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GRANT AGREEMENT: 601138 | SCHEME FP7 ICT 2011.4.3
Promoting and Enhancing Reuse of Information throughout the Content Lifecycle taking account of Evolving
Semantics [Digital Preservation]
“This project has received funding from the European Union’s
Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological
development and demonstration under grant agreement no601138”.
Anna-Grit Eggers (University of Goettingen)
 Decapsulation is an integral part in the objective of encapsulation. A
user will at any point in time be able to access the encapsulated
information.
 The decapsulation process can be facilitated by
◦ appending additional information to the payload before the encapsulation
◦ storing the decapsulation supporting information at a location different to the
payload.
 Supporting information before decapsulation is called Restoration
Metadata.
 The storage location, format, and used encapsulation technique to store
the restoration metadata need to be handled in a defined way
 Sometimes it is not obvious which embedding algorithm was used, or even
if there is information embedded at all.
Algorithm Identifier and
Location of Restoration
Metadata
 An Algorithm Identifier can facilitate the identification
of the used encapsulation technique.
 It should best be stored at a defined and perceptible location
e.g. in a standard metadata field.
◦ It has to be defined which metadata field is used to guarantee the
recognition by the encapsulation and decapsulation tool.
◦ The original content of the metadata field has to be added to the
restoration metadata set, to be able to recover the object’s original
state.
 Alternatively, a visible encapsulation algorithm can be
used to store this information.
 For some algorithms it is necessary to store information
about the localisation of the restoration metadata.
 Some need to store other algorithm configuration options
together with the algorithm identifier.
◦ This is the case if the restoration metadata location can
vary, depending on carrier constraints and algorithm
configurations.
 The format of the localisation information can depend on the
referred algorithm.
“ALGORITHM_IDENTIFIER#LOCALISATION_INFORMATION”
 the “#” is a separator between the algorithm identifier and the
localisation information:
image_frame_expansion_E#582
 This translates to:
“The restoration metadata saved for the use of the algorithm that
expands images with an information frame towards east starts at
the pixel 582”.
 This information would suffice for an information encapsulation
tool to know which algorithm to use and where to find the
restoration information, and then to execute the decapsulation.
 It is not necessary to have an algorithm-independent format of the
locator:
audio_track_expansion#3
 Here the location information refers to the third audio track of a video
where information was embedded by adding an additional audio track to
the video.
 The localisation number at this identifier has a completely different
meaning compared to the first example
 It suffices to initiate the decapsulation process.
 Only the addressed decapsulation algorithm has to understand the
localisation information, and the IE framework has to understand the
algorithm identifier.
 For many information encapsulation techniques it is possible
to identify whether information is encapsulated, and which
encapsulation technique was used based on obvious traits at
the file.
 In this case it is not necessary to store algorithm identifier
and localisation information.
 Still, this information supports the handling of hardly
detectable techniques, and helps to distinguish between
similar techniques.
Restoration metadata
• A checksum of the original
 enables a validation of the restored information, carrier as well as payload
 it ensures consistency.
• Configuration information and parameters (including the
encapsulation process itself)
 needed to reverse the encapsulation algorithm
 to know at decapsulation time
 decisions made during the encapsulation process.
• Original file formats, encodings and paths of each file.
• If metadata fields are used, e.g. for the algorithm identifier, the
original entries of these fields need also to be saved.
• Localisation information, if they are needed.
• A ‘valid-until’ timestamp included in the restoration metadata can
indicate a date at which the payload has to be verified again.
• Other payload management information, such as semantic
annotations, to the restoration metadata can support the
handling of this information without the need to execute the
decapsulation process.
• All restoration metadata parameters have to be stored by the
encapsulation algorithms during the encapsulation process.
• Some embedding techniques, e.g. steganography, only
provide the restoration of the embedded payload, whereas
the carrier is not designed to be restored.
• Long-term preservation scenarios in which the carrier is a
valuable digital object require also the restoration of the
digital object.
• By storing additional information about the changes made on
the carrier digital object, and add a digit of the original digital
object, it could be possible to enable the digital object
restorability also for techniques which didn‘t originally provide
for this.

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PERICLES Decapsulation and Restoration

  • 1. GRANT AGREEMENT: 601138 | SCHEME FP7 ICT 2011.4.3 Promoting and Enhancing Reuse of Information throughout the Content Lifecycle taking account of Evolving Semantics [Digital Preservation] “This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no601138”. Anna-Grit Eggers (University of Goettingen)
  • 2.  Decapsulation is an integral part in the objective of encapsulation. A user will at any point in time be able to access the encapsulated information.  The decapsulation process can be facilitated by ◦ appending additional information to the payload before the encapsulation ◦ storing the decapsulation supporting information at a location different to the payload.  Supporting information before decapsulation is called Restoration Metadata.  The storage location, format, and used encapsulation technique to store the restoration metadata need to be handled in a defined way  Sometimes it is not obvious which embedding algorithm was used, or even if there is information embedded at all.
  • 3. Algorithm Identifier and Location of Restoration Metadata
  • 4.
  • 5.  An Algorithm Identifier can facilitate the identification of the used encapsulation technique.  It should best be stored at a defined and perceptible location e.g. in a standard metadata field. ◦ It has to be defined which metadata field is used to guarantee the recognition by the encapsulation and decapsulation tool. ◦ The original content of the metadata field has to be added to the restoration metadata set, to be able to recover the object’s original state.  Alternatively, a visible encapsulation algorithm can be used to store this information.
  • 6.  For some algorithms it is necessary to store information about the localisation of the restoration metadata.  Some need to store other algorithm configuration options together with the algorithm identifier. ◦ This is the case if the restoration metadata location can vary, depending on carrier constraints and algorithm configurations.  The format of the localisation information can depend on the referred algorithm.
  • 7. “ALGORITHM_IDENTIFIER#LOCALISATION_INFORMATION”  the “#” is a separator between the algorithm identifier and the localisation information: image_frame_expansion_E#582  This translates to: “The restoration metadata saved for the use of the algorithm that expands images with an information frame towards east starts at the pixel 582”.  This information would suffice for an information encapsulation tool to know which algorithm to use and where to find the restoration information, and then to execute the decapsulation.
  • 8.  It is not necessary to have an algorithm-independent format of the locator: audio_track_expansion#3  Here the location information refers to the third audio track of a video where information was embedded by adding an additional audio track to the video.  The localisation number at this identifier has a completely different meaning compared to the first example  It suffices to initiate the decapsulation process.  Only the addressed decapsulation algorithm has to understand the localisation information, and the IE framework has to understand the algorithm identifier.
  • 9.  For many information encapsulation techniques it is possible to identify whether information is encapsulated, and which encapsulation technique was used based on obvious traits at the file.  In this case it is not necessary to store algorithm identifier and localisation information.  Still, this information supports the handling of hardly detectable techniques, and helps to distinguish between similar techniques.
  • 11. • A checksum of the original  enables a validation of the restored information, carrier as well as payload  it ensures consistency. • Configuration information and parameters (including the encapsulation process itself)  needed to reverse the encapsulation algorithm  to know at decapsulation time  decisions made during the encapsulation process. • Original file formats, encodings and paths of each file. • If metadata fields are used, e.g. for the algorithm identifier, the original entries of these fields need also to be saved. • Localisation information, if they are needed. • A ‘valid-until’ timestamp included in the restoration metadata can indicate a date at which the payload has to be verified again.
  • 12. • Other payload management information, such as semantic annotations, to the restoration metadata can support the handling of this information without the need to execute the decapsulation process. • All restoration metadata parameters have to be stored by the encapsulation algorithms during the encapsulation process.
  • 13. • Some embedding techniques, e.g. steganography, only provide the restoration of the embedded payload, whereas the carrier is not designed to be restored. • Long-term preservation scenarios in which the carrier is a valuable digital object require also the restoration of the digital object. • By storing additional information about the changes made on the carrier digital object, and add a digit of the original digital object, it could be possible to enable the digital object restorability also for techniques which didn‘t originally provide for this.