to peers, semorn and subordinates7. To do things those are morally good or sight At Top levelAt the top level, it is about commitment and accountability feelresponsible for the task assigned to him. Some more points related to toplevel are1. Work cultureGood work culture means one is fully devoted towards work and hashigh morale. On the other hand, poor work culture results in high rate ofwastage, poor quality, low productivity and low morale2. LoyaltyWork culture is also concerned with a workers loyalty and sense ofbelongingness to the organization. One should protect the interest of theeorganization. No employee should make any adverse comments aboutthe organization in the public3. Commitment responsibilityEvery man should work like a master not like a slave. The workersshould take full responsibility for the task assigned to them and furthestefforts to achieve what is expected from them.
4. Sense of belongingnessThe worker should exhibit by his behavior a sense of belongingness ofthe organization. A feeling of respect should be there for theorganization. One should maintain good relationship with peers, subordinates and superiors and treat them well5. Protecting the interest of organization6. No adverse comment about the organization in public Dimensions of work ethos1. Rightful expectations• Work ethics refer to ethical attitude to work alone in context of employment• In any organization, efficient and diligent performance of duties assigned to the employees• This is rightful expectations and moral demand on the employees of the employer• An employer gives an opportunity, career and a status to an employee• The employee should give out his or her best to the organization. This is ethical demand of duty• Shrinkingwork,making excuse for poor performance, finding faults with organization etc are against the demand of work ethics• On the other hand in the same way employee also has rightful expectation from the employer
• It is regarding their service condition for career advancement and recognition and rewards for their work. So this called ethical employee employer relationship2. Sense of loyalty towards the organizationLoyalty means safe guarding and promoting the interest of theorganization. It requires a sense of devotion and allegiance beyond theroutine job requirement and duties. A loyal employee should notpromote those personal interests which are competing organization atthe cost of organization. He acts as a faithful agent promotingorganizational goals. Loyalty also means giving organizational needs ahigher priority over personal needs3. DisciplineEvery organization and work group have written or unwritten rules,norms and ways of working. The members or employees have to followthem. There is a hierarchy of power and authority at the work. Thepeople on lower level are expedited to follow orders, directions andsuggestions given by their superiors. Obeying the orders is part ofdiscipline. On the other hand there should be no harassing environmentfor lower level people. There should be mutual trust, respect andfriendly relations between each other. A good organization must provideappropriate channels for grievance redressal and for investigatingcomplaints against its higher level executives. The higher authorityshould know sense of responsibility. It should be utilized humbly forpromoting the goals of organization, to motivate and help subordinatesin their self growth and to provide imitative and leadership forcollective growth4. P’s of work ethicsWhenever an individual joins an organization he /she is under anobligation of job contract, which confers a right to be duly compensatedagainst what he is committed to perform. To fulfill his obligation and
committed he is expected to preserve certain degree of skills andattitudes such as regularity, punctuality, discipline, initiative etc. Allthese together combine an ethical value system which every employeemust follow however sometimes organizations atmosphere may bedifferent. Even then an individual is expected to be ethical at his ownlevel. Generally at work place, people are concerned for three factors or3p’s i.e. pay, prospects, promotion but one 4th P i.e. performance is themost important factor which determines the organizational as well aspersonal development. Model of management in the Indian social political environmentModels of managementI. The chakra borty ModelThe model bases itself on vedantic conceptsVedanta is a systematic and formulated knowledge life and living. Ithelps to gain the knowledge of your intrinsic self (fundamentals)According to chakra borty there are 4 goals human system1. Dharma (rectitude and righteousness) = (correctness and justice)2. Artha (money and wealth)3. Kama (desires and needs) = (needs and requirements)4. Moksha (Liberation of spiritual ones)= (freedom for religious)
Features of chakra borty• To aim and strive for a PURE MIND• Work must be done without personal claims to selfish results (reward) as the primary driving force. Desire less results must by primary objectiveWork = Desire less work (Nishkan karma)• Balance is the keynote of Indian thought. It tries to maintain balance between short term goals to material achievement and the ultimate divine protection.• Human personality compliesAn outer active, involved and dynamic self called PRAKRITIAn inner inactive witness and silent self called PURUSHATo have an in-depth awareness of the innerse self is crucial for effectiveself management• The reliability of a leader rests on the quality of impersonal love• The Indian thoughts take the individual as a contra focus. It I am good then the world is good.• No work is inferior or dreaming. Work is not any a means to gain name, fame or power but to purify our minds and ego and take is towards the attainment of heaven• Knowledge is Indian thought speaks of 2 fundamental concepts• CREATOR and CREATION. The Indian thought tries to seek knowledge about the creator rather the creation. The various yogic
process, social norm and values helps in transformation of minds to enable in establishing contact with the creator Thus the model aims in ethico- moral transformation of both the worker and the manger In chakra borty’s news all these features can be summed up in context to industry or business in the BUSINESS ASHRAM vision which is as follows• There should be a growing tendency towards products with longer life cycles as against the shorter one today• Organizations should tend to contract rather the expend as is the current tendency• Localized, decentralized economic activities should include faster than centralized one’s• The need for high speed, long distance continuous travel should gradually decline. Bicycles should again come• Employee relations should become more cooperative and less adversarial. Spirit of trusteeship should also be implied amongst owner/ top managers• Competitive advertising making customers a prey must be reduced• Business growth fuelled by greed and achieved through manipulations, financial mergers and heavy debit financing should be favored less.• The search for strategic advantage, strategic intent, strategic response or global market should be slowed down. Local resources for local markets to meet local needs should be the principal thrust.
• Mental Illnesses due to overconsumption outside and undernourishment within should destine• Loyalty and gratitude to organization and colleague should become important features of professionalism• Reduction in greed and interpersonal rivalry should give way to basic human values like SHARING and HUMILITY• Networking interpersonal or inter organizational should be highlighted than the self centered motive of survival• Decision should be based on basic values of spirituality, ethics and ecologically positive or negative• In education – realization and idealism should regain their lost importance as against the current trend of careerism• Technology should be accepted or rejected by the standards set out by the spiritualized human being• Alignment and empowerment of the individual will with the ultimate divine will would lead to error morally correct decisions• Finally the work place will tend to be transformed into a spiritual/ moral gymnasium. In this the income profit etc will be treated as a means of serving the basic physic economic needs of employees and societyChakra borty stated that his model is idealistic. The problems lies thatwhen the ideals are set too high, instead of acting as an incentive, tendsto act negatively as they cannot be attainable
The model also is silent about the visions and the objectives of anorganization which are central to ethical behaviors of a corporation andits managementII. The Jitatmananda ModelJitatmananda bases his model on the concept of practical Vedanta andparticularly swami VivekanandaThe model rests on a few essential credos1. The holistic paradigm (model) According to the holistic paradigm two truths revolutionaries the body of A respectful athitude of honesty, help, care and encouragement are not only the beet policy but only poling in management A worker can generate himself if empowerment, encourage trust faith and support are offered to him Thus holistic paradigm teachers A) Love begets love B) Hatred begets trust C) Trust begets trust D) Gratitude begets gratitude E) Respect begets respect F) Empowerment begets responsible productivity G) Meditation and spiritual practice provides guidance to corporate members
2. Creation of ethical leaders (I) whatever the excellent and best ones do the commonness follow (II) That leader is the best who has learnt the are of drawing different kinds of people towards him and extracting the best from each one according to his qualities and aptitude• Factors which helps the leader to attract workers are A) The workers must know that the leader sincerely feeds for them B) The workers must see that the leader himself lanes to share all the works that the workers do C) The workers must see that the leader practices what he preaches D) The leader must be pure in body and mind• The leader must lane the following essential qualities A) Evenness or equanimity of mind YOGA KARMA KAUSALAM YOGA is skill in action B) Capacity to face adverse situation with strength and calmness C) Learn to be the servant to be able to rule D) Ability to make the place of work a place of worship E) Ability of creating the environment of a corporate family3. Creation of selfWithin as the source of all power. Four ways to manifest self power areA) KnowledgeB) Devotion
C) Unselfish actionD) Meditation4. Creative leader must both visionary and missionaryTo create a leader of the highest creative power, four qualities arenecessarya) The yogi- a contemplative man the quintessential thinker, who is fond of research but finds it difficult execute his ideas into actionb) The doer- Who executive a plane or an idea efficiently obediently without questionc) A visionary – with the power to envisiond) The capability to transforms that vision and spiritual dynamism into others5. Company is a family- Vedic idea of a corporate culture Thus the jitatmananda model envisages the company culture to beentirely formulated around the leader manager’s culture. The role offounder entrepreneur or stockholder his object vision are absent from themodelIII. The sherlekar modelThe model is based on turn ideals:A)Human values – spiritual. Ethical and moralB) Holism – unity, oneness, cooperation and synthesisFor the development of his thoughts he depends upon certain Indianscriptures:
1. All work is an opportunity for doing good to the world and thus gaining materially and spiritually in on lives2. Worship people not only with the material things but also by showing respect to their ever present divinity within3. Strength and inspiration for excelling in work comes from the divine, god within through prayer, hold readings and unselfish work4. He who works with calm and even mind achieves the most5. As we think so we succeed so we become. Attention to means ensures the ends6. By mutual cooperation respect and fellow feeling all of us will enjoy the highest good both material and spiritual7. Infinite happiness and infinite peace come to them who see the divine in all beings8. Regal the other person as divine beingBased on these Indian scripture’s principles, sherlekar considers thefollowing basic principles of Indian ethos for management.A) Immense potential energy and talents for perfection as human being has the spirit within his heartB) Karma yoga offers double benefit of private benefit, self purification and public benefitC) Excellence at work through self motivation and self development is the best means of total quality managementD) Cooperation is powerful instrument for term work and success in any enterprise involving collective work
E) Inner qualities are much more powerful than the capital materials, plant and machinery which are outer resources• Delegation of authorityAlthough delegation of authority is a significant function of mgmt but itis nearly an informal activities. Excessive centralization is present in it.Subordinates are always or in most of the case unwilling to acceptresponsibility due to such condition decision are always centralized.• Trade union In Indian corporate sector trade union are always dealt as an enemy ofemployers. The trade union on their parts is always pressuring theemployees for the benefit of their member. Trade union are now just aformality and to enjoy political influences• Transfer policyIn Indian public sector there are rare transfer policies. Such policies exitonly on papers, transfer is basically done on the punishment, favoritismand recommendation. In private sector some transfer policy still exist butthat‘s to for top level employees• Performance appraisalIt means evaluation of performance of an employee. In Indianmanagement model there is no concrete appraisal system. Appraisal isnot done on the basis of actual performance• Customer’s grievancesIn practical situation such system seldom (rarely) used and grievance aredealt mostly on the basis of mutual settlement. But now days due to
excessive competitive atmosphere companies have started givingpreference to customer grievance• Planning:India has a well established planning commission under prime ministerwhich formulate five year plan. In private corporate sector an especiallya medium and small scale farms only short ranged planning is existence.India has hardly been able to achieved any five year plan objective ina successful manner due to lack of proper implementation ofprograms. Profit maximization is the sole consideration of businessorganization neglecting other aspect of planning• Recruitment and selectionIn public sector most of the recruitment and selection is done on thebasis of recommendation reference of present employees are givingthe priority providing less importance to the performance of the desiredcandidate• Human resources developmentNo proper policy of employee’s motivation and leadership exist inreality. Decision on promotion and tenure of service are based onrecommendation and reference rather than performance. An ambiguoushuman resources policy is a main cause of employed dissatisfaction• Training and developmentNo proper policy to determine the need of training and development.Expenses allocation for training is very less. No atmosphere to learn andunderstood the importance of the concept of training and development• Employer employee relationship
Relationship between employee and employer are not very cordial andcomfortable. Employer at lower level is given very low autonomy(power authority). They hardly participate in all management function;employees are threatened just as commodity or cost centres Managerial effectiveness under /EM (Indian ethos in management)The main job of management is not producing results. Workers are to produceresults; mangers produce performers. Top management is visionary. They plan 5 or10 years ahead and perform 2 duties1. To translate the vision or dream in terms of projects to be accomplished2. To develop performers who are self motivated. Workers job to produce resultsby executing the projectsS. Item Western management Management Based on IndianN ethosO1 Belief Production, productivity, profit at Material gain, with belief in any cost achieving human and social welfare also2 Guidance Management guided by mind Management by consciousness only, led away by ego and desire, power beyond mind, i.e., soul. soulless management Interiorized management3 Emphasis Worker development, Development of man, integrated management of others, profit growth, harmony, happiness and maximization. Human being health. Management of self given only lip sympathy4 Tools 5Ms as resources- men, money, Men, machines, materials and materials, machines, markets. methods as conscious partners- all
Science and technology having consciousness whether information for decision marking manifested or dormant. Information and intuition for decision. Ethics and values combined with skills5 Problem Conflict resolution by Conflict resolution through solving negotiation, compromise, integration and synthesis on arbitration, liquidation of stressing super ordinate common differences only for a temporary goals so that enduring harmony period. No reference to higher and unity is assured. Self consciousness introspection, stepping back aids the search for solution6 Decision Brain storming (round table Brain stilling(entering the room making approach) of timeless silence)7 Developm Physical, vital and mental only. Integrated development, whole ent Soul or spirit ignored. Material man approach, breath control and development only, even at the meditation emphasized. Human cost of man and nature enrichment and total quality8 Approach External behavior. Mental, Noble attitudes. Inner guidance, material, selfish only- soulless team spirit, total harmony, global good Features of Indian Ethos1. Divinity of a human being is not merely a notion but a truth which canbe experienced in the stillness of the mind.2. Balance is the keynote of Indian thought. We have synthesis, harmonyBetween the dual concepts. The Individual is the central focus.3. Devine element in the individual is only a portion of the universe ofthe Universal or cosmic consciousness.
4. Gives greater emphasis on values, human and ethical. Knowledge isnot Power. Indian ethos is based on Indian scripture. Indian thoughtsprovide Eternal knowledge5. All work is worthy and honorable.6. Emphasis on duties and responsibilities.7. Deals with two types of knowledge. a) Knowledge of creation b) Knowledge of creator The mindset of a manager: S.No According of current According to Indian ethos in management practices management 1 Produce results Produce performers 2 Organize men, materials, Mobilize men and sound out machines and money other readiness 3 Plan, set goals, prepare Obtain agreement and schedules, checklists commitment on means and ends 4 Motivate,praise,reprimand, Inspire, empower, celebrate punish, push people success, mourn failure, draw people 5 Check,control,report a command Set personal example, visible, post accessible, on the move 6 Coordinate, requisition, convene facilitate, show ways to overcome meetings 7 Instruct, issue notices, order, Make queries, sound out ideas, demand compliance encourage suggestions
Differences between ethics and ethos Differences between ethics and ethos Origin Ethics are derived from the shastras • Ethos are derived from culture Nature Universal • Culture – specific country or region Function Determines punya,paap,swarga, • Determines cultured or cultured narak conduct or misconduct behavior Examples Truth, non violence, donation, kindness • Welcome, pranam, respect to elders love to youngsters Indian heritage in business and managementIndia has a very rich cultural heritage .However it known to many thatIndia is not a developed country in terms of its economy and business.• Indian business in the past:In the olden days Indian economy was totally based on agriculture.People used to produce whatever they required for their selfconsumption. People began to specialize in producing different items ofluxury and daily use and did not have skills and time left for producingother items of their use. However they were able to produce surplusitems with increase in their efficiency.• Indian business in the medieval (relating to mid age)period
Trade and business continued both within the and outside the country.Various sea routes are discovered during the period. Metallic currencywas introduced for the first time1. Trade routesIndia is connected by road ways in the earlier time also. The road waytouched its height of glory in the medieval. The network of these traderoutes indicates the extent to which places in the deep interior wereinvolved inter regional exchange of commodities2. Administration:Administration in India is excellent in mid age. A lot can be learnedfrom the administration emperors. Quality Management in heritage businessQuality is a continuous process of improvement for individual, group ofworkers, and the whole organization towards the quality.Quality is a participative process because every employee in theorganization is involved and expected to take responsibility forimproving the quality every momentYou can only improve that, which you can measure, be become what wethink which implies what is thought about a business and we canimprove Objectives of quality1. It will enrich the total quality of work, product and services, personsalso.
2. The employee will become self dependent and self manages3. The employee as a person will become quality conscious4. The employee will become self discipline Guiding principle for quality:• Do it right first timeThis can be fulfilled when the right information is provided to the alllevels of the organization so the decision can be taken right in qualityoriented• Customer oriented:Business considered customers as the king thus goods and servicesrendered to them must meet their satisfactory and demanding levels.Customers now focus on the quality even they have to pay more.• Team empowermentThe more people feel involved themselves in group or in a team thegreater will be the commitment to the organization, its goodwill,customer satisfaction and quality• Continuous improvementThere is no limitation in the expectation of the customer of qualitytherefore continuous improvement must be established with the everchanging affairs in the business.• Work is supreme that can lead to total quality• Commitment for action
• Sense of belongingness to the organization• Focus towards each and every activity for betterment• Selfless action towards work• Total perfection and quality must be the objective of each and every employee Benefits of Quality management Tangible gains Intangible gains Better product quality Effective team work Productivity improvement improvement of job interest Reduced quality cost Improvement in human relations and work area moral Increased market Customer satisfaction Reduced employee grievances Improved communication better problem solving capacity Improved corporate health and character of the company Better company image Economics of giving business and management Analyze the health of business• learn to identify when a customer is in trouble
• consider ways of developing your existing markets and building on relationships with existing customers• consider ways of developing new markets and finding new customers Minimize cost and maximize efficiency• minimize your fixed and variable costs by checking for better deals than you currently have, eg with utilities providers, contractors and suppliers• manage your relationship with suppliers more effectively• assess suppliers performance and seek the best possible deal• review your bank charges quarterly Keep cash flow healthy• tighten up your credit control and maintain a healthy cash flow• learn to work with cash flow forecasts and remain aware of your cash position at all times• keep track of the time it takes for you to pay your suppliers and for your customers to pay you• consider debt factoring and invoice discounting Limit the risks of business faces• develop strategies to manage all risks you face• carry out a SWOT analysis• consider worst-case scenarios and know exactly what to do if your business experiences serious financial problems Develop an effective survival strategy• revisit your business plan and development strategy and make changes according to your current circumstances• inspire confidence and keep your employees focused and motivated• use our interactive tools to assess the health of your business Access sources of business support
• maintain good lines of communication with your accountant and bank• seek advice from your business adviser or from your local Business Link – LAWS OF KARMA• THE GREAT LAW -"As you sow, so shall you reap". This is also known as the "Law ofCause and Effect”. Whatever we put out in the Universe is what comesback to us. If what we want is Happiness, Peace, Love, andFriendship...Then we should BE Happy, Peaceful, Loving and a TrueFriend.• THE LAW OF CREATION -Life doesnt just HAPPEN, it requires our participation. We are one withthe Universe, both inside and out. Whatever surrounds us gives us cluesto our inner state. Be yourself, and surround yourself with what youwant to have present in your Life.• THE LAW OF HUMILITY -What you refuse to accept will continue for you. If what we see is anenemy, or someone with a character trait that we find to be negative,then we ourselves are not focused on a higher level of existence.• THE LAW OF GROWTH -"Wherever you go, there you are”. For us to GROW in Spirit, it is wewho must change - and not the people, places or things around us. Theonly given we have in our lives is OURSELVES and that is the onlyfactor we have control over. When we change who and what we arewithin our heart our life follows suit and changes too.
THE LAW OF RESPONSIBILITYWhenever there is something wrong in my life, there is somethingwrong in me. We mirror what surrounds us - and what surrounds usmirrors us; this is a Universal Truth. We must take responsibility what isin our life. THE LAW OF CONNECTION -Even if something we do seems inconsequential, it is very important thatit gets done as everything in the Universe is connected. Each step leadsto the next step, and so forth and so on. Someone must do the initialwork to get a job done. Neither the first step nor the last are of greatersignificance, as they were both needed to accomplish the task. Past -Present – Future they are all connected... THE LAW OF FOCUS - You cannot think of two things at the same time.When our focus is on Spiritual Values, it is impossible for us to havelower thoughts such as greed or anger. THE LAW OF GIVING AND HOSPITALITY -If you believe something to be true, then sometime in your life you willbe called upon to demonstrate that particular truth. Here is where we putwhat we CLAIM that we have learned, into actual PRACTICE. THE LAW OF HERE AND NOW -Looking backward to examine what was, prevents us from being totallyin the here and now. Old thoughts, old patterns of behavior, olddreams...Prevent us from having new ones. THE LAW OF CHANGE -
History repeats itself until we learn the lessons that we need to changeour path. THE LAW OF PATIENCE AND REWARD – All Rewards require initial toil. Rewards of lasting value require patientand persistent toil. True joy follows doing what were supposed to bedoing, and waiting for the reward to come in on its own time. THE LAW OF SIGNIFICANCE AND INSPIRATION -You get back from something whatever YOU have put into it. The truevalue of something is a direct result of the energy and intent that is putinto it. Every personal contribution is also a contribution to the Whole.Lack luster contributions have no impact on the Whole, nor do theywork to diminish it. Loving contributions bring life to, and inspire, theWhole.1. Self-purification and Self-development.2. Individual growth and welfare.3. Collective growth and welfare.4. Minimum play of passion, jealousy, hatred.5. Team spirit and Teamwork.6. Autonomous management, minimum control and supervision.7. Manager acts as a Mentor.8. Self-motivation.9. Perfection10. All round happiness and prosperity.11. Skills and values united.12. Conflicts resolved by integration
Vedanta philosophy in contemporary management:The term ‘management’ as referred in this paper includes activities likeplanning, organizing, directing, staffing, motivating coordinating,budgeting, reporting and controlling that are carried out for achievingthe goals of the organization.The purpose of management is to reach the goals of theorganization.Vedanta:The four Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva) are divided into twoparts. The beginning part (Vedapoorva), talks about rituals. Vedanta, theconcluding part reveals the ultimate knowledge on God, Universe andLiving Beings. Vedanta is a collection of many Upanishads (108 of themare considered important).The purpose of Vedanta is to guide the human beings to reach the goalof life.• Vedanta in Management:‘Vedantic Management’ as opposed to the current management practicesthat are popularly followed, hereafter referred as ‘WesternManagement’.The purpose of both Vedantic Management and Western Management isidentical, namely, reaching the goals of the organization. It is beyond thescope of the organization and it is not proposed that the organizationchange its goals for adopting Vedantic Management.The basic contention of the Vedantic Management will be moreeffective and efficient in achieving the goals of the organization, withoutlaying any constraints on the profit-motives of the organization.
Vedantic Management does not require the organization to follow anyethical/ moral values. Corporate responsibility towards the society is nota precondition for introducing Vedantic Management in an organization.Vedantic Management is not biased towards any particular religion. Itdoes not involve introducing any religion/ belief system in themanagement practices. Even after switching from Western Managementto Vedantic Management, the organization will continue to be secular.• Source of knowledge:Knowledge on management is gained by the author from his twodecades of managerial experience working in various capacities in manyleading industrial organizations.In addition, he has learnt Upanishads, sitting by the side of his masters(Swami Suddhananda, Swami Paramarthananda, Swami Guruparanandaand Swami Omkarananda).It result of reflecting on the Western Management practices observed bythe author in the light of the Vedantic knowledge gained from theseenlightened spiritual masters.• Conceptual differenceIt is not possible to introduce Vedantic Management as a supplement oradd-on to the Western Management practices that are currently followedin most of the organizations. The current management system has to becompletely replaced by the new system since it is fundamentallydifferent.• Individual Goal Oriented:Vedantic Management requires the organization to consider the personalgoals of the employees as the stepping-stones to achieve the goals of theorganization. This means the primary task of the organization is tofacilitate the fulfillment of the personal goals of the employees. VedanticManagement assures that if this primary task is performed well the goalsof the organization will be achieved as a by-product.
Personal goals of the individual do not vary, as it is popularly believed.Vedanta reveals that there is only one goal for all the human beings inthe world. Unfortunately, due to inadequate British educational system,people have difficulty in comprehending this obvious fact. Vedantadeclares that the ONLY goal of all the human beings is to be happy allthe time without any trace of anxiety, worry and such negative emotionsever (referred hereafter as Joyful Living). However, due to ignorance,people assume various ‘personal goals’ like earning material prosperity,job-satisfaction, fulfillment of self-esteem needs etc, with a hope thatthese will lead them to Joyful Living. People at various stages in lifechase various things with a hope that the fulfillment of their expectationswill give them everlasting happiness. Most people do not realize thatthey are chasing a mirage until they retire from job. It will be too late bythen.Vedantic Management expects the organization to remind all theiremployees that their ultimate goal in life is to be happy and thendedicate the existence of the organization to fulfill this single goal.According to Vedanta, the true purpose of any work is to help the humanbeing to reach the goal of Joyful Living. Therefore, the only purpose ofany organization is to serve as a stepping-stone for the employees toreach their individual goal of being happy all the time.Thus, Vedantic Management creates a symbiotic relationship betweenthe organization and its employees. The varying goals of theorganization (like profit maximization or increase in market share andsuch) are tightly integrated with the achievement of the only individualgoal of the employee.In addition, to teaching the employees that their only goal is happiness,the organization has to teach them that the only way that they canachieve their goal is to follow the prescription given in Vedanta.Vedanta reveals that increment, promotion, incentives, paid vacation,power, position, job-satisfaction, etc do not help the individual to reachtheir goal. Vedanta prescribes Karma Yoga as a compulsory requirementfor reaching the goal. Therefore, the organization should employ the
services of enlightened spiritual masters and teach the employees how toperform their work as Karma Yoga.Once the employees is clear on his destination (Joyful Living) and themeans (Karma Yoga) he is sure to put his heart and soul in the workleading to dramatic improvements in performance.The organization has to institute appropriate systems (through re-engineering) that will ensure that this dramatic improvement inperformance of all the employees at the individual level, lead toachievement of the goals of the organization.Thus, Individual Goal Oriented approach of Vedantic Management willresult ineffective and efficient achievement of the goals of the organization.• Understanding the Cause and Effect relationship:Western Management is under the wrong assumption that there is aformula for success. The review meetings in all organization spendenormous time and effort in analyzing the cause of failures. Successstores are studied in order to emulate them to ensure success in futureendeavors. These practices are based on an erroneous assumption thatthere is a linear relationship between cause (hard/ smart work) and effect(success or failure).Vedantic Management is based on the message from Bhagavad Gita thathuman beings are responsible only for action and the results are given atHIS discretion. This statement is proved repeatedly in our personal,social, political and professional life. It is impossible to guaranteesuccess in any field with 100% certainty. Western Management assumesthat the managerial talent is inadequate in case of failures. Similarly, itassumes that the success is the result of hard work, careful planning andsuch mundane efforts. The fact remains that there is no apparent linearrelationship between efforts and results.Recognizing this truth, Vedantic Management gives emphasize only onthe process in which work is carried out. It does not judge theperformance based on the results. Even if the results are in line with theexpectation, Vedantic Management requires the individuals to examine
their performance critically with a view to attain perfection. Vedantareveals that there will always be scope for improvements in performanceand the results will always be inadequate. Based on this revelation,Vedantic Management guides the organization on a continuous path ofprocess improvement without paying too much attention on the results.Results are important only for planning. It is wrong to judge theperformance based on results.• Work of Human Personality:Western Management is built on the wrong premise that a human beingis what he is, due to the environment. It assumes people can be shapedwith appropriate tools (like training programs and motivationtechniques). Vedanta reveals the fact that human personality consists offive layers (physical, physiological, psychological, intelligential andspiritual) that are grouped under three bodies (Physical, Subtle andCausal). Only the physical body is developed to the currentstature during this lifetime. The subtle body, which is responsible forskills, capabilities, emotions, intelligence, is developed over theinnumerable previous births. No one can significantly improve theirlevel of skills or intelligence in one lifetime.Human beings are born countless times prior to the current birth andthey have acquired various skills, capabilities, emotional traits,intelligence during these countless life experiences. Whatever be thequantum of effort put in by the individual during the current lifetime, hecan improve his personality only marginally compared to theaccumulated stock of infinite lifetimes.Vedantic Management does not expect the employees to changesignificantly. It is aware improvements in any individual will always bemarginal. Therefore, jobs are modified to suit the employee rather thanwaiting for the employee to become more skilled to meet theexpectations of the job.
Western Management ignores the truth regarding rebirth. As a result, itdifferentiates employees as ‘high performer’ and ‘low performer’wrongly. Vedantic Management does not prescribe any comparisonamong employees. since intrinsically they are not comparable. Itrecommends that everyone should compare only his or her own pastperformance and continuously improve the existing skill sets,intelligence etc.• Self-motivation:Western Management employs different techniques to motivate theemployees. Not all such efforts make any lasting effect on the employee.This is due to the reason that the basic requirement of the employee isnot addressed. It is not that the organization does not correctly judge thebasic requirement of the employee. In most cases, even the employeedoes not know what he wants.Vedantic Management guides the employee to find out his/ her ultimategoal of life and then shows a path, which will lead them to that goal. Ifthe employee gets clarity on the goal and the path, then the journey isperformed through self- motivation. It is ofcourse a difficult task toeducate the employee and give clarity on the goal and means. However,when it is done, there is nothing more to be done to motivate theemployee. He will perform to the best of his ability without everrequiring any prompting from the organization Vedantic Management prescribes that the employees are compensatedat industry standards and they are provided with a work environmentthat is conducive for performing Karma Yoga. This will ensure that theemployee is retained in the organization. In such an environment, theperformance of the individual will continuously increase, without anyexpressed or implied demand. This phenomenon happens because as apart of Karma Yoga, the employee is expected to increase hisperformance continuouslyThus, the employee will work harder and smarter for reaching hispersonal goal, which will result in continuous improvements in his
performance. There is no need to employ any motivationtools/techniques at all.• Role of leadership:Western Management gives undue importance to the top management inachieving the goals of the organization. Clarity in vision, appropriatestructuring of the organization, understanding of the market environmentand such functions are the responsibilities of the top management andthey continue to be so even under Vedantic Management. However,Western Management expects the top management to lead the entireorganization towards the organizational goals. Vedantic Management absolves the top management from thisresponsibility of leading the organization. Once all other functions of thetop management are done to the best of their abilities, the organization isset on motion by enabling each employee to perform Karma Yoga in theworkplace. Employees will then drive the organization in the chosenpath. They need not be inspired by their leader. They do the workbecause they want to reach their personal goal of Joyful Living.Under Vedantic Management, customer satisfaction is a by-product ofemployee satisfaction. The employee is aware that if he does KarmaYoga he will reach his personal goal. Karma Yoga requires that theemployee put his heart and soul in the work aiming at perfection all thetime. In addition, he is happy doing his job. This happiness spreads at alldirections and incidentally the customer is satisfied. As against pullingthe organization under Western Management, the entire team ofemployees pushes the organization towards its goal. This results in farsuperior performance. Vedantic Management enables the entireorganization move forward on its own momentum without expecting afew individuals (top management) to do a Herculean task of pulling theorganization towards its goal.• Re-engineering is an essential requirement for Vedantic Management:
Employees will be self-motivated to perform work in an organizationwhere Vedantic Management is in vogue. However, in order to derivebenefit from such motivated work force, it is essential that the businessprocesses of the organization be reengineered. Vedantic Managementrecommends Japanese way of re-engineering as opposed to followingBPR principles as practiced in USA.• Employees work without leadershipVedantic Management declares that if the organization providesappropriate environment, employees will work without any supervision.They will do their work to the best of their ability, putting their heart andsoul in the work if they are allowed to work in their area of swadharmaas described in Vedas. Benefits of introducing Vedantic Management in an organization:• Continuous improvement in the way workThere will be continuous improvement in the way work is carried outdue to the practice of Karma Yoga. The organization will move towardsperfection in all its operations. Productivity will increase many fold.Cycle Time will reduce dramatically.• Eliminate all the job related stressIt will eliminate all the job related stress. There will be healthyrelationship between employees at all levels. People will start enjoyingtheir work and will look forward to more challenges.• Employees can be retained longer in an organizationEmployees can be retained longer in an organization. Attrition levelswill drastically come down, since the employees will realize that theycan achieve their personal goal by staying in an organization that followsVedantic Management.• Employees will put in their heart and soul in the work
Since the employees will put in their heart and soul in the work, theorganization will be able to leverage on the hidden potential of theemployees.• Strengthen the existing core competencies of the organizationThe skill sets, capabilities and the level of maturity of the employeeswill be enriched through their own self-motivated effort (of performingKarma Yoga). This can be used to strengthen the existing corecompetencies of the organization and for developing new markets/products.