Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture


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Application of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of
Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

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  • The total mutant series of TAG groundnut varieties (in the last 10 years, 10 varieties ) had increasing success. TAG24 is the most popular, TAG37 the most recent mutant groundnut variety. 45% of breeders seeds are TAG varieties, mostly TAG24. In 2003, the total domestic seed sales were of 132,000 tons, covering an acreage 6,600,000 ha. There is neither seed export nor import. Thus, under the assumption that 45% Breeders’ Seeds is roughly equivalent to 45% of Foundation Seeds - Certified Seeds - Domestic Seed Sales, one might infer that the TAG series (principally TAG24) covers roughly an acreage of 45% (2970000 ha).
  • Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    1. 1. Application of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture
    2. 2. Corporate Mission Atomic energy for peace, health and prosperity Sustainable agricultural development, improved nutrition and food security to contribute to sustainable food security and safety by use of nuclear techniques and biotechnology
    3. 3. <ul><li>Our Goals : </li></ul><ul><li>Food Security </li></ul><ul><li>Food Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Agriculture </li></ul>
    4. 4. Application in Food and Agriculture Insect Pest Control by Sterile Insect Techniques Plant Breeding & Genetics by Mutation Techniques Animal Production & Health by RIA, ELISA, PCR, etc. Soil & Water Management & Crop Nutrition by Isotopic and Nuclear Techniques Food & Environmental Protection by Food Irradiation and Radio- analytical Techniques Nuclear Techniques
    5. 5. 1. Crop improvement by mutation techniques <ul><li>Variation is the source of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous mutation rate is 1 × 10 -8 ~ 1 × 10 -5 </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation can cause genetic changes in living organisms and increase mutation rate up to 1 × 10 -5 ~ 1 × 10 -2 </li></ul><ul><li>Induced mutation is useful for crop improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Induced mutants are not GMOs, as there is no introduction of foreign hereditary material into induced mutants </li></ul>Technical basis
    6. 6. Crop improvement by mutation techniques <ul><li>Higher yielding </li></ul><ul><li>Disease-resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Well-adapted </li></ul><ul><li>Better nutrition </li></ul>Mutant cultivars no mutation negative mutation
    7. 7. Mutation techniques - Improving crop cultivars - Enhancing biodiversity - Increasing farmer’s income
    8. 8. Crop improvement by mutation techniques MUTANT VARIETIES Total Number : 2672 Plant Species : 170 (2006) Sources: FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database Cereals 1206 Flowers 454 Legumes 203 Oil crops 198 Others 611
    9. 9. The impact of mutation induction in crop improvement is measured in millions of ha and billions of $ Zhefu 802 (rice) 10.6 million ha China Baden- Wurttemberg & Bavaria VND95-20 (rice) 280,000 ha Vietnam Saarland Diamant (barley) 2.86 million ha Europe Brandenburg TAG24 (groundnut) 3 million ha India Thuringia Schleswig- Holstein
    10. 10. VND99-3 High quality for export Short duration (100 days) 3 rice harvests per year in the Mekong Delta 8 new high quality rice mutant varieties have been developed and adopted by farmers in Vietnam, where rice export is one of their main revenues . VND95-20 High quality Tolerance to salinity Key rice variety for export “ National Prize of Science and Technology of Viet Nam 2005” for its “significant socio-economic contribution”
    11. 11. 2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management Isotopic and nuclear techniques Water Soil Crop Nutrition
    12. 12. <ul><li>Both stable and radioactive isotopes can be used as tracers in soil and water management & crop nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes are atoms with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>t he same chemical properties, but different atomic weight (mass number). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>t he same number of protons but different neutrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d ifferent mass number (atomic weight). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isotopes can be either stable or radioactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>s table isotopes: different masses ( 18 O and 16 O). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>r adioactive isotopes: radioactive decay ( 32 P). </li></ul></ul>2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management Technical basis
    13. 13. 2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management 31 P 14 N 32 P 15 N 31 P 14 N 13 CO 2 12 CO 2 13 C 12 C 18 O 16 O 31 P 32 P 13 CO 2 12 CO 2 16 O 18 O
    14. 14. <ul><li>Enhance the efficient and sustainable use of soil-water-nutrient resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantify Biological Nitrogen Fixation. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize effects of soil erosion and degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance water use efficiency by crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Select drought and salt-tolerant crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate effects of crop residue incorporation on soil stabilization and fertility enhancement. </li></ul><ul><li>Track and quantify off-site water (nutrients) losses beyond the plant rooting zone. </li></ul>2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management
    15. 15. 2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management 12 CO 2 (99%) 13 CO 2 (1%) Plants can be grouped according to 13 C discrimination (rice, wheat, forest, vegetation) (maize, sorghum, sugarcane, some tropical herbs) C4 plants:   13 C = -12 C3 plants:   13 C = -26
    16. 16. 2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management FRN with precipitation ( P ) Original soil level Resulting soil level Deposition site 137 Cs > P Erosion site 137 Cs < P
    17. 17. 2. Soil-Water-Crop Nutrition Management <ul><li>Soil conservation measures improved land productivity and reduced soil erosion rates by 55-90% in Chile, China, Morocco, Romania and Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved yield and revenue by 25-50% while reduced water use by the same extent in Chile, Jordan, Syria and Uzbekistan. </li></ul><ul><li>10-15 % increase in P utilization efficiency in Mexico and Burkina Faso. </li></ul><ul><li>30% increase in BNF through improved soil and crop management practices and genotype selection in Asia and Africa. </li></ul>Using isotopic and nuclear techniques, Agency supported studies show that:
    18. 18. <ul><li>Radiation is used to induce lethal mutations in chromosomes of insect pests to caus e sterility . </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile m ales are released into the wild where they compete with wild males for matings with wild females . </li></ul><ul><li>SIT relies on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mass production of the target pest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sterilization and shipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inundative releases mostly by air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>matings result in no offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SIT integrated with other pest control methods is applied for suppression, containment, or even eradication. </li></ul>3. Insect Pest Control by SIT Technical basis
    19. 19. 3. Insect Pest Control by SIT Gamma Radiation No Offspring (BIRTH CONTROL) Sterile Sterile Wild
    20. 20. Integrated Pest Management With SIT Component Insect Pest Population Density aerial release of sterile flies ERADICATION months deployment of insecticide- treated targets or traps treatment of cattle with trypanocides treatment of cattle with insecticides
    21. 21. Major Achievements <ul><li>In Chile, fruit and vegetable exports have climbed to US $1.6 billion in 2005 as a result of fruit fly-free status. </li></ul><ul><li>Medfly-free status in Mexico translates to annual savings of US $2 billion in reduced crop losses and pesticide costs, and access to export markets. </li></ul><ul><li>In Zanzibar, eradication of tsetse and trypanosomiasis resulted in very significant increases of meat and milk production, as well as crop productivity </li></ul>SIT developed and transferred to over 30 Member States with substantial socio-economic impact:
    22. 22. Exports of bell peppers and tomatoes from Central America to the USA (2004-2006) Overcoming phytosanitary trade barriers to facilitate access of high-value crops to lucrative export markets Fruit fly free areas (FFFA) FFFA in progress
    23. 23. TSETSE ERADICATION PROJECT ETHIOPIA (2000 – 2006) 60% reduction in disease prevalence Block-1
    24. 24. 4. Animal Production & Health <ul><li>RIA is used to measure the presence of the reproductive hormone progesterone through immunological definition </li></ul><ul><li>Isotope I- 125 is used as a label to enable the immunological reaction to be assayed </li></ul><ul><li>Disease diagnosis using molecular tools (PCR-ELISA) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA assisted selection for productivity and disease resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Production of safe standard reagents by irradiation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of locally available feeds to overcome nutritional deficiencies </li></ul>Technical basis
    25. 25. DNA-Assisted Selection Measure productivity Sample DNA (blood, hair, milk) Identify superior genes Develop nuclear-related test for selection and breeding 4. Animal Production & Health 80 cm
    26. 26. Efficient Utilization of Locally Grown Feeds 4. Animal Production & Health Label with isotope e.g. 15 N , 13 C18 Feed to livestock Nutrients dispersed throughout body Tissue sampling to assay isotope distribution Local plant materials
    27. 27. Use of isotope related techniques in disease management Take blood Analyze the result Run ELISA Protected Vaccinate Is this cow vaccinated?
    28. 28. Reducing Health Risks through the early, rapid and sensitive serological and molecular detection (such as ELISA and PCR) Combat Bird Flu Combat Bird Flu
    29. 29. <ul><li>Diagnostic technologies developed and transferred to more then 70 Member States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rinderpest, Brucellosis, FMD, CBPP, Newcastle Disease, Trypanosomiasis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network for DNA analysis established in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Standards available for FMD, with other diseases in pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Specific feeding regimes developed in more than 30 Member States </li></ul>4. Animal Production & Health Major Achievements
    30. 30. <ul><li>Pan African Rinderpest Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>IAEA was involved in the development and validation of ELISA tests, the training of veterinarians and equipping Member State laboratories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established diagnostic capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced epidemiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sero-monitoring to verify vaccination coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveillance to monitor outbreaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidemiological surveys to declare freedom of disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rinderpest is today nearly eradicated worldwide! </li></ul>4. Animal Production & Health
    31. 31. 5. Food and Environmental Protection <ul><li>Food irradiation is the treatment of food by ionizing radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation at appropriate doses can kill harmful pests, bacteria, or parasites, and extend shelf-life of foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopic techniques are employed to monitor foods for contamination with agrochemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>optimizing sample preparation by radioisotopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detecting contaminant by electron capture detector </li></ul></ul>Technical basis
    32. 32. Several e nergy s ources c an b e u sed to i rradiate f ood <ul><li>Gamma Rays </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Beams </li></ul><ul><li>X-rays </li></ul>
    34. 34. Application of Food Irradiation <ul><li>More than 6 0 countries permit the application of irradiation in over 50 different foods </li></ul><ul><li>A n estimated 500,000 tons of food are irradiated annually </li></ul><ul><li>About 180 Cobalt-60 irradiation facilities and a dozen electron beam (EB) machines are used to treat foods worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>More and more countries accept the u se of i rradiation as a p hytosanitary m easure </li></ul>
    35. 35. Atoms for Food and Agriculture: Meeting the Challenge