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  1. 1. Global Perspectives andGlobal Perspectives and Challenges for AquacultureChallenges for Aquaculture Rohana SubasingheRohana Subasinghe Fisheries DepartmentFisheries Department FAO, RomeFAO, Rome
  2. 2. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing food producing sector in the world It is highly diverse and the sector consists of many species, systems, practices, people, environments, and operations Developing countries and Low Income Food Deficit Countries (LIFDCs) produce the most Asia produces over 90%
  3. 3. • Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food- producing sector, now accounts for almost 50 percent of the world’s food fish and is perceived as having the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for aquatic food. • Total aquaculture production of aquatic animals (excluding aquatic plants) for 2004 was reported to be 45.5 million tonnes with a farm-gate value of US$ 63.4 billion. • Given the projected population growth over the next two decades, it is estimated that at least an additional 40 million tonnes of aquatic food will be required by 2030 to maintain the current per caput consumption.
  4. 4. Global Aquaculture Production (includes plants) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Productionquantities(mn tonnes) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Productionvalue(millionU$) illio S Volume Value
  5. 5. Global Aquaculture Production Rest of World Asia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Productionquantity(tonnex106 ) China vs Rest of Asia Rest of Asia China 0 20 40 60 1950 1970 1990 Year Productionquantity (tonnex106 )
  6. 6. Aquaculture production by environment, 2004 Mariculture 51% Brackishwater culture 6% Freshwater culture 43%
  7. 7. Major issues and challenges Aquaculture is an income generating activity. Rapid sector growth has, in some instances, outstripped planning and regulatory activities. There are regulatory rebounds, resource use conflicts The role of aquaculture in food security has been a major concern of the sector for many years. Production has been in the increase at a reducing rate. May be due to declining prices for luxury and commodity products as markets are becoming saturated and competition is increasing.
  8. 8. Maintaining environmental sustainability Certain forms of aquaculture have a bad reputation. Arguments are: use of feed and seed resources disease control and chemical and veterinary drug use accumulation of environmental contaminants escapees and point source contamination of wild resources negative or low net energy conversion during farming of top carnivores mangrove clearance and land degradation, etc. Some of the arguments are true and worthy of considering but the quantum to which the issues are highlighted is certainly bias.
  9. 9. Maintaining environmental sustainability Traditional aquaculture produce large volumes of fish feeding low in food chain which supports livelihoods of people “Modern-day aquaculture”, mainly the production of high value carnivorous fish or shellfish destined to import markets is a different subject This sector uses considerable quantity of natural resources and also produces considerable quantity of effluents and waste. The sector’s sustainability and environmental acceptability has been increased significantly over the past decade through research involving developing technically specialised conditions.
  10. 10. Maintaining environmental sustainability The environmental, social and economic landscape within which aquaculture has performed well up to now, is changing! Consumers look for “Sustainability, Safety, Quality, and Equity” of the products. Competition will increase as barriers to trade decline through the process of economic globalization. Negative environmental and social impacts of aquaculture will increase public scrutiny and criticism, that could well alter the policies that have so far fostered growth.
  11. 11. Maintaining environmental sustainability The trend has been to improve the environmental acceptability or sustainability of the sector through several interventions and developments such as; reduced reliance on fishmeal in fish feed increased efficiency in feed formulation improving food conversion ratio
  12. 12. Maintaining environmental sustainability containment and recycling of wastes increased land and water use efficiency improvement to health management and reduction of chemical and veterinary drug use domestication and genetic improvement towards reducing negative impacts on aquatic biodiversity.
  13. 13. Comparative growth of cyprinid and penaeid shrimp production in Asia and Oceania exclusive of China, 1964 to 2003 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 QUANTITY(MillionTonnes) Cy prinids Penaeids
  14. 14. Global fishmeal usage 2002 Others 9% Ruminants 1% Pigs 27% Poultry 29% Aquaculture 34% 1988 Others 10% Aquaculture 10% Pigs 20% Poultry 60% 2010 (projected) Others 15% Pigs 22% Poultry 15% Aquaculture 48%
  15. 15. Keeping up with safety and quality There is a need for aquaculturists develop systems for farming aquatic animals that assures food safety; Risk assessment and HACCP and Good Hygienic Practice (GHP) based practices. New demands for trace-ability of aquaculture products Not easy with the large number of small-scale farmers Substantial institutional re-organization, legal and policy development, awareness raising and capacity building efforts will be essential
  16. 16. Effect of vaccination on the use of antibacterials in Norway 1974 - 2003 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 No.kgsofantibiotics(in thousand) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Metrictonsofsalmonids produced Use of antibiotics in fish Fish production 1.vaccine vibriosis 2.vaccine cold water vibriosis 3.vaccine furunculosis
  17. 17. Trans-boundary Pathogens There are many proven examples Crayfish plague in Europe Whirling disease in the US Bonamia disease in Europe Abalone parasitic diseases in Canada EUS in Asia WSSV and TSV in Asia and Americas KHV in Asia, etc.
  18. 18. EUS spread 1972-1996 1972 1980 1985 1971 19791987 1991 1996 1989 1989 1988 1984 1983 1981 1984 1983 Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam From Dr. MelbaFrom Dr. Melba ReantasoReantaso, Oxford, Maryland, Oxford, Maryland
  19. 19. VNN spread now widespread throughout the world (1986 - 2001) (20 countries, >30 host species) 2000 1998 2000 1991, 1994 ??? 1995 2000???Groupers/seabass 1998 2000 1988, 1991, 1997 1997 From Dr. MelbaFrom Dr. Melba ReantasoReantaso, Oxford, Maryland, Oxford, Maryland
  20. 20. Hawaii Global TransfersGlobal Transfers ofof LiveLive ShrimpShrimp Tahiti From Prof. DonaldFrom Prof. Donald LightnerLightner, UOA, UOA
  21. 21. White Spot Syndrome Virus 1991/92 1993 From Dr. P. Walker, CSIRO, AustraliaFrom Dr. P. Walker, CSIRO, Australia
  22. 22. The Asian pandemic 1993 1991/2 1993 1993 1993 1994 1999 From Dr. P. Walker, CSIRO, AustraliaFrom Dr. P. Walker, CSIRO, Australia
  23. 23. 1995 1999 1997 1996 2000 2000 1999 1999 From Dr. P. Walker, CSIRO, AustraliaFrom Dr. P. Walker, CSIRO, Australia
  24. 24. Fig. 1:- Ecuadorian monthly shrimp exports:- 1986 - 1999. 0 5,000,000 10,000,000 15,000,000 20,000,000 25,000,000 30,000,000 Jan-86 Jan-87 Jan-88 Jan-89 Jan-90 Jan-91 Jan-92 Jan-93 Jan-94 Jan-95 Jan-96 Jan-97 Jan-98 Jan-99 Poundsexportedpermonth Gaviotas syndrome (89 - 90) Taura syndrome (93 - 95) White spot (May 99 on) (Da ta from CORPEI, Jan. 20 00)From Dr. VictoriaFrom Dr. Victoria AldayAlday, Belgium, Belgium
  25. 25. Combating disease and managing health Safe and controlled movement of aquatics Risk-based decision making Compliance to international treaties Maintain bio-security Betters management practices Capacity building Self-regulation Empowerment of small farmers
  26. 26. Major Trends:Major Trends: Restricted aquaculture expansion will tend towards increasingRestricted aquaculture expansion will tend towards increasing intensificationintensification Continued diversification of species and need for their responsiContinued diversification of species and need for their responsibleble useuse Continued diversification of production systemsContinued diversification of production systems Increasing influence of markets, trade and consumptionIncreasing influence of markets, trade and consumption Enhanced regulation and better governanceEnhanced regulation and better governance Drive for better managementDrive for better management
  27. 27. Future Outlook:Future Outlook: Aquaculture will spread to Africa and Latin America.Aquaculture will spread to Africa and Latin America. Aquaculture is an opportunity for the entrepreneur who is willinAquaculture is an opportunity for the entrepreneur who is willing tog to develop a new “aquaculture” product.develop a new “aquaculture” product. Search for new, high value species will continue with some succeSearch for new, high value species will continue with some Strategies aiming to promote offshore aquaculture will alsoStrategies aiming to promote offshore aquaculture will also continue.continue. Developed countries would reduce their current imports.Developed countries would reduce their current imports. On average, people will consume more fish by 2015!On average, people will consume more fish by 2015!
  28. 28. Thank You!Thank You!