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The Landscape of Citizen Observatories across the EU - ESA Phi-week 2018

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Citizens' Observatories are defined as community-based environmental monitoring and information systems. They build on innovative and novel Earth Observation applications embedded in portable or mobile personal devices. This means that citizens can help and be engaged in observing our environment (EASME, 2016). Amongst the benefits of Citizen Observatories are that citizens’ observations, data and information can be used to complement authoritative, traditional in-situ and remote sensing Earth Observation data sources in a number of areas such as climate change, sustainable development, air monitoring, flood and drought monitoring, land cover or land-use change (GEO, 2017); they provide new data sources for policy-making (Schade et al., 2017) and; they can result in increased citizen participation in environmental management and governance at a large scale, for example public participation in the implementation of the European Flood Directive (Wehn et al., 2015). As a result, in the EU, efforts have been channeled into developing the concept of Citizen Observatories, and there are several currently in operation (e.g. Ground Truth 2.0, GROW, LandSense, Scent) that are intended to complement the EU’s Earth Observation monitoring framework, vastly increasing available in-situ or ground-based information. With the increasing prevalence of Citizen Observatories globally, there have been calls for a more integrated approach to handling their complexities with a view to providing a stable, reliable and scalable Citizens’ Observatory programme (Liu et al., 2014). Answering this challenge, in the European context, the Horizon 2020-funded project, WeObserve aims to improve coordination between existing Citizen Observatories and related European activities, while tackling three key challenges that inhibit the mainstreaming of citizen science: awareness, acceptability, and sustainability. Systematically tackling these challenges first requires the aggregating, building and strengthening of the Citizen Observatory knowledge base. In this talk, I will present the outcomes of the first initiative to strengthen the Citizen Observatory knowledge base within the WeObserve project - a map of the EU landscape of existing Citizen Observatory networks and their associated networks, key stakeholders and insights into the development, operation and challenges facing Citizen Observatories in Europe.

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The Landscape of Citizen Observatories across the EU - ESA Phi-week 2018

  1. 1. The Landscape of Citizen Observatories across the EU Margaret Gold, European Citizen Science Association (ECSA)
  2. 2. Kullenberg C, Kasperowski D (2016) What Is Citizen Science? – A Scientometric Meta-Analysis. Growth of Citizen Science publications in absolute numbers compared to Web of Science total
  3. 3. Professionalisation of Citizen Science Citizen Science Platforms & Knowledge Exchange
  4. 4. Terrestrial biodiversity surveillance in UK involved > 30 different organizations, to which volunteer contributions had an estimated value of £20 million, for a government investment of £7 million. Theobald, E., Ettinger, A., Burgess, H., DeBey, L., Schmidt, N., & Froehlich, H. et al. (2015). Global change and local solutions: Tapping the unrealized potential of citizen science for biodiversity research. Biological Conservation, 181, 236-244. doi:10.1016/ j.biocon.2014.10.021 Within projects sampled (n = 388), ∼1.3 million volunteers participate, contributing up to $2.5 billion in-kind annually. Mackechnie C., Maskell L., Norton L. & Roy D. (2011) The role of “Big Society” in monitoring the state of the natural environment. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 13, 2687–2691
  5. 5. Mark Chandler, Linda See, Kyle Copas, Astrid M.Z. Bonde, Bernat Claramunt, Finn Danielsen, Jan Kristoffer Legind, Siro Masinde, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Greg Newman, Alyssa Rosemartin & Eren Turak (2016) Contribution of citizen science towards international biodiversity monitoring. Biological Conservation doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.09.004 1,476 datasets 65 publishing institutions 24 countries Analysis as of 1 March 2016 Citizen science contributions to the GBIF global index
  6. 6. Open Data Watch – Open Data Inventory 2017 http://odin.opendatawatch.com/
  7. 7. Fig 4. Conceptual structure of contemporary CS. Kullenberg C, Kasperowski D (2016) What Is Citizen Science? – A Scientometric Meta-Analysis. PLOS ONE 11(1): e0147152. https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0147152
  8. 8. community-based monitoring popular epidemiology Do It Yourself Science volunteer based monitoring volunteer monitoring participatory science public engagement participatory monitoring crowd science participatory sensing
  9. 9. AS ILLUSTRATED IN: Sarah West and Rachel Pateman (2017). How could citizen science support the Sustainable Development Goals? Policy brief. Stockholm Environment Institute. SOURCE: Bonney, R., Cooper, C. B., Dickinson, J., Kelling, S., Phillips, T., Rosenberg, K. V. and Shirk, J. (2009). Citizen science: A developing tool for expanding science knowledge and scientific literacy. BioScience, 59(11). 977–84. DOI:10.1525/bio.2009.59.11.9 Stages of the scientific process that involve citizens in different types of citizen science projects
  10. 10. “Community-based environmental monitoring and information systems that build on innovative and novel Earth observation applications” (EU)
  11. 11. An Ecosystem of Citizen Observatories for Environmental Monitoring Citizen Observatories are an integral component of managing environmental challenges and empowering resilient communities Move Citizen Science into the mainstream by building a sustainable ecosystem of Citizen Observatories and related activities VISION MISSION
  12. 12. Global Citizen Observatory The Role of Individuals in Observing and Understanding our Changing World Prof. Jacqueline McGlade’s 2009 Earthwatch Lecture “it is no longer sufficient to develop passive lists or reports to ‘inform’ citizens of changes in our environment. We need to engage with citizens and ask how they can ‘inform’ us.”
  13. 13. WeObserve Communities of Practice (CoPs) JOIN the WeObserve Communities of Practice https://tinyurl.com/WOCoPs
  14. 14. CoP 1 : Co-creating citizen observatories and engaging citizens CoP 2 : Impact and value of citizen observatories for governance CoP 3 : Interoperability and standards for citizen observatories CoP 4 : UN Sustainable Development Goals and Citizen Observatories The COWM Conference in Venice / November 2018 / https://www.cowm.eu/ WeObserve Communities of Practice (CoPs)
  15. 15. Help leverage the SDG efforts with the application of new methodologies to enhance the quality of such data.* Support SDG implementation through transformative practices - attitude and behaviour change. * UN. (2017). The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2017. New York: UN. Retrieved from https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/files/report/2017/TheSustainableDevelopmentGoalsReport2017.pdf Citizen Science & the Sustainable Development Goals
  16. 16. CS is a subset of COs CS is a subset of COs and beyond COs are a subset of CS
  17. 17. CS is a subset of COs CS is a subset of COs and beyond COs are a subset of CS
  18. 18. WeSenseIT “a method, an environment and an infrastructure supporting an information ecosystem for communities and citizens, as well as emergency operators and policymakers, for discussion, monitoring and intervention on situations, places and events” 2013 PARTICIPATION OF CITIZENS ‘IN-SITU’ COMMONELEMENTS ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING BI-DIRECTIONAL DATA & INFO MOBILE + WEB TECHNOLOGIES ALAN GRAINGER “any use of Earth observation technology in which citizens collect data and are empowered by the information generated from these data to participate in environmental management.” 2017 CITI-SENSE “the citizens’ own observations and understanding of environmentally related problems and in particular ... reporting and commenting on them within a dedicated ICT platform” 2014
  19. 19. EU funded Citizen Observatories (FP7 & H2020)
  20. 20. CityManagement Water,streams, snow,sea Air, noise, smell spectrum Tools formonitoring Disaster monitoring Commodity- based Management 1 2 3 Core Focus Secondary 4 5 7 6 7 9 9 8 9 8 10 11 H2020 COs 1.  Ground Truth 2.0 2.  GROW 3.  LandSense 4.  Scent 5.  D-Noses 6.  Monocle FP7 COs 7.  COBWEB 8.  Ominscientis 9.  Citi-Sense 10. WeSenseIt 11. Citiclops Domains Represented
  21. 21. https://sc5.easme-web.eu/# Filter: Earth Observation
  22. 22. We are now compiling project details on as wide a range of initiatives in Europe as possible. Please share project information with us via this online form. https://tinyurl.com/COlandscape Add YOUR Citizen Observatory
  23. 23. 1.  Geographic scope 2.  Type of participants 3.  Network establishment mechanism 4.  Revenue stream 5.  Communication Paradigm 6.  Effort required 7.  Platform support 8.  Data accessibility, availability & quality Gharesifard, Mohammad & Wehn, Uta & van der Zaag, Pieter. (2017). Towards benchmarking Citizen Observatories: Features and functioning of online amateur weather networks. Journal of Environmental Management. 193. 381-393. 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.02.003. Developing a Framework for Benchmarking COs across Europe
  24. 24. Study on an inventory of citizen science activities for environmental policies Environmental Citizen Science & the UN SDGs https://ec.europa.eu/easme/sites/easme- site/files/documents/sept_13.zip
  25. 25. Study on an inventory of citizen science activities for environmental policies Inventory – Fields Covered https://ec.europa.eu/easme/sites/easme- site/files/documents/sept_13.zip
  26. 26. Study on an inventory of citizen science activities for environmental policies Inventory – Type of Projects https://ec.europa.eu/easme/sites/easme- site/files/documents/sept_13.zip
  27. 27. Study on an inventory of citizen science activities for environmental policies Analysis – Scientific Data Quality https://ec.europa.eu/easme/sites/easme- site/files/documents/sept_13.zip
  28. 28. Palacin-Silva et al. State-of-the Art Study in Citizen Observatories: Technological Trends, Development Challenges and Research Avenues; Finnish Environment Institute: Helsinki, Finland, 2016 State-of-the Art Study in Citizen Observatories
  29. 29. Palacin-Silva et al. State-of-the Art Study in Citizen Observatories: Technological Trends, Development Challenges and Research Avenues; Finnish Environment Institute: Helsinki, Finland, 2016
  30. 30. Palacin-Silva et al. State-of-the Art Study in Citizen Observatories: Technological Trends, Development Challenges and Research Avenues; Finnish Environment Institute: Helsinki, Finland, 2016
  31. 31. Palacin-Silva et al. State-of-the Art Study in Citizen Observatories: Technological Trends, Development Challenges and Research Avenues; Finnish Environment Institute: Helsinki, Finland, 2016
  32. 32. Palacin-Silva et al. State-of-the Art Study in Citizen Observatories: Technological Trends, Development Challenges and Research Avenues; Finnish Environment Institute: Helsinki, Finland, 2016
  33. 33. DATAQUALITY
  34. 34. •  Quality Assurance Project Plan •  Repeated sample/tasks •  Participant tasks involving control items •  Uniform or calibrated equipment •  Personal knowledge of participant skills/expertise •  Participant training •  Participant testing •  Rating participant performance Wiggins, A., Newman, G., Stevenson, R., & Crowston, K. (2011). Mechanisms for Data Quality and Validation in Citizen Science. 2011 IEEE Seventh International Conference On E-Science Workshops. doi: 10.1109/esciencew.2011.27 How do we Ensure Data Quality? •  Filtering of unusual reports •  Contacting participants about unusual reports •  Automatic recognition techniques •  Expert Review •  Paper data sheets submitted in addition to online entry •  Digital vouchers •  Data triangulation •  Data normalization •  Data mining •  Data quality documentation
  35. 35. https://www.slideshare.net/mukih/introduction-to-citizen-science-and-scientific-crowdsourcing-data-quality-segment-87684089
  36. 36. Data Quality https://extend.ucl.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=433#section-0
  37. 37. https://openupsci.wixsite.com/citizensciencecourse
  38. 38. It takes only 5 to 10 minutes to take part in the WeObserve Online Course Survey! WeObserve aims to configure an online course to be launched in 2019 to help people understand, participate in and create their own observatories. Complete the questionnaire to the best of your knowledge and support our effort. The WeObserve Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for COs https://tinyurl.com/WO-MOOC-Survey
  39. 39. Margaret Gold ECSA Project Officer (WeObserve & LandSense) mg@margaretgold.co.uk @MobileMaggie https://tinyurl.com/WOCoPs https://tinyurl.com/WO-MOOC-Survey

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