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Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists Based on “Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists” by the PAP and The Scientific and Professional Ethics Committee (2008-2009) and The Psychology Bill of 2009, R.A. 10029 By Russell Resti L. de VillaA Report for the subject Current Trends In Psychology
Before we begin. What’s Ethics?
A Little definition before we start… Ethics is simply known as moral philosophy, a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice, etc.
So, okay, we get the definition, but… Why do we need a ‘Code of Ethics’??
Here’s why: 	 From an article written by David Hildebrand entitled ‘Why do we need a code of ethics?’, he explains that: 		As members of a profession, we have an important role in society as trusted experts. In this role, we have a duty to maintain the highest standards of professionalism in our work, while acting in the public interest. 		Codes of ethics should set members apart from others, who may purport to provide similar services to the public, by establishing a set of principles by which to work. However, in order for the code to have merit and respect, it must contain procedures for monitoring the members' adherence and for disciplining those members who act in breach of the standards.
The Code Of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists (Summarized)  Based from “Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists”by the PAP and The Scientific and Professional Ethics Committee (2008-2009)  That done, we go on to…
A brief history on how it was made The Psychological Association of the Philippines (PAP) adopted a Code of Ethics for Clinical Psychologists in the 1980s, and this Code has remained unchanged since then.  In 2007, the Board of Directors of the PAP resolved to constitute a committee to revise the code of ethics, with the goal of updating the code and making it more inclusive and applicable to all psychologists. 		The committee chair and the assistants undertook the preparatory work  which involved studying the old Code, and several documents related to ethical standards for  psychologists (e.g., the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, the ethics  codes of the American Psychological Association, the British Psychological Society, the Canadian Psychological Society, among others)
A brief history on how it was made  The complete committee conducted a day-long workshop on February 27, 2009 to finalize the proposed Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists.  The committee was strongly influenced by  existing codes from other countries (which is reflected in the scope and structure of the Code),  but worked hard to ensure that the code was contextualized with the realities and constraints  within the professional environments that Philippine psychologists do their work.  		The first draft of this Code was presented to the PAP Board of Directors on April 18, 2009.  This draft was further revised (with the editorial assistance of ReginalBueno), and finally ratified by the PAP Board of Directors on July 24, 2009.
Declaration of Principles 	Psychologists in the Philippines adhere to the following Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for  Psychologists that was adopted unanimously by the General Assembly of the International Union of Psychological Science in Berlin on July 22, 2008 and by the Board of Directors of the International Association of Applied Psyc.hology in Berlin on July 26, 2008
 What is the “Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists”? 		In 2002, the General Assembly of the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS) approved a motion to create an Ad Hoc Joint Committee and for that committee to develop a universal declaration of ethical principles for psychologists.  		The focus of this international initiative is on articulating principles and values that provide a common moral framework for psychologists throughout the world, and that can be used as a moral justification and guide for the development of differing standards as appropriate for differing cultural contexts.
PREAMBLE 	Ethics is at the core of every discipline. The Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists speaks to the common moral framework that guides and inspires psychologists worldwide toward the highest ethical ideals in their professional and scientific work. Psychologists are committed to placing the welfare of society and its members above the self-interest of the discipline and its members. They recognize that adherence to ethical principles in the context of their work contributes to a stable society that enhances the quality of life for all human beings. 
PREAMBLE 	The significance of the Universal Declaration depends on its recognition and promotion by psychology organizations at national, regional and international levels. Every psychology organization is encouraged to keep this Declaration in mind and, through teaching, education, and other measures to promote respect for, and observance of, the Declaration’s principles and related values in the various activities of its members.
PRINCIPLE IRespect for the Dignity of Persons and Peoples 		Respect for the dignity of persons is the most fundamental and universally found ethical principle across geographical and cultural boundaries, and across professional disciplines. It provides the philosophical foundation for many of the other ethical principles put forward by professions. Respect for dignity recognizes the inherent worth of all human beings, regardless of perceived or real differences in social status, ethnic origin, gender, capacities, or other such characteristics. This inherent worth means that all human beings are worthy of equal moral consideration.
PRINCIPLE IRespect for the Dignity of Persons and Peoples THEREFORE, psychologists accept as fundamental the Principle of Respect for the Dignity of Persons and Peoples. In so doing, they accept the following related values: 	a) respect for the unique worth and inherent dignity of all human beings; 	b) respect for the diversity among persons and peoples; 	c) respect for the customs and beliefs of cultures, to be limited only when a custom or a belief seriously contravenes the principle of respect for the dignity of persons or peoples or causes serious harm to their well-being; 	d) free and informed consent, as culturally defined and relevant for individuals, families, groups, and communities; 	e) privacy for individuals, families, groups, and communities; 	f)  protection of confidentiality of personal information, as culturally defined and relevant for individuals, families, groups, and communities; 	g) fairness and justice in the treatment of persons and peoples.
PRINCIPLE IICompetent Caring for the Well-Being of Persons and Peoples 		Competent caring for the well-being of persons and peoples involves working for their benefit and, above all, doing no harm. It includes maximizing benefits, minimizing potential harm, and offsetting or correcting harm. Competent caring requires the application of knowledge and skills that are appropriate for the nature of a situation as well as the social and cultural context. It also requires the ability to establish interpersonal relationships that enhance potential benefits and reduce potential harm. Another requirement is adequate self-knowledge of how one's values, experiences, culture, and social context might influence one's actions and interpretations.
PRINCIPLE IICompetent Caring for the Well-Being of Persons and Peoples THEREFORE, psychologists accept as fundamental the Principle of Competent Caring for the Well-Being of Persons and Peoples. In so doing, they accept the following related values: 	a) active concern for the well-being of individuals, families, groups, and communities; 	b) taking care to do no harm to individuals, families, groups, and communities;  	c) maximizing benefits and minimizing potential harm to individuals, families, groups, and communities;  	d) correcting or offsetting harmful effects that have occurred as a result of their activities; 	e) developing and maintaining competence; 	f)  self-knowledge regarding how their own values, attitudes, experiences, and social contexts influence their actions, interpretations, choices, and recommendations; 	g) respect for the ability of individuals, families, groups, and communities to make decisions for themselves and to care for themselves and each other. 
PRINCIPLE IIIIntegrity 		Integrity is vital to the advancement of scientific knowledge and to the maintenance of public confidence in the discipline of psychology. Integrity is based on honesty, and on truthful, open and accurate communications. It includes recognizing, monitoring, and managing potential biases, multiple relationships, and other conflicts of interest that could result in harm and exploitation of persons or peoples.
PRINCIPLE IIIIntegrity 		THEREFORE, psychologists accept as fundamental the Principle of Integrity. In so doing, they accept the following related values: 	a) honesty, and truthful, open and accurate communications; 	b) avoiding incomplete disclosure of information unless complete disclosure is culturally inappropriate, or violates confidentiality, or carries the potential to do serious harm to individuals, families, groups, or communities; 	c) maximizing impartiality and minimizing biases; 	d) not exploiting persons or peoples for personal, professional, or financial gain; 	e) avoiding conflicts of interest and declaring them when they cannot be avoided or are inappropriate to avoid.
PRINCIPLE IVProfessional and Scientific Responsibilities to Society 		Psychology functions as a discipline within the context of human society. As a science and a profession, it has responsibilities to society. These responsibilities include contributing to the knowledge about human behavior and to persons’ understanding of themselves and others, and using such knowledge to improve the condition of individuals, families, groups, communities, and society. They also include conducting its affairs within society in accordance with the highest ethical standards, and encouraging the development of social structures and policies that benefit all persons and peoples.
PRINCIPLE IVProfessional and Scientific Responsibilities to Society 		THEREFORE, psychologists accept as fundamental the Principle of Professional and Scientific Responsibilities to Society. In so doing, they accept the following related values: 	a) the discipline’s responsibility to increase scientific and professional knowledge in ways that allow the promotion of the well-being of society and all its members; 	b) the discipline’s responsibility to use psychological knowledge for beneficial purposes and to protect such knowledge from being misused, used incompetently, or made useless; 	c) the discipline’s responsibility to conduct its affairs in ways that are ethical and consistent with the promotion of  the well-being of society and all its members; 	d) the discipline’s responsibility to promote the highest ethical ideals in the scientific, professional and educational activities of its members; 	e) the discipline’s responsibility to adequately train its members in their ethical responsibilities and required competencies; 	f)  the discipline’s responsibility to develop its ethical awareness and sensitivity, and to be as self-correcting as possible.
GENERAL ETHICAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES 		We subscribe to the following general ethical standards and procedures as we conduct ourselves in the various aspects of our professional and scholarly activities as psychologists.  These general standards and procedures refer to:   I.  Resolving Ethical Issues 	II.  CompetenciesIII. Human relationsIV. ConfidentialityV.  Advertisements and Public  StatementsVI. Records and Fees
I. Resolving Ethical Issues 	A. Misuse of Psychologist’s Works   	B. Conflicts between Ethics and Law, Regulations or other Governing legal Authority  	C. Conflicts between Ethics and Organizational Demands 	D. Informal Resolution of Ethical Violations  	E. Reporting Ethical Violations  	F. Cooperating with Ethics Committee   	G. Improper Complaints  	H. Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and Respondents
II. Competencies 	A. Boundaries of Competence  	B. Providing Services in Emergencies  	C. Maintaining Competence 	D. Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments 	E.  Delegation of Work to Others  	F. Personal Problems and Conflicts
III. Human Relations 	A.  Unfair Discrimination  	B.  Sexual Harassment  	C. Other Harassment  	D. Avoiding Harm  	E. Multiple Relationships  	F. Conflict of Interest  	G.  Third-Party Requests for Services  	H.  Exploitative Relationships  	I. Cooperation with Other Professionals  	J. Informed Consent  	K. Psychological Services Delivered To or Through Organizations  	L. Interruption of Psychological Services
IV. Confidentiality 	A. Maintaining Confidentiality  	B. Limitations of Confidentiality  	C. Recording  	D. Minimizing Invasions of Privacy  	E. Disclosures  	F. Consultation  	G. Use of Confidential Information for Other Purposes
V. Advertisements and Public Statements 	A. Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements  	B. Public Statements  	C. Workshops, Seminars and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs  	D. Media Presentations  	E. Testimonials
VI. Records and Fees 	A.  Documentation and Maintenance of Records  	B.  Confidentiality of Records  	C. Withholding Client Records    	D. Fees and financial arrangements
Ethical Standards And Procedures in Specific Function We subscribe to the following ethical standards and procedures related to the following specific functions of psychologists: psychological assessment, therapy, education and training, and research.
VII. Assessment 	A. Bases for Assessment  	B. Informed Consent in Assessment  	C. Assessment Tools  	D. Obsolete and Outdated Test Results  	E. Interpreting Assessment Results   	F. Release of Test Data  	G. Explaining Assessment Results  	H. Test Security  	I. Assessment by Unqualified Persons  	J. Test Construction
VIII. Therapy 	A. Confidentiality  	B. Informed Consent  	C. Client’s Wellbeing  	E. Record Keeping  	F. Competent Practice  	G. Working with Young People  	H. Referrals  	I. Interruption  	J. Termination
IX. Education and Training 	A.  Design of Education and Training Programs   	B.  Descriptions of Education and Training Programs   	C. Accuracy in Teaching   	D.  Student Disclosure of Personal Information   	E.  Mandatory Individual or Group Therapy   	F.  Assessing Student and Supervisee Performance   	G.  Sexual Relationships with Students and Supervisees
X. Research A. Rights and Dignity of Participants  B. Informed Consent to Research  C. Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research   D. Research Participation of Client, Students and Subordinates  E. Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research  F. Offering Inducements for Research Participation  G. Deception in Research  H. Debriefing
X. Research I. Observational Research  J. Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research  K. Reporting Research Results  L. Plagiarism   M. Publication Credit  N. Duplicate Publication of Data  O. Sharing Research Data for Verification  P. Reviewers  Q. Limitations of the Study
Not done yet! Additional discussions…
Thank you Very Much for Listening! Hope you learned something today! :D

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Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists

  • 1. Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists Based on “Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists” by the PAP and The Scientific and Professional Ethics Committee (2008-2009) and The Psychology Bill of 2009, R.A. 10029 By Russell Resti L. de VillaA Report for the subject Current Trends In Psychology
  • 2. Before we begin. What’s Ethics?
  • 3. A Little definition before we start… Ethics is simply known as moral philosophy, a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice, etc.
  • 4. So, okay, we get the definition, but… Why do we need a ‘Code of Ethics’??
  • 5. Here’s why: From an article written by David Hildebrand entitled ‘Why do we need a code of ethics?’, he explains that: As members of a profession, we have an important role in society as trusted experts. In this role, we have a duty to maintain the highest standards of professionalism in our work, while acting in the public interest. Codes of ethics should set members apart from others, who may purport to provide similar services to the public, by establishing a set of principles by which to work. However, in order for the code to have merit and respect, it must contain procedures for monitoring the members' adherence and for disciplining those members who act in breach of the standards.
  • 6. The Code Of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists (Summarized) Based from “Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists”by the PAP and The Scientific and Professional Ethics Committee (2008-2009) That done, we go on to…
  • 7. A brief history on how it was made The Psychological Association of the Philippines (PAP) adopted a Code of Ethics for Clinical Psychologists in the 1980s, and this Code has remained unchanged since then. In 2007, the Board of Directors of the PAP resolved to constitute a committee to revise the code of ethics, with the goal of updating the code and making it more inclusive and applicable to all psychologists. The committee chair and the assistants undertook the preparatory work which involved studying the old Code, and several documents related to ethical standards for psychologists (e.g., the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists, the ethics codes of the American Psychological Association, the British Psychological Society, the Canadian Psychological Society, among others)
  • 8. A brief history on how it was made The complete committee conducted a day-long workshop on February 27, 2009 to finalize the proposed Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists. The committee was strongly influenced by existing codes from other countries (which is reflected in the scope and structure of the Code), but worked hard to ensure that the code was contextualized with the realities and constraints within the professional environments that Philippine psychologists do their work. The first draft of this Code was presented to the PAP Board of Directors on April 18, 2009. This draft was further revised (with the editorial assistance of ReginalBueno), and finally ratified by the PAP Board of Directors on July 24, 2009.
  • 9. Declaration of Principles Psychologists in the Philippines adhere to the following Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists that was adopted unanimously by the General Assembly of the International Union of Psychological Science in Berlin on July 22, 2008 and by the Board of Directors of the International Association of Applied Psyc.hology in Berlin on July 26, 2008
  • 10. What is the “Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists”? In 2002, the General Assembly of the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS) approved a motion to create an Ad Hoc Joint Committee and for that committee to develop a universal declaration of ethical principles for psychologists. The focus of this international initiative is on articulating principles and values that provide a common moral framework for psychologists throughout the world, and that can be used as a moral justification and guide for the development of differing standards as appropriate for differing cultural contexts.
  • 11. PREAMBLE Ethics is at the core of every discipline. The Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists speaks to the common moral framework that guides and inspires psychologists worldwide toward the highest ethical ideals in their professional and scientific work. Psychologists are committed to placing the welfare of society and its members above the self-interest of the discipline and its members. They recognize that adherence to ethical principles in the context of their work contributes to a stable society that enhances the quality of life for all human beings. 
  • 12. PREAMBLE The significance of the Universal Declaration depends on its recognition and promotion by psychology organizations at national, regional and international levels. Every psychology organization is encouraged to keep this Declaration in mind and, through teaching, education, and other measures to promote respect for, and observance of, the Declaration’s principles and related values in the various activities of its members.
  • 13. PRINCIPLE IRespect for the Dignity of Persons and Peoples Respect for the dignity of persons is the most fundamental and universally found ethical principle across geographical and cultural boundaries, and across professional disciplines. It provides the philosophical foundation for many of the other ethical principles put forward by professions. Respect for dignity recognizes the inherent worth of all human beings, regardless of perceived or real differences in social status, ethnic origin, gender, capacities, or other such characteristics. This inherent worth means that all human beings are worthy of equal moral consideration.
  • 14. PRINCIPLE IRespect for the Dignity of Persons and Peoples THEREFORE, psychologists accept as fundamental the Principle of Respect for the Dignity of Persons and Peoples. In so doing, they accept the following related values: a) respect for the unique worth and inherent dignity of all human beings; b) respect for the diversity among persons and peoples; c) respect for the customs and beliefs of cultures, to be limited only when a custom or a belief seriously contravenes the principle of respect for the dignity of persons or peoples or causes serious harm to their well-being; d) free and informed consent, as culturally defined and relevant for individuals, families, groups, and communities; e) privacy for individuals, families, groups, and communities; f)  protection of confidentiality of personal information, as culturally defined and relevant for individuals, families, groups, and communities; g) fairness and justice in the treatment of persons and peoples.
  • 15. PRINCIPLE IICompetent Caring for the Well-Being of Persons and Peoples Competent caring for the well-being of persons and peoples involves working for their benefit and, above all, doing no harm. It includes maximizing benefits, minimizing potential harm, and offsetting or correcting harm. Competent caring requires the application of knowledge and skills that are appropriate for the nature of a situation as well as the social and cultural context. It also requires the ability to establish interpersonal relationships that enhance potential benefits and reduce potential harm. Another requirement is adequate self-knowledge of how one's values, experiences, culture, and social context might influence one's actions and interpretations.
  • 16. PRINCIPLE IICompetent Caring for the Well-Being of Persons and Peoples THEREFORE, psychologists accept as fundamental the Principle of Competent Caring for the Well-Being of Persons and Peoples. In so doing, they accept the following related values: a) active concern for the well-being of individuals, families, groups, and communities; b) taking care to do no harm to individuals, families, groups, and communities;  c) maximizing benefits and minimizing potential harm to individuals, families, groups, and communities;  d) correcting or offsetting harmful effects that have occurred as a result of their activities; e) developing and maintaining competence; f)  self-knowledge regarding how their own values, attitudes, experiences, and social contexts influence their actions, interpretations, choices, and recommendations; g) respect for the ability of individuals, families, groups, and communities to make decisions for themselves and to care for themselves and each other. 
  • 17. PRINCIPLE IIIIntegrity Integrity is vital to the advancement of scientific knowledge and to the maintenance of public confidence in the discipline of psychology. Integrity is based on honesty, and on truthful, open and accurate communications. It includes recognizing, monitoring, and managing potential biases, multiple relationships, and other conflicts of interest that could result in harm and exploitation of persons or peoples.
  • 18. PRINCIPLE IIIIntegrity THEREFORE, psychologists accept as fundamental the Principle of Integrity. In so doing, they accept the following related values: a) honesty, and truthful, open and accurate communications; b) avoiding incomplete disclosure of information unless complete disclosure is culturally inappropriate, or violates confidentiality, or carries the potential to do serious harm to individuals, families, groups, or communities; c) maximizing impartiality and minimizing biases; d) not exploiting persons or peoples for personal, professional, or financial gain; e) avoiding conflicts of interest and declaring them when they cannot be avoided or are inappropriate to avoid.
  • 19. PRINCIPLE IVProfessional and Scientific Responsibilities to Society Psychology functions as a discipline within the context of human society. As a science and a profession, it has responsibilities to society. These responsibilities include contributing to the knowledge about human behavior and to persons’ understanding of themselves and others, and using such knowledge to improve the condition of individuals, families, groups, communities, and society. They also include conducting its affairs within society in accordance with the highest ethical standards, and encouraging the development of social structures and policies that benefit all persons and peoples.
  • 20. PRINCIPLE IVProfessional and Scientific Responsibilities to Society THEREFORE, psychologists accept as fundamental the Principle of Professional and Scientific Responsibilities to Society. In so doing, they accept the following related values: a) the discipline’s responsibility to increase scientific and professional knowledge in ways that allow the promotion of the well-being of society and all its members; b) the discipline’s responsibility to use psychological knowledge for beneficial purposes and to protect such knowledge from being misused, used incompetently, or made useless; c) the discipline’s responsibility to conduct its affairs in ways that are ethical and consistent with the promotion of  the well-being of society and all its members; d) the discipline’s responsibility to promote the highest ethical ideals in the scientific, professional and educational activities of its members; e) the discipline’s responsibility to adequately train its members in their ethical responsibilities and required competencies; f)  the discipline’s responsibility to develop its ethical awareness and sensitivity, and to be as self-correcting as possible.
  • 21. GENERAL ETHICAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES We subscribe to the following general ethical standards and procedures as we conduct ourselves in the various aspects of our professional and scholarly activities as psychologists. These general standards and procedures refer to: I. Resolving Ethical Issues II. CompetenciesIII. Human relationsIV. ConfidentialityV. Advertisements and Public StatementsVI. Records and Fees
  • 22. I. Resolving Ethical Issues A. Misuse of Psychologist’s Works B. Conflicts between Ethics and Law, Regulations or other Governing legal Authority C. Conflicts between Ethics and Organizational Demands D. Informal Resolution of Ethical Violations E. Reporting Ethical Violations F. Cooperating with Ethics Committee G. Improper Complaints H. Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and Respondents
  • 23. II. Competencies A. Boundaries of Competence B. Providing Services in Emergencies C. Maintaining Competence D. Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments E. Delegation of Work to Others F. Personal Problems and Conflicts
  • 24. III. Human Relations A. Unfair Discrimination B. Sexual Harassment C. Other Harassment D. Avoiding Harm E. Multiple Relationships F. Conflict of Interest G. Third-Party Requests for Services H. Exploitative Relationships I. Cooperation with Other Professionals J. Informed Consent K. Psychological Services Delivered To or Through Organizations L. Interruption of Psychological Services
  • 25. IV. Confidentiality A. Maintaining Confidentiality B. Limitations of Confidentiality C. Recording D. Minimizing Invasions of Privacy E. Disclosures F. Consultation G. Use of Confidential Information for Other Purposes
  • 26. V. Advertisements and Public Statements A. Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements B. Public Statements C. Workshops, Seminars and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs D. Media Presentations E. Testimonials
  • 27. VI. Records and Fees A. Documentation and Maintenance of Records B. Confidentiality of Records C. Withholding Client Records D. Fees and financial arrangements
  • 28. Ethical Standards And Procedures in Specific Function We subscribe to the following ethical standards and procedures related to the following specific functions of psychologists: psychological assessment, therapy, education and training, and research.
  • 29. VII. Assessment A. Bases for Assessment B. Informed Consent in Assessment C. Assessment Tools D. Obsolete and Outdated Test Results E. Interpreting Assessment Results F. Release of Test Data G. Explaining Assessment Results H. Test Security I. Assessment by Unqualified Persons J. Test Construction
  • 30. VIII. Therapy A. Confidentiality B. Informed Consent C. Client’s Wellbeing E. Record Keeping F. Competent Practice G. Working with Young People H. Referrals I. Interruption J. Termination
  • 31. IX. Education and Training A. Design of Education and Training Programs B. Descriptions of Education and Training Programs C. Accuracy in Teaching D. Student Disclosure of Personal Information E. Mandatory Individual or Group Therapy F. Assessing Student and Supervisee Performance G. Sexual Relationships with Students and Supervisees
  • 32. X. Research A. Rights and Dignity of Participants B. Informed Consent to Research C. Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research D. Research Participation of Client, Students and Subordinates E. Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research F. Offering Inducements for Research Participation G. Deception in Research H. Debriefing
  • 33. X. Research I. Observational Research J. Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research K. Reporting Research Results L. Plagiarism M. Publication Credit N. Duplicate Publication of Data O. Sharing Research Data for Verification P. Reviewers Q. Limitations of the Study
  • 34. Not done yet! Additional discussions…
  • 35. Thank you Very Much for Listening! Hope you learned something today! :D