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Southern, Northern
and Western Blotting
Umesh Goutam
Blotting
• It’s the transfer of macromolecules like
proteins and nucleic acids from gel onto
surface of immobilised membra...
Blotting methods
1. Diffusion blotting
2. Capillary blotting
3. Vacuum blotting
Umesh Goutam
TYPES OF BLOTTING
TECHNIQUES
Blotting technique
Southern Blot
It is used to detect DNA.
Northern Blot
It is used to detect...
Blotting membranes
• Nitrocellulose membrane
• Polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) membrane
• Nylon membrane
• Diazobenzyloxym...
Ed Southern
In the 1970s Ed Southern of
Oxford University invented a
revolutionary DNA blotting
technique.
The Southern Bl...
Southern Blot: DNA-DNA*
DNA-DNA hybridization
Uses gel electrophoresis
together with hybridization
probes to characterize
...
Steps
Digest DNA with restriction endonuclease
Electrophoresis to separate fragments
Blot fragments onto a nitrocellulose ...
General Scheme for Southern Blot
Umesh Goutam
Step 2
Gel electrophoresis
• Separates DNA fragments.
Soak gel in 0.5 M NaOH
• Converts dsDNA to ssDNA
Umesh Goutam
Step 3. Nitrocellulose Blot
Cover gel with nitrocellulose
paper
Cover nitrocellulose paper with
thick layer of paper towel...
Step 4. Hybridization
• Incubate nitrocellulose sheet with a
minimal quantity of solution
containing 32P-labeled ssDNA pro...
Step 5. Autoradiography
• Place nitrocellulose sheet over X-
ray film.
• X-ray film darkens where the
fragments are comple...
Application
1. Diagnosis & detection of genetic diseases
• Used to diagnose sickle cell-anemia.
• AT base change in the ...
• Probe hybridizes to DNA from homozygotes of
sickle-cell anemia but not from normal individuals.
• Used in gene discovery...
• To determine the molecular weight of a restriction
fragment and to measure relative amounts in different
samples.
• Anal...
Umesh Goutam
Northern Blot: RNA-DNA*(RNA*)
• technique was developed in 1977 by James Alwine,
David Kemp, and George Stark at Stanford ...
Steps
Isolate RNA & treat with formaldehyde
Agarose gel electrophoresis
Transfer single-stranded RNA to nitrocellulose or ...
Step 1
Isolate RNA:
To detect rare mRNA, isolate the poly A+ mRNA.
RNA is both biologically and chemically more labile tha...
Step 3
• Transfer ss RNA to nitrocellulose or nylon membrane:
• Transfer buffer contain formamide (it lowers the
annealing...
Step 4 & 5
• Prehybridize before hybridization:
Blocks non-specific sites to prevent the single-stranded probe
from bindin...
Application
• To determine the conditions under which specific
genes are being expressed (mRNA level).
• A standard for th...
• Study RNA degradation
• Study RNA splicing
• Often used to confirm and check transgenic/
knockout mice (animals)
Umesh G...
Southern vs. Northern
Southern
• DNA on membrane
• Digest DNA
• Convert dsDNA to
ssDNA
Northern
• RNA on membrane
• No nee...
Western blotting
• An Immunoblotting technique based on the
specificity of binding between a protein of interest
and a pro...
Steps in western blotting
1. A protein sample is subjected to
electrophoresed on an SDS-
polyacrylamide gel.
2. Electroblo...
3. The blot is incubated with a generic protein (such as
milk proteins or BSA) which binds to any
remaining sticky places ...
5. After washing for removal of non-
specifically bound Ab1, second
antibody (Ab2) is added.
• Ab2 specifically recognizes...
Comparison of Southern, Northern, and
Western blotting techniques
Southern blotting Northern blotting Western blotting
Mol...
Application
1. The confirmatory HIV test
2. Used as the definitive test for Bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE(
3. Some...
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Southern, Northern and Western Blotting methods in genetic Engineering

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Blotting is a method in which a macromolecule is immobilized on a blotting matrix and subsequently probed with a detectable ligand to determine whether the macromolecule binds that specific ligand. The immobilized macromolecule can be DNA, RNA or protein, in which case one generates DNA blots (Southern blots), RNA blots (Northern blots) (1), or protein blots (Western blots).

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Southern, Northern and Western Blotting methods in genetic Engineering

  1. 1. Southern, Northern and Western Blotting Umesh Goutam
  2. 2. Blotting • It’s the transfer of macromolecules like proteins and nucleic acids from gel onto surface of immobilised membrane similar to gel. • These powerful techniques allow us to identify and characterize specific molecules in a complex mixture of related molecules Umesh Goutam
  3. 3. Blotting methods 1. Diffusion blotting 2. Capillary blotting 3. Vacuum blotting Umesh Goutam
  4. 4. TYPES OF BLOTTING TECHNIQUES Blotting technique Southern Blot It is used to detect DNA. Northern Blot It is used to detect RNA. Western blot It is used to detect protein. Umesh Goutam
  5. 5. Blotting membranes • Nitrocellulose membrane • Polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) membrane • Nylon membrane • Diazobenzyloxymethyl (DBM) and Diazophenylthioether (DPT) Umesh Goutam
  6. 6. Ed Southern In the 1970s Ed Southern of Oxford University invented a revolutionary DNA blotting technique. The Southern Blot allows the visualization of one DNA fragment from a whole genome DNA extract. Southern blotting Umesh Goutam
  7. 7. Southern Blot: DNA-DNA* DNA-DNA hybridization Uses gel electrophoresis together with hybridization probes to characterize restriction fragments of genomic DNA (or DNA from other sources, such as plasmids) Umesh Goutam
  8. 8. Steps Digest DNA with restriction endonuclease Electrophoresis to separate fragments Blot fragments onto a nitrocellulose membrane Hybridize with the 32P probe Autoradiography Umesh Goutam
  9. 9. General Scheme for Southern Blot Umesh Goutam
  10. 10. Step 2 Gel electrophoresis • Separates DNA fragments. Soak gel in 0.5 M NaOH • Converts dsDNA to ssDNA Umesh Goutam
  11. 11. Step 3. Nitrocellulose Blot Cover gel with nitrocellulose paper Cover nitrocellulose paper with thick layer of paper towels Compress apparatus with heavy weight ssDNA binds to nitrocellulose at same position as on the gel Vacuum dry nitrocellulose at 80C to permanently fix DNA in place or cross link (via covalent bonds) the DNA to the membrane Umesh Goutam
  12. 12. Step 4. Hybridization • Incubate nitrocellulose sheet with a minimal quantity of solution containing 32P-labeled ssDNA probe. • Probe sequence is complementary to the DNA of interest. • Incubate for several hours so that probe can anneal to its target sequence(s). • Wash & dry nitrocellulose sheet. Umesh Goutam
  13. 13. Step 5. Autoradiography • Place nitrocellulose sheet over X- ray film. • X-ray film darkens where the fragments are complementary to the radioactive probes. Umesh Goutam
  14. 14. Application 1. Diagnosis & detection of genetic diseases • Used to diagnose sickle cell-anemia. • AT base change in the  subunit of Hb, Glu Val • Development of a 19 residue oligonucleotide probe complementary to sickle-cell gene’s mutated segment. Umesh Goutam
  15. 15. • Probe hybridizes to DNA from homozygotes of sickle-cell anemia but not from normal individuals. • Used in gene discovery , mapping, evolution and development studies, diagnostics and forensics (DNA fingerprinting, preparation of RFLP maps) • Identification of the transferred genes in transgenic individuals Umesh Goutam
  16. 16. • To determine the molecular weight of a restriction fragment and to measure relative amounts in different samples. • Analyze the genetic patterns which appear in a person's DNA. Umesh Goutam
  17. 17. Umesh Goutam
  18. 18. Northern Blot: RNA-DNA*(RNA*) • technique was developed in 1977 by James Alwine, David Kemp, and George Stark at Stanford University. • No need to digest RNA with REs. • SS RNA can form the secondary structure during running. • Use formaldehyde to break H-bonds and denature RNA because single-stranded RNA will form intramolecular base pairs and "fold" on itself. Umesh Goutam
  19. 19. Steps Isolate RNA & treat with formaldehyde Agarose gel electrophoresis Transfer single-stranded RNA to nitrocellulose or nylon membrane Incubate membrane with labeled DNA or RNA probe Autoradiography Umesh Goutam
  20. 20. Step 1 Isolate RNA: To detect rare mRNA, isolate the poly A+ mRNA. RNA is both biologically and chemically more labile than DNA. Thus eliminate RNases. Electrophoresis: Performed in formaldehyde agarose gel to prevent RNA from folding on itself. Stain with EtBr to visualize the RNA bands. PAGE can be used with Urea. Step 2 Umesh Goutam
  21. 21. Step 3 • Transfer ss RNA to nitrocellulose or nylon membrane: • Transfer buffer contain formamide (it lowers the annealing temperature of the probe-RNA interaction) Nitrocellulose typically has a binding capacity is lesser (of about 100µg/cm), while than nylon has a binding capacity of about 500 µg/cm. • Covalently link RNA to membrane: UV cross linking is more effective in binding RNA to the membrane than baking at 80C. Umesh Goutam
  22. 22. Step 4 & 5 • Prehybridize before hybridization: Blocks non-specific sites to prevent the single-stranded probe from binding just anywhere on the membrane. • Incubate membrane with labeled DNA or RNA probe with target sequence: Probe could be 32P, biotin/streptavidin or a bioluminescent probe. • Autoradiography: Place membrane over X-ray film. X-ray film darkens where the fragments are complementary to the radioactive probes. Umesh Goutam
  23. 23. Application • To determine the conditions under which specific genes are being expressed (mRNA level). • A standard for the study of gene expression at the level of mRNA (messenger RNA transcripts) • Detection of mRNA transcript size Umesh Goutam
  24. 24. • Study RNA degradation • Study RNA splicing • Often used to confirm and check transgenic/ knockout mice (animals) Umesh Goutam
  25. 25. Southern vs. Northern Southern • DNA on membrane • Digest DNA • Convert dsDNA to ssDNA Northern • RNA on membrane • No need to digest DNA • Denature “folded” RNA with formaldehyde Umesh Goutam
  26. 26. Western blotting • An Immunoblotting technique based on the specificity of binding between a protein of interest and a probe to allow detection of the protein of interest . • The SDS PAGE technique is a prerequisite for Western blotting . Umesh Goutam
  27. 27. Steps in western blotting 1. A protein sample is subjected to electrophoresed on an SDS- polyacrylamide gel. 2. Electroblotting transfers the separated proteins from the gel to the surface of a nitrocellulose membrane. Umesh Goutam
  28. 28. 3. The blot is incubated with a generic protein (such as milk proteins or BSA) which binds to any remaining sticky places on the nitrocellulose. 4. An antibody that is specific for the protein of interest (the primary antibody - Ab1) is added to the nitrocellulose sheet and reacts with the antigen. • Only the band containing the protein of interest binds the antibody, forming a layer of antibody molecules . Umesh Goutam
  29. 29. 5. After washing for removal of non- specifically bound Ab1, second antibody (Ab2) is added. • Ab2 specifically recognizes the primary antibody and binds. • Ab2 is radioactively labeled, or is covalently linked to a reporter enzyme, which allows to visualize the protein- Ab1-Ab2 complex. Umesh Goutam
  30. 30. Comparison of Southern, Northern, and Western blotting techniques Southern blotting Northern blotting Western blotting Molecule detected DNA (ds) mRNA (ss) Protein Gel electrophoresis Agarose gel Formaldehyde agarose gel Polyacrylamide gel Gel pretreatment Depurination, denaturation, and neutralization - - Blotting method Capillary transfer Capillary transfer Electric transfer Probes DNA Radioactive or nonradioactive cDNA, cRNA Radioactive or nonradioactive primary antibody Detection system Autoradiography Chemiluminescent Colorimetric Autoradiography Chemiluminescent Colorimetric Chemiluminescent Colorimetric Umesh Goutam
  31. 31. Application 1. The confirmatory HIV test 2. Used as the definitive test for Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE( 3. Some forms of Lyme disease testing employ Western blotting. Umesh Goutam

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