Sociology Unit 3 Individual within Society


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Sociology Unit 3 Individual within Society

  1. 1. Sociology Unit 3: Individuals within Society By Timothy Bradley
  2. 2. Unit 3 Overview Unit EQ: How does society shape the individual?
  3. 3. • Apply self-knowledge to explain what constitutes personality, and interpret both concepts of nature and nurture with regard to the development of personality. • Compare and contrast Locke, Cooley, and Mead’s theories of personality. • Use self-knowledge to discuss dating patterns from traditional times to modern day contemporary times. • Explain why adolescence is not universal. • Explain Levinson’s Developmental Stages of Adulthood and how adult behavior changes from early adulthood through later adulthood. • Explain how the labor force has changed in the United States since World War II. • Use self-knowledge to apply challenges facing the aging adult. • Explain deviance using the three perspectives of sociology; interactionist, conflict, and functionalist perspectives. You will need to be able to “Do” the following:
  4. 4. • The dichotomy of nature versus nurture applies to personality development. • Locke’s Tabula Rasa, Cooley’s Looking Glass Theory, and Mead’s Role- Taking, Erving Goffman’s Impression Management are four major theories that explain the social self. • The most important agents of socialization are family, peers, school, and the mass media. • Adolescence is not universal. • Dating for romance is a novel idea, and why courtship is no longer practiced. • The functions that dating fulfills. • There are a myriad of social problems facing contemporary teenagers. • There are many stages to Levinson’s Developmental Stages of Adulthood. • The nature of work in the United States has changed due to composition, labor force, unemployment, and occupations. • The characteristics of life during late adulthood. • How deviance affects society. You will need to be able to “Understand” the following:
  5. 5. Unit 2 Outline • Personality & the Social Self – Lesson 1 2 3 • Agents of Socialization – Lesson 4 • Adolescence & Dating – Lesson 5 • Social Control & Deviance – Lesson 6 • Work – Lesson 7 • Adult Society – Lesson 8 9 • Exam – 11 Unit EQ: How are culture and society related to human interaction?
  6. 6. Personality and the Social Self Vocabulary • Nature • Nurture • Tabula Rasa • Looking-glass self EQ: 1)How is the development of an individual affected by nature and nurture? 2) How do the theories of Locke, Cooley, and Mead explain the sense of self? • Role-taking • Impression management • dramaturgy
  7. 7. “Heredity” “Environment”
  8. 8. Locke: Tabula Rasa • What do you remember about John Locke? • Each newborn is a tabula rasa (clean slate) • Anything could be written. Human could be molded into anything. • We acquire our personalities from social experiences. • Psychologist John Watson would later make similar claims.
  9. 9. Cooley: The Looking Glass Self • Cooley co-founded the interactionist perspective and developed the idea of primary groups. • This theory puts a great deal of responsibility on primary group interaction beginning in childhood. • 3 Step Process to our sense of self 1. We imagine how we appear to others 2. Based on others reaction to us, we determine whether others view us as we view ourselves 3. We use our perceptions of how others see us to develop feelings about ourselves.
  10. 10. Mead: Role-Taking • Cofounder of interactionist perspective • Looking-Glass is only the beginning (internalizing expectations) • We need to not just see ourselves as others see us, but eventually take on (or pretend to) roles. • Significant others: people closest to us (important early on) • Generalized other: expectations of society (important later in life) • Through this role-taking they develop sense of self • I – unsocialized, spontaneous, self-interested component • Me – socialized self, aware of expectations • Through life I becomes weaker and Me becomes stronger
  11. 11. Dramaturgy • Social interaction is like a drama • People (acting as the audience) judge each others performances to determine a person’s character. • Most people make an effort to play the role well and manage impressions – impression management
  12. 12. Agents of Socialization EQ: 1. How do the agents of socialization affect society? Vocabulary • Agents of socialization • Peer group • Mass media • Resocializaiton
  13. 13. Primary Agents of Socialization Peer Group Mass Media SchoolFamily
  14. 14. The Family • Most important agent in most societies • Principal socializer of young children • Differs from family to family • Subgroups (race, class, religion) affects Deliberate Unintended Overt teaching and instruction in terms of appropriate behavior. Ex. Father teaches child the importance of telling the truth Children learn through observation. (often has a greater affect) Ex. Child observes his father’s lack of politeness to others.
  15. 15. The Peer Group • It is a primary group composed of individuals of roughly similar age and social characteristics. • Particularly influential during pre-teen and teenage years • To win acceptance people willingly adopt values and norms • Values focus on subculture
  16. 16. The School • Large amount of time spent there in childhood • Contains deliberate and unintended messages • Teaches academic content and skills • Teaches socialization through extracurricular activities • Unintentional messages through observation of adults and influence of peer groups
  17. 17. The Mass Media • Definition: Instruments of communication that reach large audiences with no personal contact between those sending the information and those receiving it. (Ex. books, film, TV, radio etc.) • 98 % U.S. homes have a TV • On average, American children spend 900 hrs. a year in school and 1,100 watching TV. • By 18 most have witnessed 200,000 fictional acts of violence including 16,000 murders on TV. • Historically lacked diversity
  18. 18. Resocialization • Definition: Breaking with past experiences and learning new values and norms. • This often occurs through radically changing a person's personality by carefully controlling the environment. • Total institutions: a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of the society for a period of time and under tight control • Step 1: Erode individuality and independence • Step 2: Systemic attempt to build a new personality or self
  19. 19. Adolescence and Dating EQ: 1) How has the concept of adolescence developed as a distinct stage of the life cycle? 2)What are some of the social functions of dating? • Adolescence • Anticipatory socialization • Social Integration • Dating • Courtship Vocabulary
  20. 20. Adolescence • Definition: A defined period between the normal onset of puberty and the beginning of adulthood. • Characteristics • Biological Growth/Development • Undefined Status • Increased Decision Making • Increased Pressure • The Search for Self
  21. 21. Undefined Status
  22. 22. Rites of Passage Definition: Rituals marking the transitional phase between childhood and full inclusion into a tribe or social group. Ex. Bar Mitzvah, Vanuatu Land Diving, Graduation, Quinceañera, and Walkabout
  23. 23. Increased Pressure VS Young people are under pressure to strike a balance between parental wishes and peer pressures
  24. 24. Search for Self Anticipatory socialization: learning the rights, obligations, and expectations of a role to prepare for assuming that role in the future. Can come in the form of • Part-time work • Club membership • Dating
  25. 25. Dating • Meeting people as a romantic engagement • Did not emerge until after WWI • Found in societies where people choose their own partners • Main purpose is entertainment or “good time” • May lead to marriage Courtship • Prior to the rise of dating this was the primary form of interaction • Was not casual and roles were strictly defined • Rarely left alone • Conducted under supervision • Express purpose is marriage
  26. 26. Emergence of Dating • Originally a primarily agricultural society required men to acquire property prior to marriage. (This often involved land transfer from family) • Family property resulted in parents exercising considerable control over partner choice. • Industrial revolution changed this system and created more economic freedom • Coed public education resulted in large portions of time spent together • Cars and telephones (post WWI) gave added freedom • Women entered workforce created more cross gender interaction • Dating became a form of entertainment and status • Partners were selected on good looks, nice clothes, and popularity
  27. 27. Dating Pattern: Traditional • The man arranges the date • Both sexes knew the expectations • A weekly timetable existed for arraigning a date. • Ask Wednesday for Saturday (Date Night) • Accepting after this time equated to admitting you weren’t the first choice. • No date on Saturday may result in shame • Dates revolved around formal or set activities • Casual dating for a period may result in “going steady” • Indicated through tokens. (jackets, class ring, ect.)
  28. 28. Dating Pattern: Contemporary • No set stages of dating • Both sexes initiate dates • Either sex pays • Relationships are now based on friendship or the group • More opportunity to communicate through technology
  29. 29. Functions of Dating • Entertainment • Socialization • Psychological needs such as conversation, compa nionship, and understanding • Status attainment • Spouse selection
  30. 30. Social Control and Deviance EQ: 1) How to social norms become internalized? 2) How does sociology explain deviance? • Social control • Positive sanction • Negative sanction • Formal sanction • Informal sanction • Deviance • Stigma Vocabulary • Anomie • Strain theory • Control theory • Cultural transmission theory • Labeling theory
  31. 31. Social Control • Societies develop cultural values that reflect norms. These norms are enforced in two ways. • Internalization: Norm becomes part of an individual’s personality • Ex. “Properly” sitting in a chair. • Sanctions: Rewards/Punishments that enforce conformity to norms • Positive Sanctions - Rewards • Negative Sanctions - Punishments
  32. 32. Formal Sanctions A reward or punishment given by a formal organization or regulatory agency
  33. 33. Public Humiliation
  34. 34. Informal Sanctions A spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or group.
  35. 35. The Nature of Deviance •Individuals must be caught committing a deviant act and be stigmatized by society. •A stigma is a mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society. •Sociologists usually refer to the negative social reactions. The Label of Deviance •Some norms deal with fairly insignificant behaviors. •Because there are so many norms, occasional violations are unavoidable. •Behaviors deemed deviant differ across times, cultures, and situations. Violating Norms Behavior that violates significant social norms is called deviance.
  36. 36. Answer: Some behaviors are considered deviant in some situations and not others, or in one society and not another, or from time period to time period. Analyze How does behavior that is considered deviant change based on context? Reading Check
  37. 37. Deviance has some uses in society – Helps to clarify norms, unify the group, diffuse tension, and promote social change – Serves to define the boundaries of acceptable behavior – Punishment of deviance can prevent others from same deviance – Draws lines of society and “outsiders” – Displays of minor deviance diffuse tensions – Provides legitimate jobs such as lawyers and police Social Functions of Deviance
  38. 38. Answer: It helps to clarify norms, unify the group, diffuse tension, and promote social change. It also creates jobs, defines the boundaries of acceptable behavior, and draws the line between conforming and nonconforming members of society. Summarize How can deviance benefit society? Reading Check
  39. 39. • A 1973 article explored the different views that townspeople held of two teenage gangs, one called the Saints and one called the Roughnecks. • Article claimed that even though both gangs were violent, delinquent, and disruptive, townspeople agreed that the gang from the higher social class was not as much trouble as the gang from the lower social class. • While objective observation concluded that both gangs were equally destructive, the differing views revealed much about the social preconceptions that were at work in Case Study: The Saints and the Roughnecks
  40. 40. Functionalist Perspective: Deviance • Strain theory: deviance is the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society • Pressure on individuals to meet standards that they can’t meet • Anomie: the norms of society are unclear or no longer apply • Results in confusion over rules for behavior
  41. 41. Why would a teenage boy lock himself in his room and hide from society?
  42. 42. Conflict Perspective: Deviance • Sees social life as a struggle between the ruling classes and lower classes • Says people commit deviant acts to gain or maintain power • Ruling class deems any behavior that threatens its power as deviant
  43. 43. Interactionist Theories: Deviance • Control theory: states that deviance is normal and studies why people conform; states that people conform when they have strong ties to the community • Cultural transmission theory: states that deviance is a learned behavior; deviants are socialized into deviant behavior instead of acceptable behavior; individuals will adopt the behavior and goals of whomever they are in contact with • Labeling theory: focuses on how people come to be labeled “deviant;” suggests there are two types of deviance • Primary deviance: occasional violation of norms; neither self nor society labels person “deviant” • Secondary deviance: deviance as a lifestyle; both self and society label person “deviant”
  44. 44. Work • EQ 1: How has nature of work and the labor force changed? • EQ 2: What factors contribute to job satisfaction? • Work • Labor force • Unemployment Vocabulary
  45. 45. Activator: What is your dream job? Why?
  46. 46. Bad Jobs
  47. 47. The World of Work • The world of work is a major component of adult life. In the last 100 years, major changes have transformed the organization of work and the composition of the labor force.
  48. 48. Work • Work involves performing all of the tasks necessary to produce goods and provide services that meet human needs. • The basis for the economy • American workers often spend nearly 50 years in the labor force, making the world of work one of the most important components of adult life.
  49. 49. Labor Force • All individuals age 16 and older who are employed in paid positions or who are seeking paid employment. • People who are not paid for their labor are part of the informal economy. • In 2007, 66 percent of U.S. population over age 16 was in the labor force. • Recent decades have seen increase in number of working women and Hispanics.
  50. 50. ChangingNature of Work • In 1900: – 35 percent worked in agriculture – 45 percent worked in manufacturing – 20 percent worked in professions, management, office work, and sales • In 1950: – Manufacturing dominated • Today: – 13 percent work in agriculture and manufacturing – 76 percent work in professions, management, office work, and sales
  51. 51. Unemployment • Unemployment occurs when a person does not have a job but is actively seeking employment • Unemployment rate is the percentage of the civilian labor force that is unemployed but actively seeking employment • Underemployment - part-time workers who want full-time work and overqualified workers
  52. 52. Normal National Avg. 5% For more data visit
  53. 53. Impact of Globalization New technology has changed the economy. Many manufacturing jobs have been outsourced, or sent to countries where labor is less expensive.
  54. 54. Job Satisfaction Factors for dissatisfaction • On-the-job stress • Retirement and insurance benefits • Salary • Recognition • Chances for promotion Factors for satisfaction • Interesting nature of their work • Salary • Working hours • Workplace safety • Relations with co-workers Job and career changes •Changing jobs and/or careers is a well-established pattern in the United States •Average worker changes companies nine times, careers five to six times
  55. 55. Adult Society EQ: According to Levinson, what is the general pattern of adult development? • Life structure • Early adulthood • Middle adulthood • Late adulthood Vocabulary
  56. 56. Adult Male Development Early Adulthood • Ages 17 through 22 • Going to college or getting a job • Transition into the adult world • Expected to explore opportunities as well as make commitments The Age 30 Transition • Ages 28 through 32 • Crucial because lives often change direction here • Ends the novice phase, when men prepare to enter full adulthood
  57. 57. Settling Down • Ages 33 through 39 • Major task is achieving success • Try to establish themselves in society, usually through occupational advancement • Commit to things that are important to them • Separation from mentors in order to define own identity The Midlife Transition • Ages 40 through 44 • A bridge between early and middle adulthood • Major goal is to escape the pressure of unattainable dreams from youth • Becoming a mentor can lessen the stress associated with this stage • The degree of difficulty that an individual experiences in a period depends on his success in mastering the previous period.
  58. 58. Three Phases Specific to Adult Female Development 1. Leaving the Family 2. Entering the Adult World • Most become mothers in their 20s • Dual roles of motherhood and career cause added strain • A break in employment for childbearing can limit career 3. Re-entering the World of Work • Occurs when children reach school age • Commitment to career at same time husband is doubting his career
  59. 59. Study for the Individual within Society Exam
  60. 60. Lesson Activator Any questions prior to the Individual within Society Exam?