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1 © FKASA PROCEDIA CIVIL ENGINEERING | 2013
Corresponding author email |wafty_ar@yahoo.com ; prakashpeechmani@yahoo.com
Introduction
Oxford Advanced English Dictionary termed flood as “a great
quantity of water lying on the land, after very heavy rain”.
Floods are frequently caused by unusual weather situations. In
the temperate climate zone, within catchments, high amounts of
precipitation falling in a short time period are responsible for
floods. It is obvious that there is a close relationship between
atmospheric circulation and climatic variables. The relationship
has been investigated by large number of authors since the 20th
century. The researches continue and today many of developing
countries focusing toward design water related structures to cater
and divert the flood water. In Malaysia, SMART Tunnel is an
great example of advanced proves on the flood research
development. SMART Tunnel designed to cater 100 year flood
at Klang valley.
Today, Klang valley has seen many changes in term of
economical development, land usage, environmental and water
resources. Due to the developments and the climate changes,
more severe and frequent a flood occurs at the Klang valley. To
overcome the flood, Malaysia SMART Team constructed the
tunnel and successfully operated since 2006. The increasing
complexity of the environmental and climate changes cause to
flood problems, which requiring a analysis the pattern of
discharge which involves precipitation data to explain the
rainfall behaviour and its resultant peak discharge and time of
peak.
The SMART Tunnel operated in 2006, is designed to cater for
the 100 year flood. The tunnel is constructed mainly to divert
storm water from Sg. Klang and Sg. Ampang (behind Gleneagles
Hospital) and the confluence of Sg. Gombak with Sg. Klang
(Masjid Jamek) to 2 ponds, holding pond at Kg. Berembang and
attenuation pond at Taman Desa. Recently, the frequent of
closing the motorway to divert the storm water has raised
question on the effectiveness of the SMART Tunnel operation.
This study is to analyze the pattern of discharge in order to
understand this phenomenon.
The main objective of this research can be outlined as follow:
i. to determine the pattern of discharge at SMART tunnel.
ii. to analysis the pattern of discharge (Preticipitation and
Runoff) at Klang valley which the storm diverted to
SMART tunnel.
Materials & Methods
Secondary data is taken from trusted organization which helps
to find the answer for the proposed thesis. To analyze the pattern
of discharge at SMART Tunnel, Klang Valley, there is few
secondary data required such as discharge rate, catchment area
details, Details of forecast mode (2-4) at SMART Tunnel and
also the frequency of the flood detail at Klang Valley. Basically
to analyze the pattern of discharge, we required to know methods
of estimating the missing rainfall data to analyze the hyetograph,
base flow of separation and also peak discharge.
There is few type data required in analyzing the pattern of
discharge at SMART Tunnel, Klang Valley.
i. Catchment area
ii. Precipitation data
iii. Runoff data
iv. Discharge rate
v. Detail of forecast mode (2-4)
The secondary data were analysed by using InfoWork RS
application. The InfoWork RS provides dynamic solution
modelling of the open channels, culverts, floodplains,
embankment and hydraulic structures. By using this application,
can indicative the flood risk mapping on the proposed catchment
area. This application also helps in estimating the effect of
urbanization process at analyzed catchment. This application can
be used in water resources planning and management such as
embankment design effect to that area, river cross section
improvement to the water management and etc. In this analysis,
INFORWORK RS were used to predict the discharge value to
be compared with real observed discharge. The database was
created as US SCS Boundary event type, and all the rainfall
depth value were added as the observed rainfall profile in 10
Abstract
Floods at Klang Valley is becomes a serious issue in recent years. Within the last 6 years, 14 major floods were recorded, i.e. on 3
September 2007, 13 November 2007, 22 March 2008, 21 May 2008, 13 March 2009, 24 March 2009, 19 September 2009, 18 May
2010, 24 February 2011, 19 May 2011, 21 May 2011, 13 December 2011, 22 September 2012 and 10 November 2012. These
floods results to high properties damages, economic effect and low water quality at Klang valley and Kuala Lumpur Capital city
of Malaysia. To divert and cater the flood water during the major storm event, Malaysia government SMART team constructed a
tunnel which called as Stormwater Management And Road Tunnel (SMART). From the research analysis, there is few factor
determined which cause the storm flood events at Klang valley. The cause of flood includes the increasing precipitation pattern,
rapid and uncontrolled development, limited river cross section and obstruction in river flow system that reduces the flow.
KEYWORDS | SMART tunnel, Klang , storm water
The Pattern of Discharge at SMART Tunnel, Klang Valley
*Engr. Wafty binti Adb Rahman, Prakash a/l Peechmani
2 © FKASA PROCEDIA CIVIL ENGINEERING | 2013
minutes interval. Some additional information also needed in
completing the database; such as; the catchment details,
hydrograph profile (peak hydrograph time), and event data SCS
(US SCS curve number).
Result & Discussion
From the analysis, 7 major flood events at SMART Tunnel
Control Centre (Berembang Holding Pond) were similar to the
real observed value. While 5 other major event obtained is not
similar as calculated value. This conparism can be referring at
table 4.1 as shown below:
Table 4.1: Compares Between Analyzed and Obtained Discharge Value.
Date
Analyzed Observed
Discharge, Q
(m3
/s)
Rainfall Centre Discharge, Q
(m3
/s)
Rainfall Centre
03/09/2007 218.045 IBMBS @ Kg Kemensah 217.54
13/11/2007 246.834 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1 320.41
22/03/2008 214.691 The Peak @ Tmn TAR, D/S Sg
Klang/Sg Ampang Confluence, IBMBS
@ Kg Kemensah
210.23 D/S Sg Klang/Sg Ampang Confluence
21/05/2008 146.125 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1 397.91 Sg Ampang @Kg Melayu Ampang
13/03/2009 299.164 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 300.93 Kem Zone 6 @ Sg Congkak Resort
24/03/2009 86.398 The Peak @ Tmn TAR 81.40
19/09/2009 240.323 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 248.97
18/05/2010 212.241 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 213.49 Bulatan Kg Pandan @Jln Tun Razak
24/02/2011 307.907 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 308.77 SM Pendidikan Khas @Jln Genting
Klang
19/05/2011 195.761 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1 196.00
21/05/2011 408.891 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 471.83 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1
13/12/2011 114.243 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1 292.66 SM Pendidikan Khas @Jln Genting
Klang
22/09/2012 214.237 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 279.12 The Peak @ Tmn TAR
10/11/2012 118.179 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1, D/S Sg
Klang/Sg Ampang Confluence
233.15 IBMBS @ Kg Kemensah
From the analyzed and observed data, it is founded that, the
discharge pattern at the SMART Tunnel is not fully depend on
the rainfall pattern, because there is some events that not as
theoretical assumption. The discharge observed is different from
the obtained value due to the some other physical flood factors;
such as:
i. Uncontrolled development near to river channel
ii. Obstruction in river flow system
iii. Small or non compatible of river cross section to the
discharge
Conclusion
The objectives of this research were achieved through the
secondary data analysis procedure and the observed discharge
value. From this analysis, the Pattern of discharge at SMART
Tunnel Control Centre (Berembang Holding Pond) at Klang
Valley was analysed.
The pattern of discharge is not fully depending on the rainfall
pattern.
There are 6 major events that cause flood at SMART Tunnel
(Berembang Holding Pond) were not follows as the theoretical
analysis. This is due to the rainfall pattern and also the flood
physical factors such as:
i. Obstruction in river flow system that reduce the flow
capacity
ii. Uncontrolled development at river channel
iii. Small or non compatible river cross section to the
discharge capacity.
On the other hand from the analysis, proven that 8 out of 14
major flood events at SMART Tunnel Control Centre
(Berembang Holding Pond), is due to the heavy rainfall pattern
at the catchment area.
Recommendation
From the analysis, found that some major flood events is not
because of the rainfall pattern only, but it’s due to other flood
physical factors which have discussed in the conclusion. So I
recommend to conducting further research to solve the problems
in order to achieve the best operational function as Storm water
Management and Road Tunnel Control Centre, (Berembang
Holding Pond) at Klang valley.
3 © FKASA PROCEDIA CIVIL ENGINEERING | 2013
References
1. Abidin, Mohamad Roseli Zainal. Hydrological and Hydraulic
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Nahrim, 2007.
3. R.C. Ward, M. Robinson. Principles of Hydrology. England :
McGraw-Hill , 2000. ISBN 0 07 709502 2.
4. Subramanya, K. Engineering Hydrology. Kanpur : McGRAW-HILL
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5. Elizabeth M. Shaw, Keith J. Beven, Nick A. Chappell, Rob Lamb.
Hydrology in Practice. Canada : Spon Press, 2011. ISBN 13: 978-0-415-
37041-7 (hbk).
6. Philip B. Bedient, Wayne C. Huber, Baxter E. Vieux. Hydrology
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0-13-1744589-6.
7. Ralph A. Wurbs, Wesley P. James. Water Resources Engineering.
Taxes : Prentice Hall, 2002. ISBN 0-13-081293-5.
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England : prentice Hall, 2002. ISBN 0582 36984 3.
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Management Research and Practice. London : CRC Press, 2009. ISBN:
978-0-415-48507-4.
10. Mason, B.J. The Physics of Clouds, 2e. London : Oxford University
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11. Pruppacher H.R, J.D. Klett. Microphysics of Clouds and
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http://www.water.gov.my/programme-aamp-activities-our-services-
382/373?task=view&lang=en.
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Risk and Flood Management. New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc.,
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EXTENDED ABSTRACT REVISION 3

  • 1. 1 © FKASA PROCEDIA CIVIL ENGINEERING | 2013 Corresponding author email |wafty_ar@yahoo.com ; prakashpeechmani@yahoo.com Introduction Oxford Advanced English Dictionary termed flood as “a great quantity of water lying on the land, after very heavy rain”. Floods are frequently caused by unusual weather situations. In the temperate climate zone, within catchments, high amounts of precipitation falling in a short time period are responsible for floods. It is obvious that there is a close relationship between atmospheric circulation and climatic variables. The relationship has been investigated by large number of authors since the 20th century. The researches continue and today many of developing countries focusing toward design water related structures to cater and divert the flood water. In Malaysia, SMART Tunnel is an great example of advanced proves on the flood research development. SMART Tunnel designed to cater 100 year flood at Klang valley. Today, Klang valley has seen many changes in term of economical development, land usage, environmental and water resources. Due to the developments and the climate changes, more severe and frequent a flood occurs at the Klang valley. To overcome the flood, Malaysia SMART Team constructed the tunnel and successfully operated since 2006. The increasing complexity of the environmental and climate changes cause to flood problems, which requiring a analysis the pattern of discharge which involves precipitation data to explain the rainfall behaviour and its resultant peak discharge and time of peak. The SMART Tunnel operated in 2006, is designed to cater for the 100 year flood. The tunnel is constructed mainly to divert storm water from Sg. Klang and Sg. Ampang (behind Gleneagles Hospital) and the confluence of Sg. Gombak with Sg. Klang (Masjid Jamek) to 2 ponds, holding pond at Kg. Berembang and attenuation pond at Taman Desa. Recently, the frequent of closing the motorway to divert the storm water has raised question on the effectiveness of the SMART Tunnel operation. This study is to analyze the pattern of discharge in order to understand this phenomenon. The main objective of this research can be outlined as follow: i. to determine the pattern of discharge at SMART tunnel. ii. to analysis the pattern of discharge (Preticipitation and Runoff) at Klang valley which the storm diverted to SMART tunnel. Materials & Methods Secondary data is taken from trusted organization which helps to find the answer for the proposed thesis. To analyze the pattern of discharge at SMART Tunnel, Klang Valley, there is few secondary data required such as discharge rate, catchment area details, Details of forecast mode (2-4) at SMART Tunnel and also the frequency of the flood detail at Klang Valley. Basically to analyze the pattern of discharge, we required to know methods of estimating the missing rainfall data to analyze the hyetograph, base flow of separation and also peak discharge. There is few type data required in analyzing the pattern of discharge at SMART Tunnel, Klang Valley. i. Catchment area ii. Precipitation data iii. Runoff data iv. Discharge rate v. Detail of forecast mode (2-4) The secondary data were analysed by using InfoWork RS application. The InfoWork RS provides dynamic solution modelling of the open channels, culverts, floodplains, embankment and hydraulic structures. By using this application, can indicative the flood risk mapping on the proposed catchment area. This application also helps in estimating the effect of urbanization process at analyzed catchment. This application can be used in water resources planning and management such as embankment design effect to that area, river cross section improvement to the water management and etc. In this analysis, INFORWORK RS were used to predict the discharge value to be compared with real observed discharge. The database was created as US SCS Boundary event type, and all the rainfall depth value were added as the observed rainfall profile in 10 Abstract Floods at Klang Valley is becomes a serious issue in recent years. Within the last 6 years, 14 major floods were recorded, i.e. on 3 September 2007, 13 November 2007, 22 March 2008, 21 May 2008, 13 March 2009, 24 March 2009, 19 September 2009, 18 May 2010, 24 February 2011, 19 May 2011, 21 May 2011, 13 December 2011, 22 September 2012 and 10 November 2012. These floods results to high properties damages, economic effect and low water quality at Klang valley and Kuala Lumpur Capital city of Malaysia. To divert and cater the flood water during the major storm event, Malaysia government SMART team constructed a tunnel which called as Stormwater Management And Road Tunnel (SMART). From the research analysis, there is few factor determined which cause the storm flood events at Klang valley. The cause of flood includes the increasing precipitation pattern, rapid and uncontrolled development, limited river cross section and obstruction in river flow system that reduces the flow. KEYWORDS | SMART tunnel, Klang , storm water The Pattern of Discharge at SMART Tunnel, Klang Valley *Engr. Wafty binti Adb Rahman, Prakash a/l Peechmani
  • 2. 2 © FKASA PROCEDIA CIVIL ENGINEERING | 2013 minutes interval. Some additional information also needed in completing the database; such as; the catchment details, hydrograph profile (peak hydrograph time), and event data SCS (US SCS curve number). Result & Discussion From the analysis, 7 major flood events at SMART Tunnel Control Centre (Berembang Holding Pond) were similar to the real observed value. While 5 other major event obtained is not similar as calculated value. This conparism can be referring at table 4.1 as shown below: Table 4.1: Compares Between Analyzed and Obtained Discharge Value. Date Analyzed Observed Discharge, Q (m3 /s) Rainfall Centre Discharge, Q (m3 /s) Rainfall Centre 03/09/2007 218.045 IBMBS @ Kg Kemensah 217.54 13/11/2007 246.834 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1 320.41 22/03/2008 214.691 The Peak @ Tmn TAR, D/S Sg Klang/Sg Ampang Confluence, IBMBS @ Kg Kemensah 210.23 D/S Sg Klang/Sg Ampang Confluence 21/05/2008 146.125 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1 397.91 Sg Ampang @Kg Melayu Ampang 13/03/2009 299.164 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 300.93 Kem Zone 6 @ Sg Congkak Resort 24/03/2009 86.398 The Peak @ Tmn TAR 81.40 19/09/2009 240.323 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 248.97 18/05/2010 212.241 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 213.49 Bulatan Kg Pandan @Jln Tun Razak 24/02/2011 307.907 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 308.77 SM Pendidikan Khas @Jln Genting Klang 19/05/2011 195.761 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1 196.00 21/05/2011 408.891 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 471.83 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1 13/12/2011 114.243 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1 292.66 SM Pendidikan Khas @Jln Genting Klang 22/09/2012 214.237 Kuala Seleh @ Empangan Klang Gate 279.12 The Peak @ Tmn TAR 10/11/2012 118.179 Sg Klang @ Jln AU 3/1, D/S Sg Klang/Sg Ampang Confluence 233.15 IBMBS @ Kg Kemensah From the analyzed and observed data, it is founded that, the discharge pattern at the SMART Tunnel is not fully depend on the rainfall pattern, because there is some events that not as theoretical assumption. The discharge observed is different from the obtained value due to the some other physical flood factors; such as: i. Uncontrolled development near to river channel ii. Obstruction in river flow system iii. Small or non compatible of river cross section to the discharge Conclusion The objectives of this research were achieved through the secondary data analysis procedure and the observed discharge value. From this analysis, the Pattern of discharge at SMART Tunnel Control Centre (Berembang Holding Pond) at Klang Valley was analysed. The pattern of discharge is not fully depending on the rainfall pattern. There are 6 major events that cause flood at SMART Tunnel (Berembang Holding Pond) were not follows as the theoretical analysis. This is due to the rainfall pattern and also the flood physical factors such as: i. Obstruction in river flow system that reduce the flow capacity ii. Uncontrolled development at river channel iii. Small or non compatible river cross section to the discharge capacity. On the other hand from the analysis, proven that 8 out of 14 major flood events at SMART Tunnel Control Centre (Berembang Holding Pond), is due to the heavy rainfall pattern at the catchment area. Recommendation From the analysis, found that some major flood events is not because of the rainfall pattern only, but it’s due to other flood physical factors which have discussed in the conclusion. So I recommend to conducting further research to solve the problems in order to achieve the best operational function as Storm water Management and Road Tunnel Control Centre, (Berembang Holding Pond) at Klang valley.
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