Cascadia Disaster & Oregon’s Energy Assurance Plan         Partners in Emergency Preparedness Conference, April 26, 2011Yu...
Talk Outline   Cascadia vs Japan’s 9.0 & Chile’s 8.8 quakes   Cascadia: when/where/how big?   Cascadia: deaths/dollars/...
Pacific Ring of Fire: Earthquakes            *subduction zones produce biggest quakes               Next slides on Japan i...
Japan’s Magnitude 9.0                                      Earthquake, Tsunami, Nuke                                      ...
6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Rebound ~15 ft to SE & 3 ft down6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Ground Shaking:                                Building                                DamagegSource: Aydan6/1/2011Yumei W...
Embankment Failures     Source: Aydan6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Industries:KIRIN beer factory6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Tsunami –    can arrive   in 15 i   i ~15 min    & last for     ~24 hrs6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Importance of    Lifelines:Utilities, transportation,   etc ((e.g., Airport,               Ai    Communication,       Elec...
Transportation   Source: Aydan6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Sendai Refinery: may resume Summer 20126/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10                                      Source: Ay...
Minami Soma6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Tsunami Terminology6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
2011, 1933, 1896 Tsunami Heights                           38 m                          (125 ft)                         ...
Ports Field Survey (PARI)6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Ofunato Port                                      nearby 23.6 m run-up                                                    ...
Sendai Airport                        5.7 m tsunami ~1 hr later                        576/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Domestic Arrivals6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10                                                (Source: K. Miyamoto)
Sendai Seawall                                                    City ~ 1 million                                        ...
Sendai                                                disaster                                                  help      ...
Sendai6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10                                      (Source: K. Miyamoto)
City of Tagajgo6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10                                               (Source: K. Miyamoto)
Tagajyo                                                   g jy6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10                         ...
Kesennuma6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10                                           (Source: K. Miyamoto)
Minami Sanriku   Rikuzen-   Rikuzen-Takata6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Coastal Communities6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Coastal Communities    (Source: K Mi    (S       K. Miyamoto)) Announce 5/10 12:30-2 Capitol                12:30-6/1/2011...
Coastal Communities    (Source: K Mi    (S       K. Miyamoto)) Announce 5/10 12:30-2 Capitol                12:30-6/1/2011...
Coastal Communities (Sendai)6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10                                      (Source: K. Miyamoto)
Coastal Communities6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI
Coastal Communities6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Coastal Communities6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI                                       (Source: K. Miyamoto)
Coastal Communities6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI
CoastalCommunities
CoastalCommunitiesC       ii
Coastal Communities
Onogawa                             (Oregonian, OSU Harry Yeh)                             (Oregonian6/1/2011Yumei Wang, D...
Coastal Communities  Okawa elementary schoolIshinomaki, Miyagi prefecture.       on March 22,  60 of 84 children missing6/...
     Source: NOAA6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
NOAA warning: Expect Tsunami Surges for Many Hours.                                             Hours.6/1/2011Yumei Wang, ...
Pacific Ring of Fire: Earthquakes6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Chileg M8.8 vs Cascadia M9 AnalogGeology/Geography/Industry~PNW     gy       p y        yModern w/earlier seismic codes
Areas Damage in Japan & Chile  * Future Damage in Oregon *1.   Coastal Areas Hit by Tsunami     eg. Flooded     eg. Fl d d...
1. Tsunami
2. Weak SoilsSSA town hall 4/21/10         Coronel fishing portYumei Wang, DOGAMI
2. Weak Soils
2. Weak Soils, Energy Sector
2. Weak Soils, broke fuel pipes
3. Weak Infrastructure                bridges route 5                redundancy                  d d
3. Weak Infrastructure
3. Weak InfrastructureRoute 5 over-crossing        over-
3. Weak Infrastructure: Santiago Airport  Santiago Airport control tower damage of the four anchor points of the cab struc...
Take Home Lessons for Oregon1. Coastal Areas Hit by Tsunami   Improve Safety in Tsunami Prone Areas2. Areas of “Weak” Soi...
Cascadia Earthquakes/Tsunamis:    When, where,    When where how big?    Sloping fault surface      offshore to coast
When?           100%, don’t know exactly when…           100%,     • 41 quakes magnitude 8 & larger     • 240 yr average p...
Where?     North-South Direction: Could be N. CA to BCEast-West Direction: Offshore to up to 30 west of Portland
HOW BIG?Could be magnitude 8, or could be magnitude 9.2           g        ,               g  Mw               Mw 8.5-    ...
Cascadia:      Cascadia: Double Whammy!                            y Tsunami: arrives ~15 minutes       Hazards/EffectsWav...
Geologic Time vs Oregonians                                                                 (data from Goldfinger et al)• ...
Cascadia Damage: Oregon Estimates                    Predictive Model                    • > 5,000 deaths                 ...
Deaths, dollars & downtime        2010 Haiti (220k)           23 per 1,000      2011 Japan (25k/3M)         ~8 per 1,000  ...
Deaths: Concentrated Fatalities   Weak buildings that collapse     E.g., old b i k b ildi      E      ld brick buildings...
“5.12” 2008 M 7.9 China Quake       85,000 Total Dead19,000 S d19 000 Students Died i S h l                Di d in Schools
BEFORE         AFTER
“5.12” 2008 M 7.9 China Quake      Memorial Town47 of 212 Occupants Died
Tsunami vertical evacuation refuge                                  Japan             Proposed in Oregon  Japan           ...
About Vertical Evacuation              The primary means for Cascadia tsunami       evacuation is to move by foot to inlan...
Deaths, dollars & downtimeJapan’s Damage         Oregon Estimates~$306 Billion (US)  $306 Billi            >$36 Billion di...
Deaths, dollars & downtime         Critical Energy Infrastructure (CEI)     Critical Transportation Infrastructure (CTI)  ...
SOCIETAL                                      DEPENDENCE                                        PORTS                     ...
Deaths, dollars & downtime   Portland multi-modal transportation corridor     Union Pacific & BNSF rail yards (rail)    ...
Vulnerable Bridges
Energy Assurance Project (EAP)    Oregon Dept of Energy, Oregon Public Utility    Commission, & DOGAMI. US DOE funding.   ...
LIQUID FUEL 100% imported Natural Gas 100% imported      Many El tri l Operators      M n Electrical Op r t r             ...
Critical Energy Infrastructure:Oregon’s fuel supply on weak soilsO       ’ f l      l         k il
Fuel Oil Terminals              Vulnerable Facilities
Electrical Transmission       BPA estimates        up to 25 Ft        movement       towards riverChile’s Damage
Chile’s Damage                Build Resilience                              to Improve Safety   Japan’s Damage            ...
Build Resilience to Improve SafetyChile’s Damage                                      Japan’s                             ...
Build Resilience: emergency response    Chile damage     2010 Oregon Seismic Grant Projects               Kfall Fire, St H...
Rep. Deb Boone’s                                      House Resolution 3                                       adopted 4/1...
6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
Summary Points   Cascadia earthquakes & tsunamis   Damage: tsunamis, weak soils & infrastructure   Priority: Schools & ...
Pre- 1995 Schools & Emergency Facilities   Public voted (2002) for safe schools & EFs   1,361 high-to-very high risk (20...
Energy Assurance Project      Focus Area                  Hub Critical Energy                   Infrastructure (CEI)     ...
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Cascadia Disaster and Oregon’s Energy Assurance Plan

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Speaker:  Yumei Wang, Geohazards Section Leader, Oregon Department of Geology and
Mineral Industries
Pacific Northwest‟s disaster is a Cascadia subduction zone mega-earthquake, which would
produce minutes of strong ground shaking, coastal subsidence, liquefaction, landslides, and a
tsunami. Oregon relies on a single critical energy infrastructure hub that includes co-located f
pipelines, petroleum tank farms, river port facilities, and natural gas and electricity transmissi
all which are concentrated along the Willamette River in Portland. Because this energy hub is
located on highly liquefiable soils and the facilities have severe seismic design deficiencies,
Oregon faces a high risk of catastrophic damage to the energy sector. Damage will likely lead
inoperable infrastructure, fires, hazardous materials spills, a fuel shortage, un-navigable
waterways, upstream and downstream economic effects, and regional recovery lasting for yea
The State of Oregon is developing an energy assurance plan with short, medium, and long ran
risk management solutions to help improve the reliability of energy sector services.

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Cascadia Disaster and Oregon’s Energy Assurance Plan

  1. 1. Cascadia Disaster & Oregon’s Energy Assurance Plan Partners in Emergency Preparedness Conference, April 26, 2011Yumei WY i Wang, D Deanna H Henry, J R G J.R. Gonzalez, Ri k C t I l Rick Carter, Immanuel R l Runnels, & R b l Rebecca Sh Sherman
  2. 2. Talk Outline Cascadia vs Japan’s 9.0 & Chile’s 8.8 quakes Cascadia: when/where/how big? Cascadia: deaths/dollars/downtime Oregon Energy Assurance Project (EAP)  March 2011 EAP Report: Critical Energy Infrastructure  Findings Build Resilience  Cascadia Resilience Planning (2011 HR 3 passed)
  3. 3. Pacific Ring of Fire: Earthquakes *subduction zones produce biggest quakes Next slides on Japan incl. info from many sources: ASCE, Miyamoto, media, more6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  4. 4. Japan’s Magnitude 9.0 Earthquake, Tsunami, Nuke q , , Source info: JGS, JSCE,PARI, NIED, GSI, USGS, NOAA, ASCE, Miyamoto, Percher, P hAydan, DOGAMI, media Source:6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  5. 5. 6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  6. 6. 6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  7. 7. Rebound ~15 ft to SE & 3 ft down6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  8. 8. Ground Shaking: Building DamagegSource: Aydan6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI
  9. 9. Embankment Failures Source: Aydan6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  10. 10. Industries:KIRIN beer factory6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  11. 11. Tsunami – can arrive in 15 i i ~15 min & last for ~24 hrs6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  12. 12. Importance of Lifelines:Utilities, transportation, etc ((e.g., Airport, Ai Communication, Electricity) El i i ) 6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 Source: Aydan
  13. 13. Transportation Source: Aydan6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  14. 14. Sendai Refinery: may resume Summer 20126/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 Source: Aydan
  15. 15. Minami Soma6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  16. 16. Tsunami Terminology6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  17. 17. 2011, 1933, 1896 Tsunami Heights 38 m (125 ft) tsunami run up http://www.coastal.jp/tsunami2011/ http://outreach.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/sanrikuhikaku.jpg6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  18. 18. Ports Field Survey (PARI)6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  19. 19. Ofunato Port nearby 23.6 m run-up run-6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  20. 20. Sendai Airport 5.7 m tsunami ~1 hr later 576/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  21. 21. Domestic Arrivals6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 (Source: K. Miyamoto)
  22. 22. Sendai Seawall City ~ 1 million population6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 (Source: K. Miyamoto)
  23. 23. Sendai disaster help h lp6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 (Source: K. Miyamoto)
  24. 24. Sendai6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 (Source: K. Miyamoto)
  25. 25. City of Tagajgo6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 (Source: K. Miyamoto)
  26. 26. Tagajyo g jy6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 (Source: K. Miyamoto)
  27. 27. Kesennuma6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 (Source: K. Miyamoto)
  28. 28. Minami Sanriku Rikuzen- Rikuzen-Takata6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  29. 29. Coastal Communities6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  30. 30. Coastal Communities (Source: K Mi (S K. Miyamoto)) Announce 5/10 12:30-2 Capitol 12:30-6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI
  31. 31. Coastal Communities (Source: K Mi (S K. Miyamoto)) Announce 5/10 12:30-2 Capitol 12:30-6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI
  32. 32. Coastal Communities (Sendai)6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 (Source: K. Miyamoto)
  33. 33. Coastal Communities6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI
  34. 34. Coastal Communities6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  35. 35. Coastal Communities6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI (Source: K. Miyamoto)
  36. 36. Coastal Communities6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI
  37. 37. CoastalCommunities
  38. 38. CoastalCommunitiesC ii
  39. 39. Coastal Communities
  40. 40. Onogawa (Oregonian, OSU Harry Yeh) (Oregonian6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI
  41. 41. Coastal Communities Okawa elementary schoolIshinomaki, Miyagi prefecture. on March 22, 60 of 84 children missing6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6-14-10
  42. 42.  Source: NOAA6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  43. 43. NOAA warning: Expect Tsunami Surges for Many Hours. Hours.6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6-14-10
  44. 44. Pacific Ring of Fire: Earthquakes6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  45. 45. Chileg M8.8 vs Cascadia M9 AnalogGeology/Geography/Industry~PNW gy p y yModern w/earlier seismic codes
  46. 46. Areas Damage in Japan & Chile * Future Damage in Oregon *1. Coastal Areas Hit by Tsunami eg. Flooded eg. Fl d d communities, ports, bridges ii b id2. Areas of “Weak” Soils “Weak” eg. eg. River crossings: Bridges & pipes3. Weak Infrastructure eg. eg. Older buildings & systems
  47. 47. 1. Tsunami
  48. 48. 2. Weak SoilsSSA town hall 4/21/10 Coronel fishing portYumei Wang, DOGAMI
  49. 49. 2. Weak Soils
  50. 50. 2. Weak Soils, Energy Sector
  51. 51. 2. Weak Soils, broke fuel pipes
  52. 52. 3. Weak Infrastructure bridges route 5 redundancy d d
  53. 53. 3. Weak Infrastructure
  54. 54. 3. Weak InfrastructureRoute 5 over-crossing over-
  55. 55. 3. Weak Infrastructure: Santiago Airport Santiago Airport control tower damage of the four anchor points of the cab structure
  56. 56. Take Home Lessons for Oregon1. Coastal Areas Hit by Tsunami Improve Safety in Tsunami Prone Areas2. Areas of “Weak” Soils Critical Infrastructure & Emergency Routes g y3. Weak Infrastructure Prioritize & Fix using “risk management” g
  57. 57. Cascadia Earthquakes/Tsunamis: When, where, When where how big? Sloping fault surface offshore to coast
  58. 58. When? 100%, don’t know exactly when… 100%, • 41 quakes magnitude 8 & larger • 240 yr average period r er e • Jan 26, 1700 (311 yrs ago)6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 (data modified from Goldfinger et al)
  59. 59. Where? North-South Direction: Could be N. CA to BCEast-West Direction: Offshore to up to 30 west of Portland
  60. 60. HOW BIG?Could be magnitude 8, or could be magnitude 9.2 g , g Mw Mw 8.5- Mw 8.3- Mw ~9 8.8 8.5 7.6-8.4 500 430 yrs 320 yrs 240 yrs yrs (modified from Goldfinger et al. (in press))  20 full or nearly full length ruptures  2 to 3 ruptures of ~75% length f 75% l h  19 shorter ruptures southern part of margin
  61. 61. Cascadia: Cascadia: Double Whammy! y Tsunami: arrives ~15 minutes Hazards/EffectsWaves & surges for many hours g y  Ground shaking g  Tsunami (coast)  Coast Subsidence  Liquefaction  Lateral spreading  Landslides  Settlement  Seiches  Fires  Hazmat spills  Infrastructure damage  Black out Fuel out, shortage, etc
  62. 62. Geologic Time vs Oregonians (data from Goldfinger et al)• Design & build using current knowledge (for future generations)• Seismic hazards recent info: 1994 Oregon adopts seismic building code• Outcome—lots of vulnerable infrastructure (schools, energy, bridges, etc) Outcome— • >1,200 school buildings over 50 yrs old .6/1/2011Yumei Wang,
  63. 63. Cascadia Damage: Oregon Estimates Predictive Model • > 5,000 deaths • > 35,000 Buildings Destroyed • > 250,000 Buildings Damaged • > $36 Billion Direct Damage
  64. 64. Deaths, dollars & downtime 2010 Haiti (220k) 23 per 1,000 2011 Japan (25k/3M) ~8 per 1,000 Oregon Estimates (>5k) >>3 per 1,000 1 000 World War II (420k in US) 2 per 1,000 2010 Chile (500) 0.2 per 1,000
  65. 65. Deaths: Concentrated Fatalities Weak buildings that collapse  E.g., old b i k b ildi E ld brick buildings unreinforced masonry URMs  Historic districts with URMs  URM schools Tsunami flood zones
  66. 66. “5.12” 2008 M 7.9 China Quake 85,000 Total Dead19,000 S d19 000 Students Died i S h l Di d in Schools
  67. 67. BEFORE AFTER
  68. 68. “5.12” 2008 M 7.9 China Quake Memorial Town47 of 212 Occupants Died
  69. 69. Tsunami vertical evacuation refuge Japan Proposed in Oregon Japan Built in Thailand6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  70. 70. About Vertical Evacuation The primary means for Cascadia tsunami evacuation is to move by foot to inland areas and y higher ground. In those areas where evacuation may take longer than 20 minutes (due to distance or because of at-risk populations), other tsunami evacuation options should be explored. These options may include: creation of new ( Th ti i l d ti f (or preservation of existing) evacuation routes (paths, roads, bridges), and tsunami evacuation berms, structures, & buildings. All these solutions should be integrated into local tsunami evacuation planning & education efforts.6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  71. 71. Deaths, dollars & downtimeJapan’s Damage Oregon Estimates~$306 Billion (US) $306 Billi >$36 Billion direct~6% GDP damage (22% OR GSP) Chile s Chile’s Damage Chile’s equivalent damage q g $30 Billion (US) in Oregon = $70 B 18% GDP ( (42% OR GSP) )
  72. 72. Deaths, dollars & downtime Critical Energy Infrastructure (CEI) Critical Transportation Infrastructure (CTI) p f ( ) OR’s economy relies on energy & transportation Energy: liquid fuel, electricity, natural gas  Electricity underpins all sectors y p  89% Gas: transportation (62%) & energy (27%) Expect: Transportation mobility problems, fuel problems shortage, electrical black-out…  Also, Also interdependencies & cascading issues
  73. 73. SOCIETAL DEPENDENCE PORTS HIGHWAYS A S ENERGY6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6-14-10
  74. 74. Deaths, dollars & downtime Portland multi-modal transportation corridor  Union Pacific & BNSF rail yards (rail)  Port of Portland & other ports (marine)  Interstate 5, I-205 & I-84 (highways)  PDX (air) Oregon’s fuel supply hub on liquefiable soils
  75. 75. Vulnerable Bridges
  76. 76. Energy Assurance Project (EAP) Oregon Dept of Energy, Oregon Public Utility Commission, & DOGAMI. US DOE funding. INITIAL FINDINGS (Mar. 2011 EAP report) Energy Sector: fuel, electricity, natural gas at high risk gy , y, g g Widespread seismic vulnerabilities: severe impact  F iliti s range >100 yrs old t m d rn codes Facilities r n rs ld to modern d s  Oregon’s Fuel Supply Hub: high seismic risk  Damage likely: facilities & river crossings for both transmission pipelines & towers Long- Long-term rebuilding of Critical Energy Infrastructure http://www.oregon.gov/ENERGY/publications.shtml EAP Project
  77. 77. LIQUID FUEL 100% imported Natural Gas 100% imported Many El tri l Operators M n Electrical Op r t r  Energy demand increase of 45% next 20 yrs (PGE) EAP Project
  78. 78. Critical Energy Infrastructure:Oregon’s fuel supply on weak soilsO ’ f l l k il
  79. 79. Fuel Oil Terminals Vulnerable Facilities
  80. 80. Electrical Transmission BPA estimates up to 25 Ft movement towards riverChile’s Damage
  81. 81. Chile’s Damage Build Resilience to Improve Safety Japan’s Damage Oregon6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI,
  82. 82. Build Resilience to Improve SafetyChile’s Damage Japan’s J ’ Damage6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 Oregon Fuel Terminals
  83. 83. Build Resilience: emergency response Chile damage 2010 Oregon Seismic Grant Projects Kfall Fire, St Helens Police, OHSU hospital6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  84. 84. Rep. Deb Boone’s House Resolution 3 adopted 4/18/11 Cascadia Resilience Plan by Feb. 20136/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10 DRAFT EAP Project
  85. 85. 6/1/2011Yumei Wang, DOGAMI, 6/14/10
  86. 86. Summary Points Cascadia earthquakes & tsunamis Damage: tsunamis, weak soils & infrastructure Priority: Schools & Emergency Facilities y g y Critical Transportation & Energy Infrastructure Build Resilience
  87. 87. Pre- 1995 Schools & Emergency Facilities  Public voted (2002) for safe schools & EFs  1,361 high-to-very high risk (2007 DOGAMI report)  649 schools (collapse-prone) with 300,000 students  Only 15 schools rec’d seismic retrofit grants…
  88. 88. Energy Assurance Project Focus Area  Hub Critical Energy Infrastructure (CEI)  Intersection of:  Petroleum  Natural Gas  Electric  High liquefaction zone

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