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A PROJECT REPORT
ON
A STUDY OF PROBLEMS RELATED TO
SOFT BOTTLES IN COCA COLA PVT.
LTD.
Submitted By
ANMOL MAHAJAN...
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
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CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SOFT DRINK INDUSTRY
The non-alcoholic beverage industry broadly incl...
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the cola wars, is legendary. Both have spent huge sums of money
on mutually targeted advertisements over decades....
Page | 5
means to synthetically carbonate water, and the commercial
manufacturing of artificial mineral waters began with ...
Page | 6
John S. Pemberton's first print advertisement for his creation read
"Delicious! Refreshing! Exhilarating! Invigor...
Page | 7
After World War II, the soft-drink industry became a leader in television
advertising, the use of celebrity endor...
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percent of the market), Pepsi-Cola, Diet Coke, Mountain Dew (a Pepsi
product), Sprite (a Coca-Cola product), Dr. ...
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Dominant carbonates category
The global soft drink market is led by carbonated soft drinks (or CSDs),
which had a...
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1.5 WHAT ARE SOFT BOTTLES?
A soft bottle is a bottle constructed from plastic. Plastic bottles or Soft
bottles a...
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grade. HDPE is naturally translucent and flexible. The addition of
color will make HDPE opaque, but not glossy. ...
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provides an excellent barrier to most gases and its drop impact
resistance is also very good. This material is c...
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8. Fluorine Treated (HDPE) bottles are exposed to fluorine gas in a
secondary operation, are similar in appearan...
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food or pharmaceutical products. PCR can be produced in a variety
of recycled content percentages up to 100%.
2....
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In the United States, plastic water bottles are regulated by the FDA which
also inspects and samples bottled wat...
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The Great Pacific Garbage Patch
An area of marine debris, roughly the size of Texas, floats within the
Pacific O...
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Due to ocean current circulation, floating marine debris is transported to
‘natural gathering points’ within the...
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Plastic pollution is having a significant environmental and economic
impact. One estimate (from 2008) was that p...
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development of a strategic mix of alternative processes, technologies and
materials.
1.8 PROBLEMS FACED BY COMPA...
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CHAPTER 2
COMPANY PROFILE
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CHAPTER 2 – COMPANY PROFILE
2.1 COMPANY OVERVIEW
The Coca-Cola Company, which is headquartered in Atlanta, Georg...
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2.2 OPERATIONS
Coke manages seven main operating segments (most of them
geographically-based), including: Eurasi...
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2.3 GEOGRAPHIC REACH
The world's largest beverage company rang up almost 55% of its sales
outside the US during ...
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To keep its brand foremost in the mind of consumers, the company spent
$4 billion on advertising in 2015, up fro...
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2.6 STRATEGY
The Coca-Cola Company continues to look to relatively undeveloped
markets with a growing middle cla...
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portfolio for use in Keurig Green Mountain's Keurig Kold at-home
beverage system. It purchased a 16% stake in Mo...
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Natural Sodas, Peace Tea, Hubert's Lemonade and Hansen's Juice
Products, to The Coca-Cola Company.
2.8 COMPANY B...
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and BURN energy drink. The Company along with its bottling partners,
through a strong network of over 2.6 millio...
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With an enduring commitment to building sustainable communities, our
Company is focused on initiatives that redu...
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Coca-Cola India Pvt Ltd is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Coca-
Cola which manufactures and sells concentrate ...
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2.10 MISSION, VISION AND VALUES
1. Our Mission
Our Roadmap starts with our mission, which is enduring. It declar...
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 Planet: Be a responsible citizen that makes a difference by helping
build and support sustainable communities....
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5. Focus on the Market
 Focus on needs of our consumers, customers and franchise partners
 Get out into the ma...
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8. Be the Brand
 Inspire creativity, passion, optimism and fun
2.11 OUR LEADERS
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2.12 PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY
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CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
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CHAPTER 3 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Methodology is a science of studying how research is done
scientifical...
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Sample Size: There are 50 distributors to whom the questionnaire has
been distributed and their feedback is cons...
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3. To gain insight into company`s distribution process and problems
occurring in between.
4. To understand the u...
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Judgmental sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where the
researcher selects units to be sampled bas...
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CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSIS
AND
INTERPRETATION
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CHAPTER 4 - DATA ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION
The questionnaire that was given to the distributors of Coca Cola i...
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Table No. 4.1: Gender Profile of the respondents
Gender Respondents’ Gender Detail Percentage
Male 50 100
Female...
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Table No. 4.2: Age Profile of the Respondents
Age Profile Age of Respondents Percentage %
20 – 30 17 34
31 40 25...
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Table No. 4.3: Qualification of respondents
Qualification Slab Qualification of
Respondents
Percentage
%
Higher ...
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Table No. 4.4: Do you face any type of problem from the company`s
end in term of delivering you the products in ...
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Table No. 4.5: Have you ever received any defective product having
soft bottle associated with it.
Options Respo...
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Table No. 4.6: Which product from the company do you receive
mostly defective.
Options Responses of
Respondents
...
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Table No. 4.7: What according to you remained the main cause of
receiving defective soft bottles in the end.
Opt...
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Table No. 4.8: How would you rate the transportation and delivery
system of company.
Options Responses of
Respon...
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Table No. 4.9: Do you think temperature plays major role when it
comes to defective soft bottles.
Options Respon...
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Table No. 4.10: Excess in waiting period causes detention that causes
defects in products later on. Do you agree...
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CHAPTER 5
FINDINGS AND
SUGGESTIONS
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CHAPTER 5 – FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS
It has been seen that dealers are facing issues with the soft bottles comin...
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With the delay in unloading time, the bottles starts exceeding the
temperature due to chemical gases involved in...
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5.1 FINDINGS
 During the analysis of the distributors that were included in the
sample survey, it was revealed ...
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the delivery process but a few percentages between them expressed
their negative views in response to the delive...
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transportation and delivery system was of average quality while 2
percent of people said that it was not good an...
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5.2 SUGGESTIONS
 Female entrepreneurship in this field should be increased if it can
be increase. It has been s...
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and clear all the problems or gaps between them and should strive
hard to make them positive about the company a...
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temperature is not in hand. It should be done that the products
should reach dealer`s godown in time thus causin...
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should be covered with adequate cover on their truck and if vans
or tempos are being used, they should be all cl...
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Since reuse is a step up from recycling, repurposing plastic bottles we
already have is an excellent habit to ge...
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CONCLUSION
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CONCLUSION
Coke is it -- it being the #1 nonalcoholic beverage company, as well as
one of the world's most recog...
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is currently developing a plant bottle containing 22.5% plant based PET,
and so still rely heavily on oil based ...
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The Human Impact of Soft Bottles
Plastic bottles contain Bisphenol A (BPA), the chemical used to make the
plasti...
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class them as a health hazard due to the supposedly minute amounts
present in plastic bottles. This decicsion do...
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variety of animal species that mistake them for food. One albatross that
was recently found dead on a Hawaiian i...
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leaching dangerous chemicals into the ground, or they infiltrate our
streets as litter. They are found on sidewa...
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defective soft bottles and the problems related to soft bottles. There are
so many problems related to soft bott...
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are stacked over one another, it causes problem to them thus getting soft
bottles defective or puffed.
Another t...
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/toxin-in-pet-
bottles-of-soft-drinks-pepsic...
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https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/mar/17/coca-cola-hits-back-
at-sugar-tax-plan
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ANNEXURE(S)
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QUESTIONNAIRE
PROBLEMS RELATED TO SOFT BOTTLES
TOPIC: A STUDY OF PROBLEMS RELATED TO SOFT
BOTTLES IN COCA COLA P...
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b) 31 – 40 Years
c) 41 & Further Years
Q3) Your Educational Profile?
a) HSL (10 + 2)
b) Graduates
c) Post Gradua...
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b) Soft Bottles
c) Tetra Packs
Q7) What according to you remained the main cause of receiving
defective soft bot...
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Q10) Excess in waiting period causes detention that causes defects in
products later on. Do you agree with this?...
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Problems Related to Soft Bottles in Coca Cola - MBA/BBA Summer Internship Project Report

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Project report on the topic “A Study of Problems Related to Soft Bottles in Coca Cola” is exclusively made for MBA and BBA students so as to make them understand the whole scenario of the problems being faced by the production house and the distributors while handling and distributing the product, i.e. Soft Bottles. These soft bottles get different types of problems during their way to Godown or Warehouse of dealer before getting out for delivery to shops and retail outlets. In this project, you will find the major problems that are related to soft bottles and different ways through which you can overcome these problems related to them. You will be getting the project report free of cost and you can also download it by clicking on the link given at the end of this post. So, read the important points given below before you click and download MBA/BBA project report of supply chain management on coca cola that too free of cost.

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Problems Related to Soft Bottles in Coca Cola - MBA/BBA Summer Internship Project Report

  1. 1. Page | 1 A PROJECT REPORT ON A STUDY OF PROBLEMS RELATED TO SOFT BOTTLES IN COCA COLA PVT. LTD. Submitted By ANMOL MAHAJAN AND GURMEET SINGH In Partial Fulfillment Of Summer Internship At COCA COLA LTD
  2. 2. Page | 2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. Page | 3 CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SOFT DRINK INDUSTRY The non-alcoholic beverage industry broadly includes soft drinks and hot drinks. Soft drinks contain carbonated or non-carbonated water, a sweetener, and a flavor, and hot drinks include coffee and tea. The soft drink category dominates the industry and includes carbonates, juice, bottled water, ready-to-drink tea and coffee, and sports and energy drinks. Soft drinks are sometimes referred to as liquid refreshment beverages (or LRBs). In the US, LRBs lead food and beverage retail sales. In this series, we’ll focus on the soft drink or LRB market. The Coca-Cola Company (KO) and PepsiCo, Inc. (PEP) have dominated the non-alcoholic beverage industry for ages. Coca-Cola is the world’s largest non-alcoholic beverage company with more than 500 brands, including 17 brands that generate more than a billion dollars each in revenue. PepsiCo owns leading brands across its snack foods and beverage portfolio, including 22 brands that generate more than a billion dollars each in revenue. According to Beverage Digest, he companies have a combined share of about 70% of the US carbonated soft drink (or CSD) market. Both companies have a wide geographic presence in more than 200 countries. The rivalry between these two companies, popularly called
  4. 4. Page | 4 the cola wars, is legendary. Both have spent huge sums of money on mutually targeted advertisements over decades. With the use of more and more soft drinks, the containers that are used to carry them are also in demand thus creating more threat to the environment. These threats are those that occur with the effect caused by non recyclable soft bottles being used by these companies to fill their product in and send for sales. Now, the problem and threat to nature is on one side and the problem being faced by these manufacturers while producing and distributing their products to their dealers is on other side. Due to the harsh effect shown by nature, these soft bottles are proving a little bit problems for these manufacturers. 1.2 THE SOFT DRINK INDUSTRY Soft drink industry, the production, marketing, and distribution of nonalcoholic, and generally carbonated, flavored, and sweetened, water- based beverages. The history of soft drinks in the United States illustrates important business innovations, such as product development, franchising, and mass marketing, as well as the evolution of consumer tastes and cultural trends. Many Europeans long believed natural mineral waters held medicinal qualities and favored them as alternatives to often-polluted common drinking water. By 1772, British chemist Joseph Priestley invented a
  5. 5. Page | 5 means to synthetically carbonate water, and the commercial manufacturing of artificial mineral waters began with Jacob Schweppes’s businesses in Geneva in the 1780s and London in the 1790s. The first known U.S. manufacturer of soda water, as it was then known, was Yale University chemist Benjamin Silliman in 1807, though Joseph Hawkins of Baltimore secured the first U.S. patent for the equipment to produce the drink two years later. By the 1820s, pharmacies nationwide provided the beverage as a remedy for various ailments, especially digestive. Though the drinks would continue to be sold in part for their therapeutic value, customers increasingly consumed them for refreshment, especially after the 1830s, when sugar and flavorings were first added. Soda fountains emerged as regular features of drugstores by the 1860s and served beverages flavored with ginger, vanilla, fruits, roots, and herbs. In 1874 a Philadelphia store combined two popular products to make the first known ice-cream soda. The first cola drink appeared in 1881. In the late 1800s, several brands emerged that were still popular a century later. Pharmacists experimenting at local soda fountains invented Hires Root Beer in Philadelphia in 1876, Dr. Pepper in Waco, Texas, in 1885, Coca-Cola in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1886, and Pepsi-Cola in New Bern, North Carolina, in 1893, among others. Reflecting two of the middle-class mores of the period—temperance and feeling overwhelmed by the pace and burdens of modern life—early marketing touted these drinks as alternatives to alcohol and/or as stimulants. Coca-Cola inventor
  6. 6. Page | 6 John S. Pemberton's first print advertisement for his creation read "Delicious! Refreshing! Exhilarating! Invigorating!," while As a Candler, the eventual founder of the Coca-Cola Company, promoted his product in the years leading up to Prohibition as "The Great National Temperance Beverage." The history of Coca-Cola reveals how national markets in soft-drink brands developed. To limit the cost of transportation, manufacturers of syrup concentrates licensed bottlers to mix the product, package, and distribute it within a specific territory. Candler underestimated the importance of the bottling side of the business and in 1899 sold the national rights to bottle Coke for a fairly small sum to Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, who then started a national network of bottlers, creating the basic franchising format by which the industry is still run. Candler and his successor after 1923, Robert Woodruff, were aggressive and innovative in marketing Coke as a leading consumer product and cultural icon. Coupons for free samples and giveaways of items bearing the drink's name and logo publicized the beverage, and pioneering efforts in market research helped define how best to take advantage of advertising and promotions. During World War II, Woodruff opened bottling operations overseas to supply U.S. military personnel, and after the war, Coke was poised to enter these international markets, not only as a consumer product, but also as a symbol of "the American Century."
  7. 7. Page | 7 After World War II, the soft-drink industry became a leader in television advertising, the use of celebrity endorsements, catchy slogans, tie-ins with Hollywood movies, and other forms of mass marketing, particularly focusing on young consumers and emphasizing youth-oriented themes. As health and fitness consciousness and environmental awareness became popular, the industry responded with sugar-free and low-calorie diet sodas, beginning in the 1960s, and later, caffeine-free colas and recyclable containers. The most famous rivalry within the industry has been between Coke and Pepsi, which waged two rounds of "cola wars" in the twentieth century. In the 1930s and 1940s, Pepsi challenged the industry leader by offering a twelve-ounce bottle for the same five-cent price as Coke's standard six ounces. In the 1970s and 1980s, "Pepsi challenge" taste-tests led Coke to change its formula in 1985, a campaign that failed because it underestimated the attachment Coke drinkers had to the tradition and symbolism of the brand. In 2001, the soft-drink industry included approximately five hundred U.S. bottlers with more than 183,000 employees, and it achieved retail sales of more than $61 billion. Americans that year consumed an average of 55 gallons of soft drinks per person, up from 48 in 1990 and 34 in 1980. The nine leading companies accounted for 96.5 percent of industry sales, led by Coca-Cola with more than 43 percent of the soft drink market and Pepsi with 31 percent. Seven individual brands accounted for almost two-thirds of all sales: Coca-Cola Classic (itself with nearly 20
  8. 8. Page | 8 percent of the market), Pepsi-Cola, Diet Coke, Mountain Dew (a Pepsi product), Sprite (a Coca-Cola product), Dr. Pepper, and Diet Pepsi. Domestic sales growth slowed in the late 1990s because of increased competition from coffee drinks, iced teas, juices, sports drinks, and bottled waters. The industry continues, however, to tap lucrative international markets; Coke and Pepsi each have bottling operations in more than 120 countries. 1.3 GLOBAL SOFT DRINK MARKET SIZE
  9. 9. Page | 9 Dominant carbonates category The global soft drink market is led by carbonated soft drinks (or CSDs), which had a market size of $337.8 billion in 2013. In the same year, CSDs were followed by bottled water, with a market size of $189.1 billion, and juice, with a market size of $146.2 billion. In a later part of this series, we’ll discuss why CSDs have been losing popularity, and why sales of other beverages, including juices and ready-to-drink tea, are increasing. Major companies The non-alcoholic beverage market is a highly competitive industry that includes two behemoths —The Coca-Cola Company (KO) and PepsiCo, Inc. (PEP). Collectively, these companies hold about 70% of the US CSD market. Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. (DPS), Monster Beverage Corporation (MNST), and Cot Corporation (COT) are some other key players in the CSD market. Many international markets are also dominated by Coca-Cola and PepsiCo, but include other companies such as Grouped DANONE, Nestle SA, and Suntory Holdings Limited. Non-alcoholic beverage manufacturers, like Coca-Cola and PepsiCo, are part of the consumer staple sector. You can invest in these companies through the Consumer Staples Select Sector SPDR ETF (XLP).
  10. 10. Page | 10 1.5 WHAT ARE SOFT BOTTLES? A soft bottle is a bottle constructed from plastic. Plastic bottles or Soft bottles are typically used to store liquids such as water, soft drinks, motor oil, cooking oil, medicine, shampoo, milk, and ink. The size ranges from very small sample bottles to large carboys. Plastic bottles were first used commercially in 1947 but remained relatively expensive until the early 1960s when high- density polyethylene was introduced. They quickly became popular with both manufacturers and customers due to their lightweight nature and relatively low production and transportation costs compared with glass bottles. However, the biggest advantage plastic bottles have over glass is their superior resistance to breakage, in both production and transportation. Except for wine and beer, the food industry has almost completely replaced glass bottles with plastic bottles. 1.6 PRODUCTION OF SOFT BOTTLES Plastic bottles are formed using a variety of techniques. The choice of material varies. Depending upon application. 1. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is the most widely used resin for plastic bottles. This material is economical, impact resistant, and provides a good moisture barrier. HDPE is compatible with a wide range of products including acids and caustics but is not compatible with solvents. It is supplied in FDA-approved food
  11. 11. Page | 11 grade. HDPE is naturally translucent and flexible. The addition of color will make HDPE opaque, but not glossy. HDPE lends itself to silk screen decoration. While HDPE provides good protection at below freezing temperatures, it cannot be used with products filled above 160 °F (71 °C) or products requiring a hermetic (vacuum) seal. 2. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) is similar to HDPE in composition. It is less rigid and generally less chemically resistant than HDPE, but is more translucent. LDPE is used primarily for squeeze applications. LDPE is significantly more expensive than HDPE. 3. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET, PETE or polyester) is commonly used for carbonated beverage, water bottles and many food products. PET provides very good alcohol and essential oil barrier properties, generally good chemical resistance (although acetones and ketenes will attack PET) and a high degree of impact resistance and tensile strength. The orienting process serves to improve gas and moisture barrier properties and impact strength. This material does not provide resistance to very high temperature applications—max. Temp. 200 °F (93 °C). 4. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is naturally clear, has extremely good resistance to oils, and has very low oxygen transmission. It
  12. 12. Page | 12 provides an excellent barrier to most gases and its drop impact resistance is also very good. This material is chemically resistant, but it is vulnerable to some solvents. PVC has poor resistance to high temperatures and will distort at 160 °F (71 °C), making it incompatible with hot-filled products. It has attained notoriety in recent years due to potential health risks. 5. Polycarbonate (PC) is a clear plastic used to make water and milk bottles. 5 gallon water bottles are the most common examples of PC bottles. 6. Polypropylene (PP) is used primarily for jars and closures and provides a rigid package with excellent moisture barrier. One major advantage of polypropylene is its stability at high temperatures, up to 220 °F (104 °C). Polypropylene is autoclavable and offers the potential for steam sterilization. The compatibility of PP with high filling temperatures is responsible for its use with hot fill products. PP has excellent chemical resistance, but provides poor impact resistance in cold temperatures. 7. Polystyrene (PS) offers excellent clarity and stiffness at an economical cost. It is commonly used with dry products including vitamins, petroleum jellies, and spices. Styrene does not provide good barrier properties, and exhibits poor impact resistance.
  13. 13. Page | 13 8. Fluorine Treated (HDPE) bottles are exposed to fluorine gas in a secondary operation, are similar in appearance to HDPE and have exceptional barrier properties to hydrocarbons and aromatic solvents. Fluorine treated bottles are excellent for use with insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, photographic chemicals, agricultural chemicals, household and industrial cleaners, electronic chemicals, medical cleaners and solvents, citrus products, d-limonene, flavors, fragrances, essential oils, surfactants, polishes, additives, graffiti cleaning products, pre- emergent’s, stone and tile care products, waxes, paint thinner, gasoline, biodiesel, xylem, acetone, kerosene and more. For non-bottle applications, fluorination of plastic can provide compliance with state and federal regulations. An example would be fluorinated plastic fuel tanks used for lawn and garden equipment, automobiles, etc. 1. Post Consumer Resin (PCR) is a blend of reclaimed natural HDPE (primarily from milk and water containers) and virgin resin. The recycled material is cleaned, ground and decompounded into uniform pellets along with prime virgin material especially designed to build up environmental stress crack resistance. PCR has no odor but exhibits a slight yellow tint in its natural state. This tint can be hidden by the addition of color. PCR is easily processed and inexpensive. However, it cannot come into direct contact with
  14. 14. Page | 14 food or pharmaceutical products. PCR can be produced in a variety of recycled content percentages up to 100%. 2. K-Resin (SBC) is ideally suited to a wide variety of packaging applications by virtue of its sparkling clarity, high gloss, and impact resistance. K-Resin, a styrene derivative, is easily processed on polyethylene equipment. It is suitable for packaging many products but is specifically incompatible with fats and unsaturated oils or solvents. This material is frequently used for display and point-of-purchase packaging. 3. Bioplastic - polymer structures based on processed biological materials rather than petrochemicals. Bioplastic are commonly made from renewable sources like starch, vegetable oil, and less commonly, chicken feathers. The idea behind Bioplastic is to create a plastic that has the ability to biodegrade. There is ongoing concern as to the use of plastics in consumer food packaging solutions, environmental impact of the disposal of these products, as well as concerns regarding consumer safety. Karin Michaels, Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School, suggests that toxins leaching from plastics might be related to disorders such as infertility and cancer in humans.
  15. 15. Page | 15 In the United States, plastic water bottles are regulated by the FDA which also inspects and samples bottled water plants periodically. Plastic water bottle plants hold a low priority for inspection due to a continuously good safety record. In the past, the FDA maintained that there was a lack of human data showing plastics pose health problems, however in January 2010; the FDA reversed its opinion saying they now have concerns about health risks. These all are some of the several types of plastic or soft bottles available in the market. As discussed, some are recyclable and some are non recyclable thus causing a threat to the environment. The bottles that are not recyclable cause greater effect and threat to environment. These bottles are not a threat to environment only but also to the manufacturing companies that are manufacturing it with their products in it. With the ill effects of temperature and other forces, it has been seen that many of the bottles gets break and thus causing ill effect over the bottle and product. 1.7 IMPACTS OF SOFT BOTTLES ON ENVIRONMENT 58% of fizzy drinks are packaged using PET plastic bottles. The remaining 42% of fizzy drinks are packaged using a mix of glass bottles, steel and aluminum cans. A few issues about each type of packaging are presented in the table below.
  16. 16. Page | 16 The Great Pacific Garbage Patch An area of marine debris, roughly the size of Texas, floats within the Pacific Ocean. This ‘Garbage Patch’ lies between California and Hawaii and, despite belief to the contrary, cannot be seen easily with the naked eye, let alone from space. It is predominantly made up of thousands of tiny pieces of floating plastic called micro-plastics. Scientists have collected up to 1.9 million bits of plastic per square mile. As noted by Greenpeace, “a single one liter bottle could break down into enough small fragments to put one on every mile of beach in the entire world”. These micro-plastics can disturb marine food webs by blocking sunlight from reaching algae and plankton, in addition to acting like sponges- absorbing toxic chemicals – which are then digested by marine wildlife and eventually us.
  17. 17. Page | 17 Due to ocean current circulation, floating marine debris is transported to ‘natural gathering points’ within the oceans – as seen with the North Pacific Garbage Patch. These patches are created by gyres – circular ocean currents- whose centers are very calm and stable. Once debris enters the gyre’s centre it stays, resulting in a buildup of rubbish.[3] No country will take the responsibility for cleaning the trash up as the Pacific Garbage Patch lies far from any coastline and is made up of waste from several nations – primarily North America and Asia.39 this tricky task has been left to International organizations such as the Plastic Soup Foundation. The myriad properties and usefulness of plastic has resulted in an exponential proliferation and pervasiveness on a global scale. Plastic pollution now reaches virtually every part of the planet. More recently, the most significant growth has been in single use disposable products. Packaging is the largest end use market segment, accounting for 40% of the total plastic produced. Not surprisingly, as this is a disposable product, it has become the major pollutant. Once thrown away, plastic has the opportunity to enter the water course and eventually the oceans. And while plastic waste only accounts for about 10% of the total amount of waste we generate, it is responsible for up to 80%, or sometimes more, of the waste that accumulates on land, shorelines, the ocean surface or the seabed.
  18. 18. Page | 18 Plastic pollution is having a significant environmental and economic impact. One estimate (from 2008) was that plastic pollution alone is costing developing and industrialized nations up to $1.27 billion annually as it threatens the fishing, shipping and tourism industries. It threatens our marine animals through ingestion and entanglement, and our ecosystems as a vector for invasive species. However perhaps the most insidious threat is to human health. Plastic does not go away but, under the influence of waves and sunlight, it breaks down into smaller and smaller pieces. These particles (which outnumber plankton in some regions) are entering the food chain and releasing chemicals into the fish that eat them. These ingested particles are retained within the fish’s digestive system and slowly release chemicals into its body. Once consumed by us, these chemicals are slowly released into our bodies. Some of these chemicals have the ability to disrupt the endocrine system of humans and cause cancers. There is no simple answer to the problem of plastic waste in the oceans or around the globe. Anyone who says that the solution lies in recycling, or biodegradable products has not addressed the underlying issue; that is, plastic waste is the result of Poor Waste Management Systems or human neglect, and the issue of plastic pollution not yet being considered an urgent matter. The real challenge to finding a solution therefore, is to determine how to change our own attitudes and behavior alongside the
  19. 19. Page | 19 development of a strategic mix of alternative processes, technologies and materials. 1.8 PROBLEMS FACED BY COMPANIES DUE TO SOFT BOTTLES Most of the major shares holding soft drink manufacturer companies use soft bottles as a package for their soft drink. The manufactured soft drink is poured in the soft bottles and then shipped across various thousand numbers of retailers and dealers across different state and countries. While all this going on, there comes a serious problem of getting the soft bottles injured. Being injured refers to as a situation where soft bottles gets damaged and the product gets wasted or comes back to the production plan from where it went to get sold. This problem is being one of the major problems for the company itself as the company has to prepare for themselves too.
  20. 20. Page | 20 CHAPTER 2 COMPANY PROFILE
  21. 21. Page | 21 CHAPTER 2 – COMPANY PROFILE 2.1 COMPANY OVERVIEW The Coca-Cola Company, which is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, but incorporated in Wilmington, Delaware,[2] is an American multinational beverage corporation, and manufacturer, retailer, and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups.[3] The company is best known for its flagship product Coca-Cola, invented in 1886 by pharmacist John Stitch Pemberton in Columbus, Georgia.[4] The Coca-Cola formula and brand were bought in 1889 by Asa Griggs Candler (December 30, 1851 – March 12, 1929), who incorporated The Coca-Cola Company in 1892. The company has operated a franchised distribution system since 1889, wherein The Coca-Cola Company only produces syrup concentrate, which is then sold to various bottlers throughout the world who hold exclusive territories. The Coca-Cola Company owns its anchor bottler in North America, Coca- Cola Refreshments. The company's stock is listed on the NYSE (NYSE: KO) and is part of DJIA, the S&P 500 index, the Russell 1000 Index, and the Russell 1000 Growth Stock Index. Muhtar Kent serves as chairman of the company with James Quincey as president and chief executive officer.
  22. 22. Page | 22 2.2 OPERATIONS Coke manages seven main operating segments (most of them geographically-based), including: Eurasia and Africa; Europe; Latin America; North America; Asia Pacific; Bottling Investments; and Corporate. The North America operating segment generates the majority of its revenue from the sale of finished beverages, while the other geographic regions get most of their business from the manufacture and sale of beverage concentrates and syrups. The company made 63% of its sales from finished product operations during 2015, while the rest came from concentrate operations. The Bottling Investments division focuses on the beverage company's owned bottling operations outside of North America. This segment helps to maximize the efficiency of its production, distribution, and marketing efforts. They include a 29% stake in Mexico's bottler Coca-Cola FEMSA(now the largest independent Coke bottler), 23% of European bottler Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling, and 29% of Coca-Cola Amatil, a bottler and distributor of Coke products in Australia, New Zealand, and surrounding countries. Other major independent bottling partners include Arca Continental, New Coca-Cola Enterprises, and wire Beverages.
  23. 23. Page | 23 2.3 GEOGRAPHIC REACH The world's largest beverage company rang up almost 55% of its sales outside the US during 2015, in some 200 countries worldwide across Eurasia, Africa, Europe, North America, and the Pacific Region. Important international markets include Asia, Latin America, and Europe, which made up more than 30% of 2015 revenues, combined. 2.4 SALES AND MARKETING Not only is Coca-Cola one of the world's most recognizable and valuable brands, but The Coca-Cola Company supports the largest beverage distribution system in the world, made up of company-owned or controlled bottling and distribution operations, as well as independently owned bottling partners, distributors, wholesalers, and retailers. Beverages bearing trademarks owned by or licensed to them account for 1.9 billion of the approximately 57 billion beverage servings of all types consumed worldwide every day. In 2015, about 81% of the company's worldwide unit case volume was outside of the US. The largest unit case volumes were in Mexico, China, Brazil, and Japan, which made up 31% of worldwide total. Of these international unit case volumes, 74% held sparkling beverages while the rest held still beverages.
  24. 24. Page | 24 To keep its brand foremost in the mind of consumers, the company spent $4 billion on advertising in 2015, up from $3.5 billion and $3.26 billion in 2014 and 2013, respectively. 2.5 FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE The Coca-Cola Company's annuals sales and profits have been trending lower over the past several years as traditional soft drink sales have fallen with changing consumer tastes in developed markets. The soft-drink maker's sales fell 4% to $44.3 billion during 2015 with sales falling in every segment and region except for North America (where it sold more bottled water and teas), mostly due to the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange rates. Unit case volume shipments, however, increased in every territory in the low-single digits, while Bottling Investment shipments rose 8% with higher growth in China and India, and in Germany to a lesser extent. Despite sales declines in 2015, the company's net income rose 4% to $7.35 billion mostly as its deal with Monster Beverage was re-appraised to be worth $1.4 billion more than previously believed. Coca-Cola's operating cash levels dipped 1% to $10.53 billion after adjusting for the impact of foreign currency fluctuations and because it paid more in tax payments.
  25. 25. Page | 25 2.6 STRATEGY The Coca-Cola Company continues to look to relatively undeveloped markets with a growing middle class and money to spend on soft drinks and juices. To that end, it announced it will invest $5 billion with its bottling partners in Africa through 2020, raising its investment in the region to $17 billion from 2010 to 2020. In a move that supported expanding its fruit-based drinks portfolio and investing in Africa, The Coca-Cola Company in late 2014 announced a partnership with alcoholic beverage company SABMiller and South Africa's Gutsche Family Investments to create Coca-Cola Beverages Africa, the continent's largest bottler. The new company serves about a dozen high-growth markets where disposable incomes and the population are growing, and handles about 40% of the beverage company's African volume. In exchange for its $260 million investment, The Coca-Cola Company will receive an 11% interest in the bottler and SABMiller's global Appletiser brand of carbonated juices as well as about 20 other African and Latin American non-alcoholic beverage brands. Gutsche Family Investments already controls Coca-Cola Sabco, a Coke bottler since 1940 with operations in seven African countries. Coca-Cola Beverages Africa will absorb most of SABMiller's non-alcoholic operations on the continent as well as Coca-Cola Sabco's plants. Also in 2014, the company teamed up with Keurig Green Mountain, entering into a 10-year global strategic agreement to collaborate on the development and introduction of The Coca-Cola Company global brand
  26. 26. Page | 26 portfolio for use in Keurig Green Mountain's Keurig Kold at-home beverage system. It purchased a 16% stake in Monster Beverage Corporation in a long-term strategy to accelerate growth for both companies in the fast-growing, global energy drink industry. The popularity of soft drinks, especially in mature markets, has been on the decline for the past decade as negative publicity about obesity and other health risks continues to threaten sales. As a result, The Coca-Cola Company and other top soft drink makers are turning toward other parts of their noncarbonated product portfolio for growth, such as fruit juices, sports and energy drinks, and bottled water and tea beverages. A part of the plan to rely less on the old way of doing business, and compensate for falling sales amidst changing tastes, the company is selling many of its low-margin bottling operations to concentrate on higher margin operations like selling concentrates and syrups to bottlers. 2.7 MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS Diversifying its portfolio, in 2014 the company acquired a 16.7% equity stake in Monster Beverage Corp., a leading maker of energy drinks. Under the terms of the deal, The Coca-Cola Company will transfer ownership of its worldwide energy business, including NOS, Full Throttle, Burn, Mother, Play and Power Play, and Relentless, to Monster; and Monster will transfer its non-energy business, including Hansen's
  27. 27. Page | 27 Natural Sodas, Peace Tea, Hubert's Lemonade and Hansen's Juice Products, to The Coca-Cola Company. 2.8 COMPANY BACKGROUND In 2013 Coca-Cola opened a new bottling plant in Myanmar as part of a planned $200 million investment during the next five years there which also includes adding more than 22,000 jobs during that time period. Also that year, in growing its distribution network, The Coca-Cola Company bought Sacramento Coca-Cola Bottling Company, the sixth-largest independent Coca-Cola bottler in the nation that serves nine northern California counties. 2.9 COCA-COLA WORLDWIDE AND IN INDIA Coca-Cola India, is one of the country’s leading beverage companies, offering a range of healthy, safe, high quality, refreshing beverage options to consumers. Ever since its re-entry in 1993, the Company has gone on to establish an unmatched portfolio of beverages, refreshing consumers with its leading beverage brands like Coca-Cola, Coca- Cola Zero, Diet Coke, Thums Up, Fanta, Fanta Green Mango, Limca, Sprite, Sprite Zero, VIO Flavored Milk, Maaza, Minute Maid range of juices, Georgia and Georgia Gold range of hot and cold tea and coffee options, Kinley and Bonaqua packaged drinking water, Kinley Club Soda
  28. 28. Page | 28 and BURN energy drink. The Company along with its bottling partners, through a strong network of over 2.6 million retail outlets, touches the lives of millions of consumers. Its brands are some of the most preferred and most sold beverages in the country. The Coca-Cola system in India has already invested $2 billion till 2011, since its re-entry into India. The company will be investing another $5 billion till the year 2020. The Coca-Cola system in India directly employs over 25,000 people including those on contract. The system has created indirect employment for more than 1,50,000 people in related industries through its vast procurement, supply and distribution system. We strive to ensure that our work environment is safe and inclusive and that there are plentiful opportunities for our people in India and across the world.
  29. 29. Page | 29 With an enduring commitment to building sustainable communities, our Company is focused on initiatives that reduce our environmental footprint, support active, healthy living, create a safe, inclusive work environment for our associates, and contribute to the development of the communities where we operate. Some of the Company’s flagship community development programmes include the “Support My School” programme, the “Parivartan” retailer training programme, women empowerment as a part of the global 5BY20 campaign etc. TCCC re-entered the Indian market post the economic liberalisation of 1991 and established Coca-Cola India Private Limited (CCIPL) as its wholly-owned subsidiary in 1992. The entities that comprise the Coca- Cola System in India are:
  30. 30. Page | 30 Coca-Cola India Pvt Ltd is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Coca- Cola which manufactures and sells concentrate and beverage bases and powdered beverage mixes. A Company-owned bottling entity, namely, Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt Ltd, thirteen licensed bottling partners of The Coca-Cola Company, who are authorised to prepare, package, sell and distribute beverages under certain specified trademarks of The Coca-Cola Company; and an extensive distribution system comprising of our customers, distributors and retailers are the other pillars of this system. Coca-Cola India Private Limited sells concentrate and beverage bases to authorised bottlers. These authorised bottlers independently develop local markets and distribute beverages to grocers, small retailers, supermarkets, restaurants and numerous other businesses. In turn, these customers make our beverages available to consumers across India.
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  32. 32. Page | 32 2.10 MISSION, VISION AND VALUES 1. Our Mission Our Roadmap starts with our mission, which is enduring. It declares our purpose as a company and serves as the standard against which we weigh our actions and decisions.  To refresh the world...  To inspire moments of optimism and happiness...  To create value and make a difference. 2. Our Vision Our vision serves as the framework for our Roadmap and guides every aspect of our business by describing what we need to accomplish in order to continue achieving sustainable, quality growth.  People: Be a great place to work where people are inspired to be the best they can be.  Portfolio: Bring to the world a portfolio of quality beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy people's desires and needs.  Partners: Nurture a winning network of customers and suppliers, together we create mutual, enduring value.
  33. 33. Page | 33  Planet: Be a responsible citizen that makes a difference by helping build and support sustainable communities.  Profit: Maximize long-term return to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities.  Productivity: Be a highly effective, lean and fast-moving organization. 3. Our Winning Culture Our Winning Culture defines the attitudes and behaviors that will be required of us to make our 2020 Vision a reality. 4. Live Our Values Our values serve as a compass for our actions and describe how we behave in the world.  Leadership: The courage to shape a better future  Collaboration: Leverage collective genius  Integrity: Be real  Accountability: If it is to be, it's up to me  Passion: Committed in heart and mind  Diversity: As inclusive as our brands  Quality: What we do, we do well
  34. 34. Page | 34 5. Focus on the Market  Focus on needs of our consumers, customers and franchise partners  Get out into the market and listen, observe and learn  Possess a world view  Focus on execution in the marketplace every day  Be insatiably curious 6. Work Smart  Act with urgency  Remain responsive to change  Have the courage to change course when needed  Remain constructively discontent  Work efficiently 7. Act Like Owners  Be accountable for our actions and inactions  Steward system assets and focus on building value  Reward our people for taking risks and finding better ways to solve problems  Learn from our outcomes -- what worked and what didn’t
  35. 35. Page | 35 8. Be the Brand  Inspire creativity, passion, optimism and fun 2.11 OUR LEADERS
  36. 36. Page | 36 2.12 PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY
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  41. 41. Page | 41 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  42. 42. Page | 42 CHAPTER 3 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Methodology is a science of studying how research is done scientifically. It is way to systematically solve the research problem by logically adopting various steps. Methodology helps to understand not only the products but the process itself. It aims to describe and analyze methods, through light on their limitations and procedures and resources, clarify their presuppositions and potentialities to the twilight zone at the ‘frontiers of knowledge’. Research is an art of scientific investigation. It is the systematic investigation on order to find out facts and solution of a particular problem. It is the “Search for Knowledge” By adopting proper method of research we can easily find our Solution and can achieve our objectives easily. Research methodology is the systematic way to solve the research problem. This research methodology has helped in assessing the finding & result for this purpose a lot of information was needed. 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN The mode of the research was the exploratory i.e. goal oriented or target oriented.
  43. 43. Page | 43 Sample Size: There are 50 distributors to whom the questionnaire has been distributed and their feedback is consisted in the interpretation of the data. 3.2 COLLECTION OF DATA Primary Data: Primary Data is collected through personal interviews, questionnaires, telephonic conversations. A survey was conducted on the distributors of Coca Cola in Delhi with the help of questionnaire that is attached with the file as annexure. Secondary Data: Secondary data is collected through company’s official website and internet and with the help of books available. The main research instrument with the help of which survey was undertaken was questionnaire. The questionnaire contains a set of open- end questions through which information was collected. 3.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To gain knowledge on about the Coca Cola Company Limited in India. 2. To acquire knowledge and the technical know-how of the fast emerging production and distribution techniques.
  44. 44. Page | 44 3. To gain insight into company`s distribution process and problems occurring in between. 4. To understand the use of soft bottles as a packing material for soft drink. 5. To evaluate and know the different problems related to the use of soft bottles in the company. 6. To provide some remedial measures in order to cope up and come over to this problem related to soft bottles. 3.4 SAMPLE SIZE The sample size of this research is 50 distributors in Delhi. The project is to understand the people with different mind sets, try to make them prospects from suspects. The 50 distributors that were selected were some of the prominent dealers and business correspondents of Coca Cola Limited in Delhi, India from past many years. Sampling Technique Random Sampling Technique is used for this project. In random sampling, each item or element of the population has an equal chance of being chosen at each draw. A sample is random if the method for obtaining the sample meets the criterion of randomness (each element having an equal chance at each draw). The actual composition of the sample itself does not determine whether or not it was a random sample.
  45. 45. Page | 45 Judgmental sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where the researcher selects units to be sampled based on their knowledge and professional judgment. This type of sampling technique is also known as purposive sampling and authoritative sampling. This type of sampling technique is also known as purposive sampling and authoritative sampling. 3.5. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY  It is not as easier to study problems related to soft bottles being faced by all the distributors of Coca Cola in Delhi by doing a sample survey on 50 distributors only.  The distributors were busy with their daily schedule and it was very much difficult for them to give time.  The distributors were seen going personal and had given false responses too while recording the responses in questionnaire.  Personal biasness of various distributors may have supplied wrong data.  Time and money was also an important constraint.
  46. 46. Page | 46 CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
  47. 47. Page | 47 CHAPTER 4 - DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION The questionnaire that was given to the distributors of Coca Cola in Delhi were received back with information filled in it and then all these questionnaires are analyzed in order to reach a specific conclusion and finding a result. In this chapter the questionnaires that were given to the 50 distributors or respondents were received back and then analyzed and the result has been developed. The Sample size that was taken for the study was 50 dealers and out of all the 50 questionnaires given to them was received back with full filled forms. The percentage of questionnaires received back was full thus the result that is drawn below is fully on the basis of answers given by the respondents included in the survey.
  48. 48. Page | 48 Table No. 4.1: Gender Profile of the respondents Gender Respondents’ Gender Detail Percentage Male 50 100 Female 00 00 Total 50 100% The statistical data in the above given table no 1 and figure no 1 shows the gender profile of the 50 respondents that were interviewed with the help of the questionnaire. After the analysis of the questionnaire, the data showed that the all of the respondents were found to be Male 100% whereas none of the dealer was found to be female, this shows that Male members are in majority and all in all as per the random sample in the survey rather than the female members. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Male Female Gender Profile of the Dealers / Distributors Female Male
  49. 49. Page | 49 Table No. 4.2: Age Profile of the Respondents Age Profile Age of Respondents Percentage % 20 – 30 17 34 31 40 25 50 41 & Further 08 16 Total 50 100% In table no. 4.2 and figure no 4.2, the data showed the age profile of the respondents included in the survey and it was seen that the majority of the employees that were in the survey were of age profile 31 – 40 Years, i.e. 50% of the respondent were in this category, whereas 34% of people were in the category of 20 – 30 Years and 16% were found in 40 + Years age profile category. Thus it can be seen that majority of the distributors the company is having are young and experienced professionals. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 20 - 30 36 - 40 40 + Age Profle pf the Respondents 40 + 31 - 40 20 - 30
  50. 50. Page | 50 Table No. 4.3: Qualification of respondents Qualification Slab Qualification of Respondents Percentage % Higher Secondary level (10 +2) - - Graduates (Professional) 23 46 Post Graduates (Professional) 27 54 Total 50 100% Table No 4.3 and the figure adjoined with it shows the educational qualification of the respondents. The statistical data showed that the company is having none of its distributor as only Higher Secondary Level passed. Whereas it is having a majority of dealers that are Post Graduates, i.e. around 54% are PG and 46% of them were found to be Graduates only. This shows that the company is having a good number of well qualified dealers collaborated with it. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 HSS (10 + 2) Graduates Post Graduates Qualification of the Respondents Post Graduates Graduates HSS (10 + 2)
  51. 51. Page | 51 Table No. 4.4: Do you face any type of problem from the company`s end in term of delivering you the products in time. Options Responses of Respondents Percentage % Yes 09 18 No 41 82 Total 50 100% Table No 4.4 and Figure 4.4. Showed the responses of people regarding the statement that whether they are facing any kind of trouble or problem with the delivery process of the company. In response to this statement, there were around 82 per cent of the people that were agree and satisfied with the delivery process of the company but there were 18% of those people that gave ‘Yes’ as there answer sating that they were feeling problem with the present delivery status and process of the company. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Yes No Any type of problem with delivery process? No Yes
  52. 52. Page | 52 Table No. 4.5: Have you ever received any defective product having soft bottle associated with it. Options Responses of Respondents Percentage % Yes 34 68 No 16 32 Total 50 100% In table No 4.5 and Figure No. 4.5 it can be seen clearly that the dealers were enquired about any kind of waste product being received by them during the delivery of products to which majority of the dealers said yes that they did received defective products with soft bottles associated with the, whereas only 32 per cent of people denied of receiving any defective product. This shows that dealers do received defective material in their lot that they order from the company. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Yes No Received any defective product with soft bottles association in that product No Yes
  53. 53. Page | 53 Table No. 4.6: Which product from the company do you receive mostly defective. Options Responses of Respondents Percentage % Glass Bottles 02 04 Soft Bottles 47 94 Tetra Packs 01 02 Total 50 100% In the above given Table No. 4.6 and figure No. 4.6, the respondents were asked to record their views regarding the type of defective products being received by them. On the response to this statement, it was seen that majority of the respondents were in the favour of one thing that they received soft bottles as mostly defective product whereas glass bottles and tetra packs were least defective being received by them. Majority of 94 per cent of dealers supported the view that soft bottles are mostly defective. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Glass Bottles Soft Bottles Tetra Packs Most Defective Product Received Tetra Packs Glass Bottles2 Glass Bottles
  54. 54. Page | 54 Table No. 4.7: What according to you remained the main cause of receiving defective soft bottles in the end. Options Responses of Respondents Percentage % Delay in Transportation 13 26 Access in Detention Period 23 46 Temperature 09 18 Poor Packaging Standards 05 10 Total 50 100% In table no. 7 and figure no. 7, one of the important questions is being asked to the dealers. They were asked to record their statement with respect to a thing that what will be the main reason behind the defective soft bottles being received by them. In response to this statement, majority of the dealers i.e. around 46 per cent of the dealers agreed that the excess in detention period is the main cause, whereas 26 per cent blamed delay in transportation and 18 people said temperature to be the major role player whereas poor packaging standards were blamed by 10 percent of people. 0 10 20 30 40 50 Delay in Transportation Excess in Detention Period Temperature Poor Packaging Standards Main Reason for Defective Soft Bottles Poor Packaging Standards Temperature Excess in Detention Period Delay in Transportation
  55. 55. Page | 55 Table No. 4.8: How would you rate the transportation and delivery system of company. Options Responses of Respondents Percentage % Good 28 56 Average 21 42 Poor 01 02 Total 50 100% In the table no. 4.8 and figure 4.8, it has been asked to the dealers to rate the transportation and delivery system of the company. In response to this, it has been seen that majority of the respondents rated the company`s delivery system as good but it has also been seen that around 42 per cent of the respondents said it to be average and 2 per cent were those that claimed it to be of poor level. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Good Average Poor Rating Company`s Transportation and Delivery System Poor Average Good
  56. 56. Page | 56 Table No. 4.9: Do you think temperature plays major role when it comes to defective soft bottles. Options Responses of Respondents Percentage % Yes 43 86 No 07 14 Total 50 100% In table no. 4.9 and figure no. 4.9, the dealers were asked to record their views regarding whether the temperature plays any important role in defective soft bottles. Majority of the respondents i.e. around 86 percent of respondents agreed to this fact that temperature also plays major role in defective soft bottles whereas only 14 percent of people were not satisfied with this statement as per them, temperature is not any major cause in the receiving of defective soft bottles. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Yes No Rol of temperature in defective soft bottles No Yes
  57. 57. Page | 57 Table No. 4.10: Excess in waiting period causes detention that causes defects in products later on. Do you agree with this? Options Responses of Respondents Percentage % Fully 38 76 Very Little 05 10 Up to Some Extent 07 14 Total 50 100% The statistical data in Table No. 4.10 and figure 4.10 can be seen showing the response of dealers with regard to the statement that whether detention period causes any kind of defect to the product. In response to which, it was seen that 76 percent of people were straight agreed to this fact and there were 10 people that were very little supportive to this statement and 14 percent were those who were positive to this statement up to some extent. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Fully Very Little Up to Some Extent Detention Period Causes Defects in Soft Bottles Up to Some Extent Very Little Fully
  58. 58. Page | 58 CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS
  59. 59. Page | 59 CHAPTER 5 – FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS It has been seen that dealers are facing issues with the soft bottles coming defective or puffed due to several reasons say it to be transportation delay or detention time extended or the hot summer temperature. The major problems occur when the transport delivery gets delayed and the dealer has to suffer the delay and also gets defective products for further sale. The company was unable to get a proper view with regard to the defective soft bottles and the problems related to soft bottles. There are so many problems related to soft bottles whether say naturally or in business aspect. Here, you will get to know the basic problems being faced by the company in term of their dealers. The product when leaves the production plant ware house, it has to reach the destination plant of ware house of that particular dealer in under twenty four hours. The liability starts here, when the truck or the consignment got delayed by some time, it reaches late I the godown thus causing more time to get the truck unloaded that causes increased detention period. Here, detention period is the excess in time that has been allotted to a truck to finish and empty its contents to the particular ware house it was assigned. When the truck got late there, the unloading also starts late causing many problems in relation to the defect in soft bottles. Soft bottles are required to be stored in a particular temperature with heat limits not permissible and cold limits up to an extent where these bottles could remain nicely without causing any defect.
  60. 60. Page | 60 With the delay in unloading time, the bottles starts exceeding the temperature due to chemical gases involved in it while production, it starts reacting as the cold temperature and dark as well is the first and basic requirement of soft bottles so as to keep them defect free and also keep the soft drink cool so as to get it sold. But when the detention time increases, the unloading gets delayed and soft bottles remains in the truck for longer time than they can remain. The temperature rises and as they are stacked over one another, it causes problem to them thus getting soft bottles defective or puffed. Another thing comes in hand in response to defect of soft bottles is the temperature. Due to non availability of cover over the truck, the products get exposed in sunlight in summers causing huge effect of sun over the bottles. It has been pre mentioned and quoted over the bottles that they should not be exposed to direct sunlight and should be kept under cool and dry temperature. When the soft bottles get openly exposed under sunlight, the chemical gases reacts and it creates problems by causing defects in those soft bottles and it serves as loss for company as the products gets defective. Delay in transportation, proper handling of products, openly exposure to sunlight and other things are mainly identified and referred to as the main problems that soft bottles face and gets defective issues. Below are some of the major findings from this study that will explain you the purpose of questionnaire framed and the responses of the dealers.
  61. 61. Page | 61 5.1 FINDINGS  During the analysis of the distributors that were included in the sample survey, it was revealed that all the dealers the company is having are male. This shows that there is majority of male and dominance of male in this profession of distribution ship.  When the age profile of the respondents in the survey was evaluated, it was founded that majority of the dealers are in the age slab of 31 to 40 Years of category. This clearly shows that the dealers are mostly experienced and are aware of the problems that they are facing in their business with respect to the soft bottles or any other kind of distribution ship also. They can reach through simple conversations and doubts can be clear to them if any.  Dealers of the company associated with it are mostly qualified and this is a genuinely a nice and good thing because when the dealers and distributors are educated enough to understand the level of work and type of work they have to do and encounter the problems that they will be tackling with day by day procedures, it will make them aware of many things that will be useful for them in future.  When the dealers were requested about the question to tell whether they are facing any issues regarding the delivery of the product from the company. Majority of the people expressed no issues with
  62. 62. Page | 62 the delivery process but a few percentages between them expressed their negative views in response to the delivery process.  Dealers were seen agreeing upon the fact that whether they have received defective product in which the involvement of soft bottle can be seen. Majority of the people said that they did received such products thus clearing the doubt regarding problems in soft bottles do occur.  On the response to this statement, it was seen that majority of the respondents were in the favour of one thing that they received soft bottles as mostly defective product whereas glass bottles and tetra packs were least defective being received by them. Majority of 94 per cent of dealers supported the view that soft bottles are mostly defective.  It has been seen that majority of the dealers i.e. around 46 per cent of the dealers agreed that the excess in detention period is the main cause, whereas 26 per cent blamed delay in transportation and 18 people said temperature to be the major role player whereas poor packaging standards were blamed by 10 percent of people.  Majority of the respondents claimed the transportation and delivery system of company to be good but it has also been seen that there was a notable percentage of people according to whom, the
  63. 63. Page | 63 transportation and delivery system was of average quality while 2 percent of people said that it was not good and was poor.  Temperature is also playing great role in defective soft bottles and around 86 percentage of dealers gone agree with this statement. As per them, defective soft bottles are also due to temperature scale whereas a few handful of percentage of 16 percent did not agreed with this statement as according to them, temperature does not play any role in this.  Majority of the dealers are agreed to the fact that delay in transport makes excess in detention period and later on the detention period causes defects in the soft bottles. This is send positive by 76 percent of people where as 10 people that were very little supportive to this statement and 14 percent were those who were positive to this statement up to some extent. With these majority of findings, there has to be some suggestions and recommendations given to the company in order to do so that the defect can be minimized and more efficient product can be reach to the deader so that they can give it further for sale without causing any delay and defects .
  64. 64. Page | 64 5.2 SUGGESTIONS  Female entrepreneurship in this field should be increased if it can be increase. It has been seen that there is no female dealer associated with the company in the sample data taken by us. If there will be some female dealers associated, the company will surely receive a boost in terms of workplace balancing and healthier environment.  It is nice to have young and energetic workforce with your organization. No doubt most of the dealers are experienced enough to handle situation but it should be taken care that some young people must be entered into this business so as to make the flow of new technological and communicational advancements keep flowing.  The company should thrive hard to achieve dealers that are capable of knowing the company`s aims and objectives and upon understanding those aims, he should be the one, who should mix his own talent with company`s aims and achieve a cumulative growth for both of him and the company in the long run.  Majority of the dealers were seen satisfied with the delivery process followed by the company but there were also a few notable percentage of people those who were not satisfied with this process. The company should notify those dealers and talk to them
  65. 65. Page | 65 and clear all the problems or gaps between them and should strive hard to make them positive about the company as this will help them remain happy with the organization and do a healthy business that will be proving beneficial for both of them.  As dealers themselves agreed regarding the point that they do received damaged products with the involvement of soft bottles. These products should be identified and put separately in order to verify on a later stage as to what extent the product was defective and how the defect came from.  When it has been seen that the dealers are receiving more and more defects and damaged products only in the soft bottle category, the pet bottles of the company, t hey should inform the company about the said otherwise it may have any kind of disaster as the company will be unaware about the fact thus resulting in to ignorance of this unknown fact that will make problems for them later on. It is thus advised that such measures should be told to dealers and distributors that they should inform the company about any type of experience they had with their products.  The dealers have clearly expressed their views with regard to the excess in detention period, delay in transportation, temperature and poor packaging standards being followed. The company is doing things at mass level, there is possibility of some human errors like delay in transportation or excess in detention period but
  66. 66. Page | 66 temperature is not in hand. It should be done that the products should reach dealer`s godown in time thus causing a null effect over the product and stopping it from getting damaged.  No doubt the transportation and delivery system of the company is rated good by the majority of the respondents but it should be kept in mind that there were good numbers of people also who stated the transportation and delivery system to be of average standard. The problems that the dealers are facing here should be identified as to what extent it is causing any harm to the dealers and making them suffer problems after which they are rating the company`s system as average in quality. It has been seen that delivery system is the main system through which the company is possible to send the products to its hundreds of dealers and distributors across Delhi and other states also. The problems of detention period, delay of transportation and others occur through these delivery system only. You can easily fix these systems and get all your dealers on the positive aspect of your company.  It has been seen that majority of the respondents were in favored with temperature as the main ill effect causing defective soft bottles. Temperature puts pressure over the soft bottles thus making them get soft enough to be broken or defective. There should be provisions and such steps should be taken so that temperature should not put any type of problem to this lot of cold drinks. In the vehicles transporting soft drinks to dealers, those
  67. 67. Page | 67 should be covered with adequate cover on their truck and if vans or tempos are being used, they should be all closed with temperature maintained so that no ill effect of the hot temperature could be felt on soft bottles. Though this problem is only in the months of summer season as the soft bottles gets soften off by hot temperature but in winters, no effect by temperature can be seen.  Detention period should be finished as the excess in detention period causes ill effects to the soft bottles. When the vehicle wait for more than 24 hours to deliver the product, it goes into detention period and thus causes more problem to the soft bottles as they get defective. The bottles have to be reached in the godown before the stipulated time given by the company but when it gets delayed, the problems starts. These problems should with dealt with care so that there should be no detention period. Approximately 100 million plastic bottles are used and discarded every day, with 80% of them simply becoming non-biodegradable litter. While it is convenient to consume drinks straight out of plastic bottles, the trash that is accumulated in the process takes a huge toll on the health of our environment. Plastic water bottles have a significant carbon footprint, with the amount of water going into making a bottle being up to three times what’s inside the bottle. Also, bottles used to package water take over 1,000 years to bio-degrade and, if incinerated, produce toxic fumes.
  68. 68. Page | 68 Since reuse is a step up from recycling, repurposing plastic bottles we already have is an excellent habit to get into if we want to do our share to help save the environment. You will be surprised at how many opportunities for reuse there really are – once you start looking for them. Thus these things are sure that if workers will be explained with systematic procedural charts and way they can work out even if the delay is caused could save a lot from getting the soft bottles defect. Using soft bottles is also a big concern to the nature but the company can change these soft bottles also with any other good thing as these bottles are causing great effect to different species of living beings and the environment.
  69. 69. Page | 69 CONCLUSION
  70. 70. Page | 70 CONCLUSION Coke is it -- it being the #1 nonalcoholic beverage company, as well as one of the world's most recognizable brands. The Coca-Cola Company is home to 20 billion-dollar-brands, including four of the top five soft drinks: Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, and Sprite. Other top brands include Minute Maid, Powerade, and vitaminwater. All told, the company owns or licenses and markets more than 500 beverage brands, mainly sparkling drinks but also waters, juice drinks, energy and sports drinks, and ready-to-drink teas and coffees. With the world's largest beverage distribution system, The Coca-Cola Company reaches thirsty consumers in more than 200 countries. Alternatives to soft bottles Only 52% of plastic bottles within households and 25% of total plastic packaging were recycled in the UK in 2012. This places the UK in 25th position out of 29 EU countries for plastic recycling and energy recovery. Consumers therefore need a viable alternative to plastic bottles. These are discussed in a paper by David Jones, who wrote the article above. His discussion is summarised as follows: Bioplastics – those made from corn starch – and biodegradable bottles are the industry’s solution, but these have huge issues associated with them. Some are only partially plant based, e.g. The Coca Cola company
  71. 71. Page | 71 is currently developing a plant bottle containing 22.5% plant based PET, and so still rely heavily on oil based PET. Bioplastics utilise a potential food source when food is already in short supply in certain areas, they take a long time to degrade unless optimum conditions are provided, they cannot be mixed with oil based plastic recycling processes, no UK collection system for bioplastics currently exists and there are few commercial scale composting plants. Additionally, they continue to suggest that single use items are acceptable – as do other packaging options: steel and aluminium cans, tetra packs and glass. The way forward requires a social and cultural change, which will be forced upon us eventually as oil prices rise and oil based plastics are no longer a viable economic option. Compulsory take-back schemes, reusable steel or aluminium bottles, and vending machines that can refill reuseable bottles have all been proposed as methods for replacing plastic bottles within the soft drinks industry. SodaStream, a company providing home carbonation systems, is currently the best known of a few existing methods of refilling bottles with home-made carbonated beverages.
  72. 72. Page | 72 The Human Impact of Soft Bottles Plastic bottles contain Bisphenol A (BPA), the chemical used to make the plastic hard and clear. BPA is an endocrine disruptor which has been proven to be hazardous to human health. It has been strongly linked to a host of health problems including certain types of cancer, neurological difficulties, early puberty in girls, reduced fertility in women, premature labour, and defects in newborn babies – to name a few examples. BPA enters the human body through exposure to plastics such as bottled drinks and cleaning products. It has been found in significant amounts in at-risk groups such as pregnant women’s placentas and growing foetuses. A study conducted last year found that 96% of women in the U.S have BPA in their bodies. The good news is that you can have your BPA levels measured and make lifestyle changes to lower them, as demonstrated by Jeb Berrier in his film about plastic consumer merchandise, Bag It. Bottled drinks also contain phthalates, which are commonly used in the U.S. to make plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) more flexible. Phthalates are also endocrine-disrupting chemicals that have been linked to a wide range of developmental and reproductive effects, including reduced sperm count, testicular abnormality and tumors, and gender development issues. The FDA does not regulate phthalates or
  73. 73. Page | 73 class them as a health hazard due to the supposedly minute amounts present in plastic bottles. This decicsion does not take into account the significant presence of plastics in the average American citizen’s daily life, the fact that phthalate concentration increases the longer a plastic water bottle is stored, or the fact that a bottled drink that is exposed to heat causes accelerated leaching of harmful plastic chemicals into the drink. In addition to the negative impacts of BPA and phthalates on human health there are also growing concerns regarding carcinogens and microbial contaminants that have been found in test samples of bottled water. Bottling plants also cause problems for the humans who live near them. Water extraction surrounding bottling plants involved millions of gallons of water to make the bottles. This often leads to local water shortages that affects nearby residents, especially farmers who need to provide food for the surrounding neighborhoods. The Animal Impact of Soft Bottles Plastic bottle tops are currently not recyclable, and as with plastic bags they often end up at the bottom of the ocean, and in the stomachs of a
  74. 74. Page | 74 variety of animal species that mistake them for food. One albatross that was recently found dead on a Hawaiian island had a stomach full of 119 bottle caps. Marine life falls prey to this problem on a daily basis. A sperm whale was found dead on a North American beach recently with a plastic gallon bottle which had gummed up its small intestine. The animal’s body was full of plastic material including other plastic bottles, bottle caps and plastic bags. The Environmental Impact of Soft Bottles Plastic bottles are made from a petroleum product known as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and they require huge amounts of fossil fuels to both make and transport them. In the 1970s the U.S. was the world’s largest exporter of oil, but now it is the largest importer. If you fill a plastic bottle with liquid so that it is 25% full, that’s roughly how much oil it took to make the bottle. For a single-use disposable item, that’s a lot. It’s harder to recycle plastic bottles than you think. Of the mass numbers of plastic bottles consumed throughout the world, most of them are not recycled because only certain types of plastic bottles can be recycled by certain municipalities. They either end up lying stagnant in landfills,
  75. 75. Page | 75 leaching dangerous chemicals into the ground, or they infiltrate our streets as litter. They are found on sidewalks, in parks, front yards and rivers, and even if you chop them into tiny pieces they still take more than a human lifetime to decompose. It gets worse. In the case of bottled water, the plastic-making process requires over two gallons of water for the purification process of every gallon of water. In the U.S., bottled water and tap water are regulated by different federal agencies. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates bottled water and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates tap water. Therefore, the enforcement and monitoring of water quality for bottled water vs tap water does not add up. Due to strict EPA policies, incidents of tap water contamination have to be reported immediately to U.S. citizens, however there is no such rule for bottled water, despite numerous bottled water recalls taking place over the years. It has been seen that dealers are facing issues with the soft bottles coming defective or puffed due to several reasons say it to be transportation delay or detention time extended or the hot summer temperature. The major problems occur when the transport delivery gets delayed and the dealer has to suffer the delay and also gets defective products for further sale. The company was unable to get a proper view with regard to the
  76. 76. Page | 76 defective soft bottles and the problems related to soft bottles. There are so many problems related to soft bottles whether say naturally or in business aspect. Here, you will get to know the basic problems being faced by the company in term of their dealers. The product when leaves the production plant ware house, it has to reach the destination plant of ware house of that particular dealer in under twenty four hours. The liability starts here, when the truck or the consignment got delayed by some time, it reaches late I the godown thus causing more time to get the truck unloaded that causes increased detention period. Here, detention period is the excess in time that has been allotted to a truck to finish and empty its contents to the particular ware house it was assigned. When the truck got late there, the unloading also starts late causing many problems in relation to the defect in soft bottles. Soft bottles are required to be stored in a particular temperature with heat limits not permissible and cold limits up to an extent where these bottles could remain nicely without causing any defect. With the delay in unloading time, the bottles starts exceeding the temperature due to chemical gases involved in it while production, it starts reacting as the cold temperature and dark as well is the first and basic requirement of soft bottles so as to keep them defect free and also keep the soft drink cool so as to get it sold. But when the detention time increases, the unloading gets delayed and soft bottles remains in the truck for longer time than they can remain. The temperature rises and as they
  77. 77. Page | 77 are stacked over one another, it causes problem to them thus getting soft bottles defective or puffed. Another thing comes in hand in response to defect of soft bottles is the temperature. Due to non availability of cover over the truck, the products get exposed in sunlight in summers causing huge effect of sun over the bottles. It has been pre mentioned and quoted over the bottles that they should not be exposed to direct sunlight and should be kept under cool and dry temperature. When the soft bottles get openly exposed under sunlight, the chemical gases reacts and it creates problems by causing defects in those soft bottles and it serves as loss for company as the products gets defective.
  78. 78. Page | 78 BIBLIOGRAPHY http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/toxin-in-pet- bottles-of-soft-drinks-pepsico-coca-cola-mountain-dew-sprite-3067617/ http://marketrealist.com/2014/11/understanding-value-chain-soft-drinks- industry/ http://www.coca-colaindia.com/about-us/our-leaders http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures- and-press-releases/soft-drink-industry http://www.euromonitor.com/soft-drinks http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/coca-cola-poisonous- spirit-fanta-court-nigeria-nigerian-bottling-company-vitamin-c-health- warnings-a7655766.html http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/whats-the-problem- with-plastic-bottles/ http://www.thebetterindia.com/58509/reuse-plastic-bottles-reduce- pollution-waste/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_bottle https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Coca- Cola_Companyhttp://www.vault.com/company-profiles/food- beverage/the-coca-cola-company/company-overview
  79. 79. Page | 79 https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/mar/17/coca-cola-hits-back- at-sugar-tax-plan
  80. 80. Page | 80 ANNEXURE(S)
  81. 81. Page | 81 QUESTIONNAIRE PROBLEMS RELATED TO SOFT BOTTLES TOPIC: A STUDY OF PROBLEMS RELATED TO SOFT BOTTLES IN COCA COLA PVT. LTD. This questionnaire survey is purely for academic purpose. Any information collected through this survey is confidential and would not be shared with anyone other than the people involved in this and will be only used for the finding the results. (Kindly give your unbiased response). Name: ........................................................................................................ Q1. You are a? a) Male. b) Female Q2) Your age lies in the group? a) 20 - 30 Years
  82. 82. Page | 82 b) 31 – 40 Years c) 41 & Further Years Q3) Your Educational Profile? a) HSL (10 + 2) b) Graduates c) Post Graduates Q4) Do you face any type of problem from the company`s end in term of delivering you the products in time? a) Yes b) No Q5) Have you ever received any defective product having soft bottle associated with it? a) Yes b) No Q6) Which product from the company do you receive mostly defective? a) Glass Bottles
  83. 83. Page | 83 b) Soft Bottles c) Tetra Packs Q7) What according to you remained the main cause of receiving defective soft bottles in the end? a) Delay in Transportation b) Excess in Detention Period c) Temperature d) Poor Packaging Standards Q8) How would you rate the transportation and delivery system of company? a) Good b) Average c) Poor Q9) Do you think temperature plays major role when it comes to defective soft bottles? a) Yes b) No
  84. 84. Page | 84 Q10) Excess in waiting period causes detention that causes defects in products later on. Do you agree with this? a) Fully b) Very Little c) Up to some extent Thanks for your valuable feedback through this questionnaire. The information given by you will be used in order to study problems related to soft bottles in coca cola pvt. ltd. So that suggestive measures should be given and improvement must be brought in the process. Anmol Jamwal and Gurmeet Singh

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