Security issues in FPGA based systems.


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FPGA based security systems.

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Security issues in FPGA based systems.

  1. 1. Managing Securities in FPGA- Based Embedded Systems Presenters: Rajeev Verma Pratheep Joe Siluvai Iruthayaraj
  2. 2. Why FPGA? ● Better performance. ○ Large number of bit level operations can be performed. ○ shifting, permutations are achieved ny just wiring. ○ extreme level of parallelism ○ low overheads ● Rapid time to market ● Flexible ● Truth tables or Lookup tables are used for hw acceleration. ● Applications ○ Face recognition systems, wireless networks, cryptographic applications, supercomputers and many security applications.
  3. 3. Reconfigurable systems ● Cryptographic algorithms are generally implemented on FPGA ● Encryption devices require strong isolation to segregate plaintext(red) from ciphertext(black). ● Unencrypted data should be unavailable for black network.
  4. 4. System Design! ● Shared resources in system ○ Shared DRAM, shared bus and shared AES encryption core. ● Domain-1 ○ MicroBlaze0, RS-232, Distinct memory portion ● Domain-2 ○ MicroBlaze1, an Ethernet interface, another distinct partition of memory
  5. 5. Applications need separation of data ● Aviation field. ○ Uses Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) FPGA components. ○ Sensitive and non-sensitive data is processed in same device. ○ This isolation of the sensitive and non-sensitive data is achieved in modern FPGAs ● Intelligent video surveillance ○ FPGA provides deep computation pipelining and isolation. ○ Rely on 3 cores ■ Video interface for decoding ■ Encryption mechanism for processing the video ■ Network interface for sending data.
  6. 6. FPGA System Flow ● Cores can be generated by hand or by software like Xilinx Embedded Development Kit (EDK). ● Bitstream is the final code that goes to the core.
  7. 7. Reconfigurable Security Problems ● Design-tool subversion ● Composition ● Trusted Foundries ● Bitstream protection
  8. 8. Design-tool subversion ● Malicious design could destroy FPGA because of short circuit. ● Trusted tools should be used to develop trusted cores. ● Xilinx provide signed cores.
  9. 9. Composition problem ● As final design, we can trust the design as much as the least-trusted design path. ● Systems can be composed on ○ Device level ■ one or more IP cores resides on single chip ○ Board level ■ one or more chips on a single board ○ Network level ■ Multiple boards are connected through network ● Now, it is possible to copy the hardware from existing products. ● Protected IP could be a solution. ● a separate chip for each core can be used which can provide security advantage
  10. 10. Security issues with COTS ● COTS : Commercial off-the-shelf ● Manufacturer should not insert unintended functionalities into FPGA. ● All cores should be flawless so that attacker can’t exploit. ● Security flaws should not exist in running software or the compiler. ● Embedded device depends on other parts of larger nw should not be malicious.
  11. 11. Trusted-Foundry Problem and Bitstream Protection ● Trusted-Foundry Problem ○ ASIC is having problem of IP theft. ○ FPGA provide important security benefit over ASIC in this issue. ● Bitstream Protection ○ Securely Bitstream uploading is essential to avoid the IP-theft ○ These theft impacts the “Bottom Line” ○ Some FPGA’s can remotely updated in the field. ■ Requires secure channel and authentication.
  12. 12. Reconfigurable security solutions ● Life-cycle management ○ Configuration management stores software with version numbers. ○ Any new version is thoroughly tested before assignment of new version. ○ Control on development environment and tools can support accountability. ○ Alternative is to build a custom set of trusted tools for security critical HW. ○ A critical function of life-cycle protection ensure that o/p is not malicious. ● Secure Architecture ○ FPGA provides self-protected security mechanism at a low cost. ○ Examples ■ Memory Protection ■ Spatial Isolation ■ Tags ■ Secure Communication
  13. 13. Secure Architecture ● Memory Protection ○ Reference monitor is well known method for legal sharing of memory. ○ Reference monitor possesses ■ Self-protecting ■ Enforcement mechanisms cannot be bypassed. ■ Correct and complete. ● Spatial Isolation ○ Control on layout function provide spatial isolation in FPGA.
  14. 14. Secure Architecture cont.. ● Tags ○ Ability to track information and its transformation as it flows through the system. ○ Tag is metadata that can be attached to each piece of system data. ○ Tag can be used in FPGA at different granularity. ● Secure Communication ○ Cores need to share data so can’t be isolated. ○ Currently FPGA system use ■ Shared Memory ■ Direct connection ■ Shared Bus
  15. 15. Future Work ● Multicore Systems ○ Chip multiprocessors running multiple threads ○ SoCs with multiple single-purpose cores on single ASIC. ○ New techniques are needed to mediate secure, efficient communication of multi core system. ● Integration of security primitives. ○ If computing units are shared among security domains then temporal scheme might be required. ○ Spatial schemes, temporal scheme or tags should be designed which can meet security requirement and minimize overhead.
  16. 16. Future Work ● Reconfigurable Updates ○ Latest FPGA are capable of changing configuration on runtime. ○ These dynamic systems need more communication between core. ○ Cores state can be changed from executing to updated. ○ These are complicated systems and require new primitives for security. ● Channels and information leakage ○ Core are isolated still need communication through covert channel which can be insecure. ○ Another attack can be side channel attack. E.g Power-analysis attack.
  17. 17. Conclusion ● A Successful approach must combine life-cycle management and a coherent security architecture. ● Designing any trustworthy complex system is challenging. ● Hardware security is getting more and more important.
  18. 18. Questions?? Thanks!